Scolopendra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Scolopendra
Scolopendra sp.jpg
Scolopendra cingulata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Chilopoda
Order: Scolopendromorpha
Family: Scolopendridae
Genus: Scolopendra
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Scolopendra morsitans [1]
Linnaeus, 1758

Scolopendra (Italian lit. scolo- "drain" Greek lit. -pendra "to hang") is a genus of centipedes of the family Scolopendridae.

Description[edit]

In temperate climates, only relatively small species occur, but species from the tropics may exceed 30 centimetres (12 in).[2]

Ecology and venom[edit]

They are active predators taking prey as large as rodents and even bats.[3] Their bites are very painful, but are rarely fatal in humans.[4] The venom is delivered through the animal's forcipules, which lie just behind the mandibles. The venoms of Scolopendra species contain compounds such as serotonin, haemolytic phospholipase A, a cardiotoxic protein and a cytolysin.[5]

Taxonomic history[edit]

Scolopendra was one of the genera created by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the starting point for zoological nomenclature. Only two of the species originally assigned to the genus remain so: Scolopendra gigantea and S. morsitans; the latter was chosen to be the type species by Opinion 454 of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature,[2] overruling a previous designation by Pierre André Latreille, in which he chose Linnaeus' Scolopendra forficata (now Lithobius forficatus) as the type species.[6]

Species[edit]

The genus Scolopendra contains the following species:[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758". ChiloBase. Università di Padova. Retrieved October 29, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b R. M. Shelley & S. B. Kiser (2000). "Neotype designation and a diagnostic account for the centipede, Scolopendra gigantea L. 1758, with an account of S. galapagoensis Bollman 1889 (Chilopoda Scolopendromorpha Scolopendridae)" (PDF). Tropical Zoology 13 (1): 159–170. 
  3. ^ J. Molinari, E. E. Gutiérrez, A. A. de Ascenção, J. M. Nassar, A. Arends & R. J. Márquez (2005). "Predation by giant centipedes, Scolopendra gigantea, on three species of bats in a Venezuelan cave". Caribbean Journal of Science 41 (2): 340–346. 
  4. ^ S. P. Bush, B. O. King, R. L. Norris & S. A. Stockwell (2001). "Centipede envenomation". Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 12 (2): 93–99. doi:10.1580/1080-6032(2001)012[0093:CE]2.0.CO;2. PMID 11434497. 
  5. ^ Robert L. Norris (November 19, 2008). "Centipede Envenomation". eMedicine. Retrieved October 29, 2010. 
  6. ^ Ralph E. Crabill, Jr. (1955). "Proposed use of the plenary powers to designate for the genus "Scolopendra" Linnaeus (Class Myriapoda) a type species in harmony with the accustomed usage". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 11 (4): 134–136. 

See also[edit]