Science and technology in Pakistan
||This article uses bare URLs for citations, which may be threatened by link rot. (June 2014)|
In Pakistan, science and technology serve as an important part of national politics, practices, and extreme national identities. From the 1960s till present, science and technology have been linked to the national ideology and practical functioning of Pakistan, notably the Pakistan Armed Forces, while science and technology is a growing and flourishing field in Pakistan. Many scientists, who worked in India and United Kingdom (like, e.g. Raziuddin Siddiqui and Salimuzzaman Siddiqui), immigrated to Pakistan and helped give birth to science in Pakistan. Since its independence from Great Britain in 1947, the newly found nation of Pakistan has seen a large influx of scientists, engineers, doctors, and technicians assuming an active role in its fields of science and technology. Liaquat Ali-Khan (office: 15 August 1947 – 16 October 1951), the first Prime minister, invited hundreds of scientists from India and made various reforms to initiate improvement in higher education and scientific research.
Marked by highly developed pure sciences and innovation at theoretical level, interpretation and application fell short. Physics (theoretical, nuclear, particle, laser, and Quantum physics), Material science, Metallurgy (Engineering), Biology, Chemistry (Organic), and Mathematics, are the fields in which Pakistan citizens excelled. During the 1960s till the present, the Pakistan government made the development and advancement of science a national priority and showered top scientists with honours. With the government making efforts to make science a part of national politics, there are several examples of budget cuts in the science funds where corruption remains a vital part of Pakistan politics. In the most notorious case, the Government dissolved the Higher Education Commission — an administrative body that supervised research in science — in 2011. Mega science projects such as Black-Garden Dam, Thar Coal programme, and the Reko Dique gold mine programme were severely undermined by the political forces in Pakistan which contributed to the halt of scientific research in the country.
Pakistani scientists won acclaim in several fields. They were at the cutting edge of science in fields such as mathematics and in several branches of physical science, notably theoretical and nuclear physics, chemistry, and astronomy. Professor Abdus Salam, a theoretical physicist, was the first and to date (November 3, 2013) the only Pakistani to have won the very prestigious Nobel Prize in 1979, in the category of physics. Furthermore, technology is mostly high developed in the fields of nuclear physics and explosives engineering, where the arms race with the India convinced policy makers to set aside sufficient resources for research. Due to a crash programme directed by Munir Ahmad Khan and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan is the seventh nation to have developed an atomic bomb, which the global intelligence community believes it had done by 1983 (see Kirana-I), nine years after the India (see Pokhran-I). Pakistan first publicly tested its devices (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) on 28 and 30 May 1998, a mere two weeks after the Republic of India carried out its own tests(See Pokhran-II). Space exploration was hastily developed in 1990 Pakistan launched Badr-I followed by Badr-II in 2001. Since the 1980s, the space programme dedicated itself to military technologies (Space weapons programme and Integrated missile systems), and maintains a strong programme developed for military applications.
- 1 History
- 2 State controlled science
- 3 Scientific research institutions (SRI)
- 4 Notable scientists
- 5 National prizes
- 6 Achievements
- 7 Information technology
- 8 Golden age of science
- 9 Challenges
- 10 Science community of Pakistan
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The Scientific and Technological Research Division was established in 1964 for (i) coordination and implementation of national science and technology policy; (ii) promotion and coordination of research and utilization of the results of research; (iii) development, production and utilization of nuclear energy; and (iv) coordination of utilization of scientific and technological manpower. The Division was administratively responsible for National Science Council, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Atomic Energy Commission and the Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Committee. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MoS&T) has been functioning since 1972. It is the national focal point and enabling arm of Government of Pakistan for planning, coordinating and directing efforts; to initiate and launch scientific and technological programs and projects as per national agenda for sound and sustainable Science & Technology Research base for the socio-economic development. From the areas of industrial development to renewable energy and rural development, the Ministry suggests technological development for higher growth-rates and to improve standards of living. Its principal focus is on building Pakistan's technological competence and developing a larger pool of human resources to reverse brain drain, and for integrating the existing technological infrastructure for strengthening of technology institutions, effective governance of S&TR and enhancing the capacity of indigenous innovation systems.
