|Born||Scott Avery Boman
April 14, 1962
|Other names||Scotty Boman|
|Education||BS, MA and MAT. Physics, Philosophy, and Math|
|Alma mater||WMU and WSU|
|Employer||WCCCD and MCC|
|Known for||Politician, activist, writer, musician|
|Home town||Detroit, Michigan|
|Title||Physics instructor at Wayne County Community College and Astronomy instructor at Macomb Community College|
Scott Avery "Scotty" Boman (born April 14, 1962) is a Libertarian politician from Michigan. He has been one of Michigan’s top third-party vote-getters in every election since 2000, and his name is considered to be a household word. He was chair of the Libertarian Party of Michigan in 2006. Described by MIRS as a Libertarian Party standard-bearer,[note 1] he has been a candidate in every state-wide partisan election since 1994. While his birth name is “Scott” he has gone by “Scotty” on his literature and in ballot listings.
He became the second Libertarian to be endorsed by The Detroit News when he competed in the 1997 Detroit City Council General Election. He was also the only Lieutenant Governor candidate to support the successful Michigan Civil Rights Initiative as the running mate of Gregory Creswell in the 2006 Michigan gubernatorial election.
Boman moved the Libertarian Party of Michigan from fifth to third place on the 2012 and 2014 General Election ballots, by placing third in the 2010 General Election when he ran for Secretary of State.
In the 2012 election cycle he received interviews and mention by regional,  national and international media in the course of running for United States Senate. His statewide polling results positioned him for possible inclusion in televised debates which had not had minor party candidates in them since 1994.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Political activities prior to 2006
- 3 2006 Lieutenant Governor candidacy
- 4 Republican Party involvement
- 5 2008 US Senate candidacy
- 6 2010 Secretary of State candidacy
- 7 2012 US Senate candidacy
- 8 Carl Levin Recall Effort
- 9 2013 City Clerk Candidacy
- 10 2014 Lieutenant Governor Candidacy
- 11 References
- 12 Notes
- 13 External links
Boman was son of Democratic politician, and precinct delegate, Ray Howard Boman. Scott Boman went to grade school at the Detroit Waldorf School, and graduated from Grosse Pointe South High School in 1980.
He earned a bachelors of Science in Physics and Philosophy (with a minor in mathematics) from Western Michigan University in 1985. While a student there, he became a contributing columnist for the Western Herald college news paper. He claims his columns took on a libertarian viewpoint after he read Capitalism: the Unknown Ideal, by Ayn Rand. He returned to Western Michigan University where he earned his Master of Arts in Physics, and participated in scholarly atomic physics research. His work was published in Physical Review A. In 1999 he earned a MAT in Secondary Education at Wayne State University.
Political activities prior to 2006
Scott Boman has run for several public offices, and has been elected to leadership positions in a few organizations:
- In 1984 Boman was the founding President of a student social organization at Western Michigan University called "Fellowship of the Purple Cube". The organization also organized a protest in support of students who wished to hold an outlawed street party. Boman also wrote for the Western Herald on this issue and other topics.
- In 1994 Boman ran for 7th District State Representative to the Michigan Legislature. In the same year Boman (along with Emily Salvette and Barb Vozenilek) headed a successful effort to collect 40,700 signatures to restore the Libertarian Party of Michigan's ballot access.
- In 1996 Boman ran for the United States House of Representatives 14th District. He received 1,705 votes for 0.9% of the vote.
- In 1997 Boman became the second Libertarian to be endorsed by The Detroit News, when he ran for member of the Detroit City Council.
- In 1998 he ran for the Wayne State University Board of Governors. Boman received 2.6% of the vote.
- In 1999 Boman was elected to the Wayne State University Student Council.
- He ran again for the Wayne State University Board of Governors in 2000, earning more votes than any other minor party candidate, in that election, for any office. His vote total was 130,176 (1.86%). This was 46,000 votes more than those cast for the well-known Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader, whose vote total was 84,165 votes (but since less votes were cast for president Nader had a higher percentage of the vote).
- In 2002, Boman ran for the State Board of Education receiving 1.57% of the vote.
