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Scotch is an adjective meaning "of Scotland". In Scotland the modern usage in Scotland is Scottish or Scots, and the word "Scotch" is only applied to specific products, mostly food or drink, such as Scotch whisky, Scotch pie, Scotch broth, and Scotch eggs. "Scotch" applied to people is widely considered pejorative in Scotland, reflecting old Anglo-Scottish antagonisms, but it is still widely used in England and Ireland, and is in common use in North America.
The verb to scotch is unrelated to the adjective. It derives from Anglo-French escocher meaning "to notch, nick", from coche, "a notch, groove", extended in English to mean "to put an abrupt end to", with the forms "scotched", "scotching", "scotches". For example: "The prime minister scotched the rumours of her illness by making a public appearance." Also, in the traditional children's game of "hopscotch", known as "peevers" in Scotland, it refers to the lines one hops over.
Decline in usage
The adjective or noun Scotch is an early modern English (16th century) contraction of the English word Scottish which was later adopted into the Scots language. It more or less replaced Scottish as the prevailing term in England in the 17th century. The English playwright William Shakespeare used the word Scotch to describe a jig, but always employed the term Scottish when people were the subject. Scots (the modern Scots language form of early Scots Scottis) predominated in Scotland until the 18th century when anglicisation became fashionable and Scotch came to be used in both England and Scotland. A 1788 letter by Robert Burns says in part: "Apropos, is not the Scotch phrase Auld lang syne exceedingly expressive? There is an old song and tune which has often thrilled through my soul. You know I am an enthusiast in old Scotch songs." ("Auld Lang Syne" in The Burns Encyclopedia, at robertburns.org). Burns wrote of himself in 1787, "The appellation of a Scotch Bard, is by far my highest pride; to continue to deserve it is my most exalted ambition." ("National Bard, Scotland's", op. cit.). Thus also Byron: English Bards and Scotch Reviewers ref., 1809).
From the early 19th century, however, Scots or Scottish increasingly became the preferred usages among educated Scottish people, Scotch being regarded as an anglicised affectation. By 1908, this was described by the New York Times as a "long-established… preference" (see article) In modern usage in Scotland, "Scotch" is rarely used, other than as described in the following paragraph for certain articles; it has gathered patronising and faintly offensive connotations ("frugal with one's money"), and a non-Scot who uses the word in conversation with Scots as a description of them may find this a good test of their courtesy. The use of "Scots" and "Scottish" is not altogether consistent; but in most words and phrases referring to Scotland's people one or the other is normally used: there is a certain tendency for "Scottish" to be used in more formal contexts.
In modern current British usage, in England as in Scotland, the general term for things from or pertaining to Scotland is Scottish. Scots is used for the Scots language and Scots law, although one increasingly hears it used of people and organisations, especially in newspaper articles. Scotch remains in use only for products such as Scotch broth, Scotch beef, Scotch egg. One cynical joke is that Scotch can be used only for things which can be bought, such as whisky, eggs and politicians. 'Scotch terrier' was once one of these legacy uses, but has increasingly been replaced with Scottish terrier.
Scotland was one of the first countries in the world to introduce compulsory education for all children in 1696, administered in each parish by the Kirk. When the British government eventually chose to centralise and regulate the system in 1872 the Scottish school system was initially placed under a "Scotch Education Department" with offices in London. In 1918, as a result of objections from within Scotland, the department was moved to Edinburgh and renamed the Scottish Education Department. This reflects the linguistic preferences of modern Scotland.
John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964), written during his time as President John F. Kennedy's American ambassador to India, documents how the descendants of 19th century pioneers from Scotland who settled in Southwestern Ontario affectionately referred to themselves as Scotch. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the Scotch-Canadian community in the early decades of the 20th century.
Galbraith's use of the term Scotch is revealing in demonstrating the usage of a Canadian speaking about his own community; and certainly his use of the term is not pejorative. This is an example of how older uses of words and forms continue in communities of expatriates broken off from their original roots, in this case in the 18th century when 'Scotch' was the prevailing term. Similarly, the Scots who settled in Ulster, many of whom later emigrated, are known non-pejoratively in North America as the Scotch-Irish. It was the native Scots who rejected the usage of "Scotch" which had been adopted from England after the 1707 Act of Union.
Tommy Douglas, no southern Ontarian but from Scotland, arriving in the Canadian province of Manitoba at age 14 in 1918 and in an online vote conducted by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) in 2004 was voted the "Greatest Canadian." referred to himself as "Scotch."
In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote in his Preface to English History 1914–1945: "Some inhabitants of Scotland now call themselves Scots and their affairs Scottish. They are entitled to do so. The English word for both is Scotch, just as we call les français the French and Deutschland Germany. Being English, I use it."
That the use of "Scots" is the modern preferred use in all levels of society in Scotland is not in doubt, but occasional use of "Scotch" in varieties of the Scots language continues with terms such as Scotch and English (a game), Scotch fiddle (Itchiness), Scotch mile and ell (measures) and many other examples (see the Scots Dialect Dictionary compiled by Alexander Warrack M.A. (1911) republished by Waverley Books 2000). There are other good indicators that the use of "Scotch" has been "whitewashed out" and become a shibboleth. Early versions of dictionaries produced in Burns' wake in the 19th century had titles such as "A Dictionary of the Scotch Dialect of the Lowlands" and modern place names now written as "Scots" e.g., Scotstarvit and Scotscalder existed in previous incarnations as "Scotch". Scotch Corner survives as a place-name in England.
In a reminiscence on his early training as an advocate in Edinburgh, Sir Walter Scott describes the law as "Scotch Law" some four times and as "Scots Law" just once. By the 1840s other writers are using "Scots Law", and this usage is now standard (although not universal) world-wide. Scots law reports in the nineteenth century show frequent judicial usage of 'Scotch' as referring to people; by the turn of that century, and since, practically no examples (other than by English judges) can be discovered.
In 1978, the song "Scotch Machine" by the pan-European group Voyage was released in the UK as "Scots Machine".
- Scotch (disambiguation)
- Scotch whisky
- Scotch College
- Scotch-Irish American
- Scots language
- Scottish English
- Ulster-Scots Agency
- A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.892
- "Scotch jig" (Much Ado About Nothing, Act II,I), "Scottish prisoners" (Henry IV, Part I, I,3), "Scottish power" (Henry IV, Part I, III,1), and "Scottish lord" (Merchant of Venice, I,2
- Inglis was the Early Scots word for English, and the modern form can be found in surnames and place names containing Ingles or Inglis, such as Ingleston or Ingliston, where it is pronounced //
- Answers.com definition
- "The Greatest Canadians from the CBC Archives". CBC Archives. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- http:// Tommy Douglas, "The cream separator."
- Taylor, Alan John Percivale English History 1914–1945 (p.v) The Oxford History of England, vol.XV (ed. Sir George Clark) Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1965, reprinted (with corrections) 1966