State controlled science
Unlike some Western countries, the majority of the research programmes are conducted not at the institutions (such as universities) but at the specially set up research facilities and institutes. These institutes are performed under the government's Ministry of Science that overlooks the development and promotion of science in the country, while others are performed under the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, other specialized academies and even the research arms of various government ministries. At first, the core of fundamental science was the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, originally set up in 1953 and moved from Karachi to Islamabad in 1964. The Pakistan Academy of Sciences has a large percentage of researchers in the natural sciences, particularly physics. From 1947 to 1971, the research was being conducted independently with no government influence. The High Tension Laboratories (HTL) at the GCU was established by R.M. Chaudhrie with funds given by the British government in the 1950s. In 1967, Prof. Abdus Salam led the foundation of the Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) at the Quaid-e-Azam University, and the establishment of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology and the Centre for Nuclear Studies; all were independently established by Pakistan's academic scientists with financial assistance provided by European countries. However, after Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became President, he took over the control of scientific research in 1972 as part of his intensified socialist reforms and policies. With advice taken from Dr. Mubashir Hassan, Bhutto established the Ministry of Science with Ishrat Hussain Usmani, a bureaucrat with a doctorate in atomic physics.
During the 1950s and 1960s, both West Pakistan and East Pakistan had their own academies of science, with the East Pakistan relying on West Pakistan to allot the funds. Medical research is coordinated and funded by the Health Ministry and agricultural research is led by Agriculture Ministry and likewise, the research on environmental sciences is headed by the Environment Ministry.
An aftermath of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan Winter War was that Bhutto increased scientific funding by the Government by more than 200%, mostly dedicated to military research and development. Bhutto, with the help of his Science Adviser Dr. Salam, gathered hundreds of Pakistani scientists working abroad to develop what became Pakistan's atom bomb. This crash programme was directed at first by Dr. Abdus Salam until 1974 and then directed and led by Munir Ahmad Khan from 1974 until 1991. For the first time an effort was made by the government when Pakistan's citizens made advancements in nuclear physics, theoretical physics and mathematics. In the 1980s, General Zia-ul-Haq radicalized the science by enforcing pseudoscience - by his Muslim fundamentalists as administrators - in Pakistan's schools and universities. One of the premiers were Mazhar Mahmood Qurashi, a physicist educated in the United Kingdom, and Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood, a nuclear engineer, also educated in the United Kingdom. They played a major role in radicalizing the science in Pakistan. General Zia-ul-Haq later promoted Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan to export the sensitive industrial (military) technologies to Libya, Iran, and North Korea. Because of government control, academic research in Pakistan remains highly classified and unknown to the international scientific community. There have been several failed attempts made by foreign powers to infiltrate the country's research facilities to learn how much research has progressed and how much clandestine knowledge has been gained by Pakistan's scientific community. One of the notable cases was in the 1970s, when the Libyan intelligence made an unsuccessful attempt to gain knowledge on critical aspects of nuclear physics, and crucial mathematical calculations in theoretical physics, but was thwarted by the ISI Directorate for Joint Intelligence Technical (JIT). From the 1980s and onward, both the Russian intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency made several attempts to access Pakistan's research but because of the ISI, they were unable to gain any information. From the period 1980 to 2004, research in science fell short until General Pervez Mushrraf established the Higher Education Commission (HEC) which heightened the contribution of science and technology in Pakistan. Major research was undertaken by Pakistan's institutes in the field of natural sciences. In 2003, the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Government of Pakistan and the United States Department of State signed a comprehensive Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement that established a framework to increase cooperation in science, technology, engineering and education for mutual benefit and peaceful purposes between the science and education communities in both countries. In 2005, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) joined with the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan to support the joint Pakistan-U.S. Science and Technology Cooperation Program. Beginning in 2008, the United States Department of State (DOS) joined USAID as U.S. co-sponsor of the program. This program, which is being implemented by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences on the U.S. side, is intended to increase the strength and breadth of cooperation and linkages between Pakistan scientists and institutions with counterparts in the United States. However, with the unfavourable situations, research declined. In 2011, the government dissolved the HEC and the control of education was taken by governmental ministries.