- In 2004 the perennial candidate made another run for the State Board of Education
- In 2005 he was Vice Chair of the Libertarian Party of Michigan.
- In 2006 Boman was elected to be Chair of the Libertarian Party of Michigan.
2006 Lieutenant Governor candidacy
Boman's presence on the gubernatorial ticket was the topic of an article in the Detroit Free Press. Gubernatorial candidate Gregory Creswell and Boman's names appeared on the campaigns signage with Boman's name on the right and with the elective offices they were running for listed underneath. Both candidates actively distributed the tickets campaign profiles and other materials whenever possible. They also participated jointly on radio interviews and in radio commercials.
Like Creswell, Boman said his support of the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (MCRI) was consistent with his opposition to all forms of state-sponsored racial or sexual discrimination. Like Creswell, he spoke in radio commercials that contrasted Libertarians from Democrats and Republicans, by supporting an end to what they called, "racial preferences".
Civil liberties, prisons and non-violent crime
Boman, like Creswell, held to the notion that people should be free to act as they wish so long as they don’t initiate force against others. He was endorsed by the "Stonewall Libertarians" for openly supporting equal rights for gays. Boman also argued that a respect for civil liberties would eliminate the need for replacing Michigan's single-business tax. Boman’s alternative was to save money by pardoning people in prison for what he called "victimless crimes", and an end to state enforcement of drug prohibitions. He focused on medical marijuana as one example of civil liberties worthy of being respected. He was also a member of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), but choose not to renew his membership in 2006 because of the ACLU opposition to MCRI.
Boman also supported a market economy. Both he and Creswell referred to the Mackinac Center when asked for specific ideas on practical economic reforms. In general Boman objected to all taxes, but conceded the need to phase them out carefully.
Republican Party involvement
In January, 2008, Boman became a member of the Republican Party. He was interviewed by Detroit’s major daily newspaper, the Detroit News about his support of Republican Presidential candidate Ron Paul, and cites the Paul candidacy as a reason for becoming a Republican.
Boman also encouraged voters to choose Ron Paul in his opinion column, and has served as an assistant meetup organizer for the Wayne County Ron Paul Meetup Group. In 2012 he was among the four United States Senate candidates (nation-wide) identified by Bloomberg Businessweek as having been inspired by Ron Paul, and he was one of two such candidates quoted in Politico:
“I don’t think people expected Paul to accomplish so much,” said Scotty Boman, a Senate candidate in Michigan who met Paul in 1988 when the Texan was running for president on the Libertarian ticket. “He’s been able to break a barrier and be heard by the mainstream.”
He was elected precinct delegate in 2010 and 2012. He entered the 2012 United States Senate race as a Republican. While still a declared Republican candidate, he appeared on C-SPAN as a Delegate to the 2012 Libertarian National Convention where he nominated R. Lee Wrights for Vice President. Later in May of 2012 he returned to the Libertarian Party of Michigan and was nominated as their candidate for United States Senate.
2008 US Senate candidacy
Boman finished third in an unsuccessful attempt to be elected to Carl Levin's seat in the US Senate, in which he received 1.57% of the vote. His attempt was made under the Libertarian Party of Michigan ticket after winning a contested nomination at their convention over, their 2006 United States Senate nominee, Leonard Schwartz.
Some pundits found the need to distinguish Boman from the former National Hockey League Coach, William Scott Bowman, who was also known as "Scotty Bowman". A photo of the banner from his website appeared in the Detroit Free Press with the caption:
"Scotty Boman, a Libertarian candidate in Michigan's senatorial race, is not related to THE Scotty Bowman. He wants to make that perfectly clear by putting something that looks like a Red Wings jersey on his Web site."
