|Builders:||Brazilian Navy Shipyard|
|Operators:||Brazilian Navy (planned to 2015)|
|Preceded by:||Agosta-class submarine|
|Class & type:||Scorpène class|
|Displacement:||1,565 tonnes (1,725 short tons) (CM-2000)
1,870 tonnes (2,060 short tons) (AM-2000)
2,000 tonnes (2,200 short tons) (S-BR)
|Length:||61.7 metres (202 ft) (CM-2000)
70 metres (230 ft) (AM-2000)
75 metres (246 ft) (S-BR)
|Beam:||6.2 metres (20 ft)|
|Draught:||5.4 metres (18 ft)|
|Draft:||5.8 metres (19 ft)|
|Propulsion:||Diesel-Electric, Batteries, and AIP|
20 knots (37 km/h) (submerged)
6,500 nautical miles (12,000 km) at 8 knots (surfaced)
|Endurance:||40 days (compact)
50 days (normal)
50+21 days (AIP)
|Test depth:||>350 metres (1,150 ft) |
|Armament:||6 x 533-mm torpedo tubes for 18 Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei Black Shark heavyweight torpedoes or SM.39 Exocet anti-ship missiles, 30 mines in place of torpedoes|
The Scorpène class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarine jointly developed by the French DCN and the Spanish company Navantia and now by DCNS. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP).
The Chilean Navy ordered two Scorpène class, which replaced two Oberon class submarines retired by the Chilean Navy. In 2005 the Indian Navy ordered six Scorpène class; all the Indian boats will be built in India, at Mazagon Dock and elsewhere, and the last two are to be fitted with an Indian AIP module. For the follow on requirement of six submarines, DCNS plans to offer a larger version of the submarine to the Indian navy. In 2008, the Brazilian Navy ordered four Scorpènes.
The Scorpène class of ships has four subtypes: the CM-2000 conventional diesel-electric version, the AM-2000 AIP derivative, the downsized CA-2000 coastal submarine and the enlarged S-BR for the Brazilian Navy without AIP.
The French MESMA (Module d'Energie Sous-Marine Autonome) system is being offered by the French shipyard DCN for the Scorpène class submarines. It is essentially a modified version of their nuclear propulsion system with heat being generated by ethanol and oxygen. A conventional steam turbine power plant powered by steam generated from the combustion of ethanol (grain alcohol) and stored oxygen at a pressure of 60 atmospheres. This pressure-firing allows exhaust carbon dioxide to be expelled overboard at any depth without an exhaust compressor.
Each MESMA system costs around $50–60 million. As installed on the Scorpène, it requires adding a new 8.3 meter (27 foot), 305 tonne hull section to the submarine, and results in a submarine able to operate for greater than 21 days underwater, depending on variables like speed.
In 2003 the Spanish government ordered 4 Scorpène-AIP submarines worth €1,756 million. Implying a cost of 439 million Euros each. However the order of 4 Scorpène submarines for the Spanish navy was canceled and four S-80 class submarines have been ordered instead. This has caused conflicts and controversies between DCNS and Navantia as the latter is still involved in the construction of the submarines sold to India, Malaysia and Chile while the S-80 is offered on the export market. As an answer to the competition from the S-80, DCNS designed its own enhanced version of the Scorpène called the Marlin class but little is known about this design and the Scorpène is still offered by France on the export market.
In 2005, India chose the Scorpène design; purchasing six for US$3 billion (US$ 500m per boat).These submarines are to be manufactured under a technology transfer agreement by the state-owned Mazagon Docks in Mumbai and delivered between 2016 2019 and the project is running four years behind schedule. Construction started on 23 May 2009. India plans to incorporate the DRDO developed AIP system onto the last two submarines being built and also to equip the P75I submarines of which the DCNS is participating in the tender process. The first Scorpene will be delivered in September 2016, with the other 5 following at 10–12 months intervals each The first Scorpene submarine is to be named INS Kalvari and sea trails will start within 2015.