Scientific research institutions (SRI)
A large part of research is conducted by science research institutes with semi-controlled by the Government.
- H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
- National Center for Physics
- National Institute of Mathematics
- PU Centre for High Energy Physics
- Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics
- National Engineering and Scientific Commission
- Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology
- Institute of Space Technology
- Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
- Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology
- Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture
- Technology Resource Mobilization Unit
- Federal Bureau of Statistics
- Mathematics Statistical Division
- Abdus Salam — winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (1979) for his theory of Electroweak theory that combines weak and electromagnetic forces. Professor Salam is the most and highly decorated scientist of Pakistan, with honoring with most state awards including the Sitara-e-Pakistan (Star of Pakistan) in 1959 with no other scientist has received that honor to date yet.
UNESCO Science Prize
- Atta-ur-Rahman - winner of the UNESCO Science Prize for pioneering contributions in natural product chemistry in 1999. He is the first scientist from the Islamic world to have won this prize.
Albert Einstein Award
- Riazuddin — winner of Einstein Award (2000) for his contribution in theoretical physics, notably the contribution in neutrinos. Riazuddin, pupil student of Salam, remains the most state decorated scientist of Pakistan with receiving state honors and international prizes, second to Abdus Salam.
- Mujahid Kamran — winner of Einstein Award (2001) for the leading research in quantum mechanics.
Order of Excellence
Scientists who are awarded the highest hierarchy of Pakistan, the Nishan-e-Imtiaz (Order of Excellence).
- Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry — honored in 1998 for his contribution in the advancement of nuclear physics.
- Abdus Salam — honored in 1979 for outstanding contribution in developing the Pakistan science.
- Ishfaq Ahmad — honored with Nishan-e-Imtiaz (1998) for his contribution in nuclear physics.
- Abdul Qadeer Khan — honored twice (1996 and 1999) for developing the gas-centrifuge programme.
- Riazuddin — awarded and honored (1998) for his contribution to theoretical physics.
- Atta ur Rahman — honored in 2002 for his edge leading research in Natural product chemistry.
- Samar Mubarakmand — honored in 2003 for the contribution in space programme and accelerator physics.
- Ishrat Hussain Usmani — honored in 1998 for his enhancing the science in Pakistan.
- Munir Ahmad Khan — honored in 2012 for his contribution to physics and nuclear engineering in Pakistan.
Order of Crescent
Scientists who are conferred with second highest honored, the Hilal-i-Imtiaz (Order of Crescent).
- Munir Ahmad Khan — honored in 1989 for building Pakistan's nuclear fuel cycle programme.
- Tasneem M. Shah — honored in 1998 for leading research in mathematics and pioneering and instrumental research computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at Dr. A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories (KRL).
- Atta-ur-Rahman - honoured in 1998 for pioneering contributions in natural product chemistry
- Asghar Qadir — honored in 2008 for his international research in mathematics and pioneering research in mathematical science at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
- Salimuzzaman Siddiqui — honored in 1980 for his leading research in medical chemistry.
The most prestigious government prize awarded for achievements in science and technology is Nishan-e-Imtiaz (or in English Order of Excellence). While Hilal-i-Imtiaz, Sitara-i-Imtiaz, and Tamgha-e-Imtiaz occupies a unique role and importance in Pakistan's civil society.
In 1961, international achievements first recorded in 1961 when Pakistan became third Asian country and tenth in the world when the Rehbar-I — a solid fuel expandable rocket— was launched from Sonmani Spaceport. The Rehbar-I was launched and developed under the leadership of dr. W. J. M. Turowicz, a renowned Polish-Pakistani scientist and then-project-director of this program. Since then, the program began taking flights which continued until the 1970s.
However, a major-breakthrough was internationally recorded in 1979, when the Nobel Prize Committee announced to award the very prestigious Nobel Prize to Abdus Salam, in the category of physics for formulating the Electroweak Theory — a theory that provides the basis of unification of weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force. In 1990, Suparco launched her first and locally designed communication satellite, Badr-I, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center of the Peoples Republic of China. With launch of this satellite, Pakistan became first Muslim majority country to have been succeeded to developed artificial robotic satellite, and was the second South Asian state to have launched its satellite, second to India.