Boman joined every Michigan Libertarian candidate for the United States House of Representatives, in publicly expressing disapproval of any federal bailout plan. A Libertarian Party of Michigan press release quoted Boman as saying "We must not tax, regulate and penalize them to bail out those on Wall Street and Main Street who have demonstrated they are not responsible, and will likely do the same thing again, and expect yet another bail out"
Campaign for Liberty four point agenda
Boman was among the four United States Senate candidates on Michigan's ballot who endorsed the Campaign for Liberty four point agenda. Ron Paul initially introduced these four points of agreement at a press conference that he hosted on September 10, 2008. They represented points of agreement between presidential candidates Cynthia McKinney, Chuck Baldwin, Ralph Nader, and Bob Barr.
The four point agenda entitled "We Agree" calls for a non-interventionist foreign policy, the restoration of privacy rights, paying off the national debt, and an end to the Federal Reserve System.
The consensus reached by Boman and his counterparts, paralleled the consensus reached by the four corresponding presidential candidates. The other participating United States Senate candidates were Harley Mikkelson of the Green Party, Mike Nikitin of the Constitution Party (Taxpayers), and Doug Dern of the Natural Law Party.
2010 Secretary of State candidacy
In 2010 Boman received the Libertarian Party of Michigan's nomination for Michigan Secretary of State. One of his stated objectives was to use his candidacy to draw attention to state ID modifications and the effect he believed they had on privacy. He lost the election and placed third with 58,044 votes. In Michigan, partisan placement on the ballot is based upon votes received by a party's Secretary of State candidate, so his vote total moved the Libertarian Party from fifth to third place on subsequent Michigan ballot listings.
Boman and his Green Party opponent, John Anthony La Pietra issued a joint statement expressing their concern about what they called "Dangerouse ID". Boman said he would "reject the Real ID Act, Pass Act, or any other attempt to make state documents into de facto national ID cards."
Boman also opposed the driver responsibility fee, taxpayer-funded primaries, and a state Constitutional Convention. He supported no-reason absentee voting, with added security measures.
2012 US Senate candidacy
Scotty Boman was the Libertarian candidate for United States Senate in 2012. He placed third with 84,480 votes; the most votes earned by a third party United States Senate candidate from Michigan since Libertarian Jon Coon ran for that office in 1994. He was also included in two statewide scientific polls in the post-primary season. The last time a minor party candidate was included in such polls was in 1994. Because of an initial attempt to run as a Republican, Boman was also included in pre-primary polls and placed third, in a field of eight declared Republican Primary candidates. In 2008 Boman was not included in the traditional PBS televised debate due to a lack of poll results, and Boman argued for inclusion in the debate based on a 7% showing in a Poll he had commissioned. Incumbent Senator Debbie Stabenow refused to participate in the forum, shortly after Boman’s release and the event was never scheduled. Republican challenger, Pete Hoekstra also refused to debate Boman after the primary. Boman’s 2012 Senatorial campaign was his second attempt to be elected to that office, and was characterized by an emphasis on outreach to Tea Party groups. Between the formation of his exploratory committee and the General election, Boman spoke at several events hosted by tea party groups, and he addressed the tea party directly on his webpage.
Chronology of Party Affiliation and Nomination
Boman announced his campaign to seek the Republican nomination for United States Senate on Friday September 9, 2011 in a press release. He joined a Republican Primary contest in which most of the attention has gone to Cornerstone School founder Clark Durant and former U.S. Rep. Pete Hoekstra.
Boman switched party affiliation twice during has campaign, and drew headlines when he dropped out of the Republican Primary and put his support behind Cornerstone School founder Clark Durant. He later faced Durant at a Tea Party debate in Romeo Michigan as a Libertarian hopeful, saying he would vote for Durant in the Republican Primary, but would oppose the Republican nominee in the general election.
In May 2012, he returned to the Libertarian Party after failing to collect the 15,000 signatures necessary to be on the Republican primary ballot. Boman was nominated to be the United States Senate candidate of Libertarian Party of Michigan at their state convention in Livonia, MI on June 2, 2012. Boman beat out Libertarian activist and continuous party member Erwin Haas, who had built a campaign based around fighting "Party Jumping" and the possibility of the Libertarian Party becoming a dumping ground for Republicans unable to get on the ballot.
