Science (journal)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Science (Journal))
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with "Science Journal", a British science magazine published 1965–71, later merged into New Scientist.
Science  
Science cover.gif
Abbreviated title (ISO 4)
Science
Discipline Multidisciplinary
Language English
Edited by Marcia McNutt
Publication details
Publisher
Publication history
1880–present (3 series of volumes)
Frequency Weekly
31.027
Indexing
ISSN 0036-8075 (print)
1095-9203 (web)
LCCN 17024346
CODEN SCIEAS
OCLC no. 1644869
Links

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine,[1] is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science[2][3] (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.[4]

The peer-reviewed journal, first published in 1880, is circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people.[5]

The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but Science also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policy and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines. According to the Journal Citation Reports, Science's 2012 impact factor was 31.027.

Although it is the journal of the AAAS, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in Science. Papers are accepted from authors around the world. Competition to publish in Science is very intense, as an article published in such a highly cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 10% of articles submitted to the editors are accepted for publication and all research articles are subject to peer review before they appear in the journal.

Science is based in Washington, D.C., United States, with a second office in Cambridge, England.

History[edit]

cover of the issue from February–June 1883
Issue from February–June 1883

Science was founded by New York journalist John Michaels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. However, the magazine never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Entomologist Samuel H. Scudder resurrected the journal one year later and had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS.[6] However, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500.

In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900.[7] During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in Science included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble.[8] After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS.[9]

After Cattell's death, the magazine lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly, thus increasing the journal's circulation by over 60% from 38,000 to more than 61,000.[10] Physicist Philip Abelson, a co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the review process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date.[11] During this time, papers on the Apollo program missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published.[12]

Biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position.[12] Biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008.[13] Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013.[14]

In February 2001, draft results of the human genome were simultaneously published by Nature and Science with Science publishing the Celera Genomics paper and Nature publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project.

In 2007 Science (together with Nature) received the Prince of Asturias Award for Communications and Humanity.[15]

Availability[edit]

The full journal is available online, through the main journal website, only to subscribers, AAAS members, and for delivery to IP addresses at institutions that subscribe; students, K-12 teachers, and some others can subscribe at a reduced fee. However, research articles published after 1997 are available free (with online registration) one year after they are published. Significant public-health related articles are also available for free, sometimes immediately after publication. AAAS members may also access the pre-1997 Science archives at the Science website, where it is called "Science Classic." Institutions can opt to add Science Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee. Some older articles can also be accessed via JSTOR and ProQuest.

The journal also participates in initiatives that provide free or low-cost access to readers in developing countries, including HINARI, OARE, AGORA, and Scidev.net.

Other features of the Science website include the free ScienceNow section with "up to the minute news from science,"[16] and ScienceCareers, which provides free career resources for scientists and engineers.

Two sister journals, Science Translational Medicine and Science Signaling also make content available on the Science website, with similar restrictions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Science Magazine". Aaas.org. Retrieved February 8, 2013. 
  2. ^ "AAAS – AAAS News Release". Aaas.org. Retrieved May 15, 2010. 
  3. ^ "AAAS Annual Report-Science". Aaas.org. Retrieved May 15, 2010. 
  4. ^ Lemonick, Michael D. (March 7, 2011). "Alien Life Discovered in a Meteorite! Or Maybe No" (online web page). Time magazine online. Retrieved October 3, 2011. "The paper, meanwhile, had been published in Science, one of the world's top scientific journals, which gave it even more apparent gravitas." 
  5. ^ AAAS, "2014 Science Media Kit"
  6. ^ AAAS, "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS Origins: 1848–1899", 2004
  7. ^ AAAS, "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS AAAS and Science: 1900–1940", 2004
  8. ^ "AAAS and Science: 1900–1940". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved August 27, 2006. 
  9. ^ "AAAS – History and Archives". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved August 27, 2006. 
  10. ^ "AAAS and the Maturing of American Science: 1941–1970". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  11. ^ "AAAS and the Maturing of American Science: 1941–1970". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved August 27, 2006. 
  12. ^ a b "Change and Continuity: 1971 to the Present". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved August 27, 2006. 
  13. ^ Pinholster, Ginger (December 17, 2007). "Bruce Alberts Named New Editor-in-Chief of Science". American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
  14. ^ Gramling, Carolyn (April 2, 2013). "Marcia McNutt Bringing Her 'Intellectual Energy' to Science". Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science). Retrieved September 21, 2013. 
  15. ^ Journal Science. Fundacionprincipedeasturias.org. Retrieved on 2013-06-20.
  16. ^ "ScienceNow". Science. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 

External links[edit]