One of the widely reported achievement was internationally recorded in 1998, when country joined the elite Nuclear club. In response of India's nuclear tests on May 11 and May 13 of 1998, under codename Operation Shakti, in long-constructed Indian Army Pokhran Test Range (PTR). Pakistan under the leadership of Prime minister Navaz Scharief, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), conducted five simultaneous tests at the Chagai Hills under codename Chagai-I on May 28, 1998. To even the score with India, the PAEC carried another and test at the Kharan Desert, under Chaga-II, meaning it has tested a total of six devices in under one week. With the testing of these atomic devices, Pakistan became 7th nuclear power country in the world, and the only Muslim-majority country to have mastered the technology. In August 13 of 2011, the Suparco launched its first and indigenously developed geosynchronous satellite, Paksat-IR from Xichang Satellite Launch Centre of the People's Republic of China.
As of 2011, Pakistan has over 20 million internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in internet penetration. Overall, it has the 15th largest population of internet users in the world. In the fiscal year 2012-2013, the Government of Pakistan aims to spend Rs. 4.6 billion on information technology projects, with emphasis on e-government, human resource and infrastructure development. The rapid progress made by Pakistan in the IT and telecom sector during 2000-2002 under the charge of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman as Federal Minister led to the spread of internet from 29 cities in the year 2000 to 1000 cities, towns and villages by 2002, and the spread of fiber from 40 cities to 400 cities in this 2 year period. The internet prices were reduced sharply from $87,000 per month for a 2 MB line to only $3000 per month and later to $90 per month. The mobile telephony boom began by the drastic lowering of prices, bringing in of competition (Ufone) and changing the system so that the person receiving a call was no longer required to pay any charges. A satellite was placed in space (Paksat 1) at a cost of only $4 million. These changes in the IT infra-structure proved invaluable for the Higher education sector. Pakistan Educational Research Network was set up in 2004 through which one of the finest digital libraries was established in universities. In 2002, few university libraries could subscribe to a handful of journals. Today every student in every public sector university has free access to over 20,000 international journals with back volumes and over 60,000 books from 250 international publishers. Pakistan’s information technology industry has gone through a dramatic change in recent years, and the country has taken lead in adopting some technologies while also setting an example for others in global best practices. Information technology in Pakistan is a growing and rising industry that has a large potential. Matters relating to the IT industry are overseen and regulated by the Ministry of Information Technology of the Government of Pakistan. The IT industry is regarded as a successful sector of Pakistan economically, even during the financial crisis. The Government of Pakistan has given numerous favors to IT investors in the country since the last decade, that resulted in the development of the IT sector. In the years 2003-2005 the country's IT exports saw a rise of about fifty percent and amounted a total of about 48.5 million USD. The World Economic Forum, assessing the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan 102nd among 144 countries in the Global Information Technology report of 2012.
Golden age of science
Pakistan is the home of Dr. Abdus Salam who became the first Pakistan winner of Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979. Abdus Salam was the father of scientific research in Pakistan. Under the watchful direction of Salam, mathematicians and physicists tackled the greatest and outstanding problems in physics and mathematics. From 1960 to 1974, Salam was responsible for leading the research at its maximum point. This prompted the international recognition of Pakistani mathematicians and physicists, that resulted the for the Pakistani scientists and mathematicians to conduct their research at CERN. This period is often regarded as the Golden age of Physics in Pakistan, where physicists, particularly from Pakistan, had shared and applied an effort to the advancement of physics and mathematics. Abdus Salam and his students (Riazuddin, Fayyazuddin and others) revolutionized the particle and theoretical physics, are thought to be modern pioneers of particle physics at all aspect of it. A pure research was taken in Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, protonic decay and major fields in physics, were pioneered by Pakistan's scientists. With the establishment of nuclear and neutron institutes in the country, Pakistan's mathematicians introduced complex mathematical applications to study and examine the behaviors of elements during the fission process. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Atta-u-Rahman and Iqbal Choudhary are the pioneering personalities for studying the isolation of unique chemical compounds from the Neem (Azadirachta indica), Rauwolfia, ("Catharanthus roseus"), ("Buxus papillosa") and various other flora.