In the 2012 election cycle Boman was featured in print, broadcast, and alternative internet media. After a period of speculation that he would seek the Republican nomination for United States Senate, he made a formal announcement on September 9, 2011. Several major dailies, as well as some radio and television broadcasters carried the Associated Press originated story. In addition to Michigan publications, news papers in other states such as the Chicago Tribune and Houston Chronicle also carried the story. Less than two weeks later Boman was a guest on Flint talk radio, for an hour-long interview.
When the announced Republican candidates, met for a tea party candidate forum in DeWitt, Michigan, Boman got equal time on the WLNS evening news. While print publications mentioned each participating candidate, they noted that Boman stood alone in his calls for a “non-interventionist foreign policy." This theme of standing out among Republicans was again revived during a half hour interview with WGVU TV News correspondent Patrick Center, where-in Center says, “It seems there are very conservative views in this pack, but you stand out as the libertarian.”
In October 2012 he was interviewed on WOOD-TV by former Senior Policy Adviser to former Congressman Pete Hoekstra, Rick Albin. At the time of the interview Boman had been nominated by the Libertarian Party, and Pete Hoekstra had won the Republican primary for the same office. Albin had previously interviewed Boman when he was among Republican contenders at a candidate forum in Grandville.
Boman was also a guest on the TV show “Liberty Town Hall,” a program which appeared each weekday on over 230 television stations nationwide. He purchased advertising on Liberty Town Hall. His other commercials ran on radio and television, including a TV commercial against Michigan’s proposal 2 of 2012. The proposal failed.
Some nationally known internet radio and TV personalities also had Boman on their shows. This included an election night interview with Adam vs. the Man host Adam Kokesh. Other notable internet only programs included “Ground Wars" host Derrick Grayson ( aka “The Minister of Truth”) on the Freedom Broadcast Network and “The Proof Negative Show” on freedomizzer radio.
Some coverage was unfavorable. WWMT TV News singled out 13 of 350 United States Senate candidates as having blemished records. Boman was listed among those 13 due to a reported bankruptcy. He was one of two to be interviewed by the Kalamazoo station, which described “Scotty Boman” as "...almost a household name in Michigan."
- Governor Gary Johnson: Twenty ninth Governor of New Mexico from 1995 to 2003, and 2012 Libertarian Party nominee for President of the United States.
- Judge Jim Gray: Presiding judge of the Superior Court of Orange County, California (1989–2009), and the 2012 Libertarian Party vice presidential nominee.
- Adam Kokesh: American activist, talk show host, and "Iraq Veterans Against the War" activist.
- Chad Dewey: Republican United States Senate candidate who switched to run for state representative.
- Mary Ruwart: Research scientist, libertarian speaker, bestselling author, and leading candidate for the 2008 Libertarian Party presidential nomination.
- Gregory Creswell: 2006 Libertarian Party of Michigan gubernatorial nominee, and Civil Rights activist.
Carl Levin Recall Effort
Boman was cosponsor of an unsuccessful effort to recall United States Senator Carl Levin of Michigan. Michigan law states that
“Persons holding the office of United States senator are subject to recall by the qualified and registered electors of the state as provided in chapter 36 of this act."
Boman and Warren Raftshol of Suttons Bay Michigan were granted a clarity review hearing with the Wayne County Election Commission on May 1, 2012. While the initial wording was rejected, the recall sponsors were able to use alternative wording and started circulating petitions on July 4, 2012, after Wayne County Election Chair, Milton Mack, refused to schedule a hearing for the revised language.[note 1] Michigan law provides for such circumstances:
“(3) The board of county election commissioners, not less than 10 days or more than 20 days after submission to it of a petition for the recall of an officer, shall meet and shall determine whether each reason for the recall stated in the petition is of sufficient clarity to enable the officer whose recall is sought and the electors to identify the course of conduct that is the basis for the recall. Failure of the board of county election commissioners to comply with this subsection shall constitute a determination that each reason for the recall stated in the petition is of sufficient clarity to enable the officer whose recall is being sought and the electors to identify the course of conduct that is the basis for the recall.”