In 2009 Brazil purchased 4 enlarged Scorpènes for US$9.9 billion with a big technology transfer agreement and a second agreement to develop a French/Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine. The hull of the first S-BR (S35) was laid down at Cherbourg on 27 May 2010 and is to be jumboized at Brazilian Navy Shipyard in Sepetiba late 2012. The latter 3 submarines will be entirely built there and are planned to be commissioned in 2018, 2020 and 2021. The nuclear-powered submarine could be a variant of the Scorpène class (which would make it similar in concept to the Rubis-class submarine) or a more powerful Barracuda class one.
On March 1, 2011 the Naval Shipyard Gdynia of Poland and DCNS offered a license to build a yet undisclosed number of modified Scorpène class, and the Scorpène design is competing with that of the German Type 214 submarine.
|Pennant no.||Name||Country||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|SS-23||O'Higgins||Chile||18 November 1999||1 November 2003||8 September 2005||Talcahuano|
|SS-22||Carrera||Chile||November 2000||24 November 2004||20 July 2006||Talcahuano|
|KD Tunku Abdul Rahman||Malaysia||25 April 2004||23 October 2007||January 2009||Sepanggar|
|KD Tun Abdul Razak||Malaysia||25 April 2005||October 2008||December 2009||Sepanggar|
|S50||INS Kalvari||India||1 April 2009||Early 2015||Expected December 2016 Navy Day ||Visakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S51||INS Khanderi||India||October 2011||TBD||Expected 2017||Visakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S52||India||December 2012||TBD||Expected 2018||Visakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S53||India||TBD||Expected 2019||Visakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S54||India||TBD||Expected 2020||Visakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S55||India||TBD||Expected September 2021 or March 2022 ||Visakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S40||Riachuelo||Brazil||27 May 2010||Expected in 2014-2015||Sepetiba|
|S41||Humaitá||Brazil||1 September 2013||Expected in 2016||Sepetiba|
- Andrasta class submarine
- Gotland class submarine
- Kilo-class submarine
- Lada class submarine
- S1000-class submarines
- Type 212 submarine
- Type 214 submarine
- Nicolas von Kospot (2 June 2010). "First Steel Cut for Brazilian Submarine Programme". www.defpro.com. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- DRDO working on cutting submarine vulnerability
- France to offer bigger Scorpenes for $5 billion Indian submarine order but Indian not shown interest with [DCNS (company)|DCNS]because project delayed 5 to 6 years this is effected to Indian Navy
- "The Market for Submarines". Forecast International. August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2010.[dead link]
- "Novas pistas sobre o ‘S-BR’, o novo submarino convencional Brasileiro". www.naval.com.br. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- [dead link]
- "Scorpene Basic-AIP". Deagel.com. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "Scorpène : DCNS et Navantia en instance de divorce". Mer et Marine. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "First Scorpene submarine to become reality soon". Aug 27, 2014.
- "Defence minister Arun Jaitley reviews delayed Scorpene submarine project". Aug 28, 2014.
- DRDO developing onboard equipment monitoring system for submarines
- "Novos submarinos da MB: Senado aprova o empréstimo de 4,32 bilhões de euros | Poder Naval - Marinha de Guerra, Tecnologia Militar Naval e Marinha Mercante". Naval.com.br. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- (Polish) Sławomir Sowula (March 2011). "Gdyńska stocznia chce budować okręty podwodne". Gazeta Wyborcza (2011-03-03). Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Scorpene SUBTICS in action
- Scorpene promotional video
- DCN - Scorpène SSK
- Scorpène Diesel-Electric Patrol Submarine (Navy recognition)
- Naval Technology - Scorpène description
- Global Security - Scorpène
- Scorpène agreement with India
- Chilean Navy - SS O'higgins in service
- DID - India Looks to Modify Scorpene Subs With MESMA AIP Propulsion