Science Mission Directorate
The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engages the United States’ science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with NASA’s partners around the world to answer fundamental questions requiring the view from and into space.
The Science Mission Directorate also sponsors research that both enables, and is enabled by, NASA's exploration activities. The SMD portfolio is contributing to NASA’s achievement of the Vision for Space Exploration by striving to:
- Understand the history of Mars and the formation of the solar system. By understanding the formation of diverse terrestrial planets (with atmospheres) in the solar system, researchers learn more about Earth’s future and the most promising opportunities for habitation beyond our planet. For example, differences in the impacts of collisional processes on Earth, the Moon, and Mars can provide clues about differences in origin and evolution of each of these bodies.
- Search for Earth-like planets and habitable environments around other stars. SMD pursues multiple research strategies with the goal of developing effective astronomically-detectable signatures of biological processes. The study of the Earth-Sun system may help researchers identify atmospheric biosignatures that distinguish Earth-like (and potentially habitable) planets around nearby stars. An understanding of the origin of life and the time evolution of the atmosphere on Earth may reveal likely signatures of life on extrasolar planets.
- Explore the solar system for scientific purposes while supporting safe robotic and human exploration of space. For example, large-scale coronal mass ejections from the Sun can cause potentially lethal consequences for improperly shielded human flight systems, as well as some types of robotic systems. SMD’s pursuit of interdisciplinary scientific research focus areas will help predict potentially harmful conditions in space and protect NASA’s robotic and human explorers.
The newly appointed John M. Grunsfeld will take the reins of the Science Mission Directorate beginning January 4, 2012.  Recent Associate Administrators for the SMD include recently appointed Edward J. Weiler (1998–2004, 2008–2011), Mary L. Cleave (2004–2007), and Alan Stern (2007–2008). Stern resigned 25 March 2008, to be effective 11 April, over disagreements with Administrator Michael D. Griffin.
- Associate Administrator: John M. Grunsfeld
- Deputy Associate Administrator: Charles J. Gay
- Heliophysics Division Director: Richard Fisher 
- Earth Science Division Director: Michael Freilich 
- Planetary Science Division Director: James L. Green
- Astrophysics Division Director: Jon Morse 
- Strategic Integration and Management Division Director: Dan Woods 
- Resource Management Division Director: Craig Tupper 
- Physicist and Former Astronaut John Grunsfeld to Head NASA Science Directorate
- Andrew Lawler, "NASA's Stern Quits Over Mars Exploration Plans" (subscription required), Science 320, 31 (4 April 2008). Retrieved on 3 April 2008.
- Office of the Associate Administrator - NASA Science
- Dr. Richard Fisher, Heliophysics Division Director - NASA Science
- Dr. Michael Freilich, Earth Science Division Director - NASA Science
- Dr. Jim Green, Planetary Science Division Director - NASA Science
- Dr. Jim Adams, Planetary Science Division Deputy Director - NASA Science
- Dr. Doug McCuistion, Mars Exploration Program Director - NASA Science
- Dr. Jon Morse, Astrophysics Division Director - NASA Science
- Dan Woods, Strategic Integration and Management Division Director - NASA Science