Inside Michigan Politics editor, Bill Ballenger commented on the effort saying “It is unheard of and extremely difficult to recall a congress person. Even if the language was deemed clear and petitions are circulated, it is likely they would be challenged in court.[note 1]” Some analysts dispute the validity of state recall laws as they apply to members of Congress.
The petition language read,
“He co-authored and introduced an amendment regarding detention provisions (Subtitle D Section 1031) to S.1867 (the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012). He voted in favor of the final version (H.R. 1540) which contained the detention provisions in section 1021.”
This effort drew the support of People Against the National Defense Act (PANDA), a group of activists opposing the implementation of Indefinite Detention portion of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012. PANDA promoted the petition and featured Boman as a sympathetic United States Senate candidate. The effort also drew support from some local Republican groups. In interviews, Boman said the recall effort was partially intended to raise public awareness about indefinite detentions; which he had been speaking out against since the bill was passed by Congress.
While petitioners failed to attain the 468,709 signatures needed, they initially expressed an intention to restart the effort after they reviewed new state recall laws. Plans to restart the effort were cancelled and organizers claimed an effective victory after Levin formally announced that he would not seek another term.
2013 City Clerk Candidacy
During the time leading up to a July 30 candidate forum, Boman was assaulted, handcuffed, and confined to a closet for 3.5 hours by the Wayne County Community College District police after taking photographs of an opposition candidate's signs, which he believed were made using taxpayer funds. He was also stopped from handing out campaign materials.
2014 Lieutenant Governor Candidacy
Scotty Boman was the 2014 Libertarian Party of Michigan nominee for Lieutenant Governor. He was the running mate of gubernatorial candidate Mary Buzuma. Some polls predicted they would receive 3% percent of the vote while the two frontrunners were in a statistical tie. But in the actual election, Republican Rick Snyder defeated Democrat Mark Schauer with a 4.06% lead, while Buzuma and Boman finished with 1.13% which was the highest vote total for any Libertarian gubernatorial candidate in the history of Michigan.
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- Web Staff, WXYZ.com (October 11, 2012). "Michigan's U.S. Senate candidates Debbie Stabenow and Pete Hoekstra will not debate". WXYZ: Channel 7 Action News (ABC).
- VanHulle, Lindsay (September 29, 2011). "GOP Senate hopefuls face off at tea party forum in DeWitt". Lansing State Journal.
- Klug, Fritz (November 14, 2011). "5 candidates for GOP senate primary to debate Saturday in Richland". MLive Media Group.
- Wingblad, Aileen (December 1, 2011). "Candidate debate in Milford draws hundreds". Home Town Life (Gannett).
- McMann, Aaron (January 5, 2012). "CMU to host Republican U.S. Senate debate on Jan. 14". Central Michigan Life.
- Gaertner, Eric (December 30, 2011). "Republican U.S. Senate candidates gathering Wednesday in Hart". MLive Media Group.
- GOODELL, ANDREA (January 24, 2012). "Step up to the mic: Crowded Republican field speaks at Tea Party forum". The Holland Sentinel.
- Jones, Michael (January 24, 2012). "Republican U.S. Senate candidates stump Gaylord". Petoskey News.
- Williams, Candice (January 28, 2012). "Right-to-work focus of GOP Senate debate in Dearborn". The Detroit News.
- Boman, Scotty. "Is Pete Hoekstra founder of the TEA Party caucus? Not Even Close!". Committee to Elect Scotty Boman.
- Reens, Nate (May 14, 2012). "Republican U.S. Senate debate takes odd turn, see what one candidate said about his competitors". Grand Rapids Press (MLive).
- Livengood, Chad; Marisa Schultz (May 24, 2012). "Party-switcher Boman returns to Libertarian party". The Detroit News.
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- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". WNEM (CBS TV 5).
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". Michigan Live LLC.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". News Times.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Longtime Libertarian decides to run for Michigan US Senate seat as a Republican". The Republic.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". Times Union.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". San Antonio Express-News.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". Connecticut Post.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". The Baltimore Sun.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". The Oklahoman.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". Washington Examiner.
- Associated Press (September 9, 2011). "Boman joins Republican Michigan US Senate race". Chicago Tribune.