The 1960s and the 1970s period is regarded as the rise of Pakistan's science, which gained an international reputation in the different science communities of the world. During this period, scientists contributed to the fields of, particularly, Theoretical, Particle, Mathematical, and the Nuclear physics, and other major and sub fields of Physics. The research was preceded by such key physicists as Riazuddin, Ishfaq Ahmad, Pervez Hoodbhoy and Samar Mubarakmand, among others.
Since the Higher Education Commission (HEC) reforms have been carried out in 2002, HEC has received praise from the international higher education observers. Prof. Atta-ur_Rahman, founding Chairman of HEC, has received number of prestigious international awards for the remarkable transformation of the higher education sector under his leadership. German academic, Dr. Wolfgang Voelter of Tübingen University in Germany over viewed the performance of HEC under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman and described the reforms in HEC as "A miracle happened." After teaching and visiting in 15 universities of Pakistan, Voelter wrote that the "scenario of education, science and technology in Pakistan has changed dramatically, as never before in the history of the country. The chairperson of the Senate Standing Committee on Education recently announced the first 6 years of HEC under Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman as "Pakistan's golden period in higher education".
American academic Prof. Fred M. Hayward has also praised the reform process undertaken by Pakistan, admitting that "since 2002, a number of extraordinary changes have taken place." Hayward pointed our that "over the last six years almost 4,000 scholars have participated in PhD programs in Pakistan in which more than 600 students have studied in foreign PhD programs." The HEC instituted major upgrades for scientific laboratories, rehabilitating existing educational facilities, expanding the research support, and overseeing the development of one of the best digital libraries in the region. Seeking to meeting the international standard, a quality assurance and accreditation process was also established, of which, ~95% of students sent abroad for training returned, an unusually high result for a developing country in response to improved salaries and working conditions at universities as well as bonding and strict follow-up by the commission, Fulbright, and others."
The HEC's reforms brought about by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman were also applauded by the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) which reported that the "progress made was breath-taking and has put Pakistan ahead of comparable countries in numerous aspects." In limited time, the HEC established and provided free access to scientific literature by high-speed Internet for all universities, the upgrade of research equipment accessible across the country, and the programme of establishing new universities of science and technology, including science parks attracted the foreign investors, prove the efficiency and the long-term benefits for the country enabled. The UNCSTD has closely monitored the development in Pakistan in the past years, coming to the unanimous conclusion that HEC's program initiated under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman is a "best-practice" example for developing countries aiming at building their human resources and establishing an innovative, technology-based economy."
Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has won four international awards for the revolutionary changes in the higher education sector brought in the HEC. Nature, a leading science journal, has also written a number of editorials and articles about the transformation brought about in Pakistan in the higher education sector under the HEC. In an article entitled "Pakistan Threat to Indian Science" published in the leading daily newspaper Hindustan Times, India, it has been reported that Prof. C.N.R. Rao, Chairman of the Indian Prime Minister's Scientific Advisory Council made a presentation to the Indian Prime Minister at the rapid progress made by Pakistan in the higher education sector under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, Chairman, Higher Education Commission. It was reported that as result of the reforms brought about in Pakistan " Pakistan may soon join China in giving India serious competition in science". "Science is a lucrative profession in Pakistan. It has tripled the salaries of its scientists in the last few years."
Pakistan has been known internationally for some of its major achievements in science and technology such as successful development of media and military technologies and a growing base of doctors and engineers, as well as a fair amount of its new influx of software engineers who have been actively contributing to Pakistan's potential in the Information Technology industry. However due to present situation in Pakistan, around 3,000 Pakistani doctors emigrate to Western economies in search of suitable employment opportunities and hence contribute intellectually to the health sector of developed countries and at the same time leaving the effects of a brain drain in Pakistan.
Despite some progressive scientific achievements, Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy published a report on scientific output in Pakistan in which he pointed out that research and scientific activities are significantly lower than many other developing countries Hoodbhoy cites that Pakistan has produces far fewer papers than neighboring India. In terms of the number of published scientific research papers, together with the citations to them, Hoodbhoy demonstrates that the output of Pakistan for physics papers, over the period from 1 January 1997 to 28 February 2007, together with the total number of publications in all scientific fields, is substantially lower than Brazil, India, China, and the United States.
Science community of Pakistan
- NUST Science Society
- Pakistan Mathematical Society
- Pakistan Academy of Sciences
- Pakistan Astrophysicist Society
- Pakistan Nuclear Society
- Pakistan Atomic Scientists Society
- National Information and Communication Technologies Research and Development Funds
- Pakistan Science Foundation
- Department of Pakistan Survey
- Pakistan Geo-engineering and Geological Survey
- Pakistan Cave Research and Caving Federation
- Pakistan Physical Society
- Pakistan Optical Society
- Khwarizmi Science Society
- Pakistan science club
- Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
- Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology
- Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology
- Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology (PINSTECH)
- National Institute of Food Science and Technology
- USTAD Institute of Science & Technology Abbottabad
- Royal Institute of Science & Technology Karachi
- Gandhara Institute Of Science & Technology
- Sukkur Institute of Science & Technology
- Bright Institute of Science and technology - Peshawar
- Pakistan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
- Helmenstine, Ph.D., Anne Marie. "This Day in Science History - May 28 - Pakistan Goes Nuclear". Anne Marie Helmenstine of the chemistry.com.
- MoST, Ministry of Science and Technology; Pakistan Government and the Electronic Government Directorate (Updated). "Ministry of Science and Technology". Government of Pakistan. Directorate for Electronic Government (DEG)and the Directorate for the Scientific and Technological Research Division (STRD).
- PAS, Pakistan Academy of Science (Updated). "Introduction". PAS Press Directorate. Directorate for the Information and Public Press of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS).
- Ahmad, Ph.D. and D.Sc., Professor Hameed Ahmad (November 2004). "Education, Science and Technology in Developing Countries: Some Thoughts and Recollection: §Higher Education in Pakistan: Current and Future Scenarios." (PDF). COMSATS Journal of Science (Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (COMSATS) Headquarters: Dr. Hameed Ahmad Khan, Doctor of Science in (Astroparticle Physics) and Doctor of Philosophy in (Nuclear Physics) from the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.) 1 (1): 212. Retrieved 2011.
- (MH), Ministry of Health (Pakistan); Government of Pakistan. "Ministry of Health". Government of Pakistan and the Ministry of Health of Pakistan. Directorate for the Electronic Government (DEG) and the Directorate for the Health Research and Public Research and Development (HERPURD).
- (minfal), Ministry of Food and Agriculture; Government of Pakistan. "Ministry of Agriculture". Electronic Government Directorate and Directorate for the Agriculture Research and Applied Science (ARAS).
- (moenv), Ministry of Environment; Government of Pakistan. "Ministry of Environment". Electronic Government Directorate and Directorate for the Environmental Research and Applied Science (ERAS).
- Brigadier-General Syed A. I. Tirmazi (1985). Profiles of Intelligence. Combined Printers. Library of Congress Catalogue No. 95-930455.
- Information technology in Pakistan
- Riazuddin (1998-11-21). "Physics in Pakistan". ICTP. Retrieved 2011.
- Voelter, Wolfgang. "The golden period". Dawn ePaper. The golden period, The Dawn, retrieved 20 March 2010
- Hayward, Fred M. (Winter 2009).Higher Education Transformation in Pakistan: Political & Economic Instability, International Higher Education Quarterly (54), retrieved 20 March 2010
- Rode, Bernd Michael. Letter from Chairman/European Coordinator of ASEA-UNINET published in DAWN today, DildilpakistanWordpress, retrieved 10 March 2010
- Pak threat to Indian science, Hindustan Times, 23 July 2006, retrieved 19 March 2012
- Science and the Islamic world—The quest for rapprochement, Pervez Hoodbhoy, Physics Today
- The seven most scientifically productive Islamic countries as of early 2007 compared against a selection of other countries, Philadelphia-based science information specialist, Thomson Scientific