- Moss, George (September 19, 2011). "What's Going On 09-19-11 George speaks with Scotty Boman Michigan Senate Candidate". Flint Talk Radio.
- Autler, Alanna (September 29, 2011). "Republican U.S. Senate Candidates Hold Forum in Dewitt". WLNS News 6.
- Egan, Paul (September 30, 2011). "Hoekstra stays above fray of attacks at tea party forum. Senate hopefuls jab at GOP frontrunner at tea party event.". The Detroit News.Archive search
- Center, Patrick (April 6, 2012). "West Michigan Week: GOP U.S. Senate Candidates, August 7th Primary, Peace, Liberty, & Prosperity w/ Scotty Boman". WGVU (http://www.wgvu.org/tv/maintv.cfm?content=wgvushows/wmw.cfm).
- Johnson, Gary (September 23, 2012). "Live and Let Live (Guests: Patrick J. Dixon and Scotty Boman)". Logos Radio Network (90.1 FM).
- Korinek, Jay (November 2, 2012). "Scott Boman, Libertarian Party candidate for U.S. Senate from Michigan". The New WHFR Journal (WHFR-FM).
- Landry, Roger (September 18, 2012). "EPISODE # 19, WTPN presents Building Bridges (Guest: Scotty Boman)". WTPN.
- Albin, Rick (January 3, 2013). "Rick Albin, Political Reporter". WOOD-TV News 8.
- Albin, Rick (October 1, 2012). "Profile: Scotty Boman". WOOD-TV News 8.
- Barks Hoffman, Kathy (May 14, 2012). "US Senate candidates deliver petitions". WOOD-TV News 8.
- Glenn, Wilson; Greg Marshall (October 15, 2012). "Liberty Town Hall Episode 5". Liberty Town Hall and M33 Access.
- Glenn, Wilson; Greg Marshall (2012–2013). "Liberty Town Hall – The Voice of Liberty". Liberty Town Hall and M33 Access.
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- Glenn, Wilson; Greg Marshall (October 15, 2012). "Liberty Town Hall Episode 1". Liberty Town Hall and M33 Access.
- Boman, Scotty (October 28, 2012). "Scotty Boman Sounds off on Proposal 2". Committee to Elect Scotty Boman.
- Huffington Post (November 7, 2012). "Michigan Proposal 2 Results: Voters Reject Collective Bargaining Amendment". TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc.
- Kokesh, Adam (November 6, 2012). "ADAM VS THE MAN #135: Election Night Coverage with AVTM Live! Chris Goldstein, Christina Tobin, Scotty Boman & Don Rasmussen". Adam Vs. the Man.
- Kokesh, Adam. "Post by Adam Kokesh on Boman Campaign Page". Facebook.
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- Brown, Alex (July 13, 2012). "In MI SEN, Libertarian Flying Low on Borrowed 'Wings'". National Journal Group Inc.
- Governor Johnson, Gary; Judge Jim Gray. "Candidates Endorsed by Johnson (Scotty Boman for United States Senate, Michigan)". Gary Johnson 2012.
- Dewey, Chad (September 12, 2011). "My endorsement for the Michigan U.S. Senate race – Scotty Boman". Committee To Elect Chad Dewey.
- G.E. (July 23, 2008). "Mary Ruwart endorses Scotty Boman for U.S. Senate". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
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- Johnson, Chris. "P.A.N.D.A People Against the NDAA, Scotty Boman". P.A.N.D.A People Against the NDAA.
- House, Sean. "RECALL CARL LEVIN GAINING MOMENTUM". South Oakland Area Republicans (SOAR).
- Wilson, John. "Scott Boman talks about NDAA and Carl Levin's role". FlintTalkRadio.com.
- Insider, Political; Chad Livengood, Marisa Schultz and Gary Heinlein (January 24, 2013). "Political insider: 2nd wall chart serves as reminder for Snyder (It's try, try again for group seeking December recall of Sen. Levin)". The Detroit News.
- Boman, Scott (May 13, 2013). "U.S. Sen. Carl Levin won't run for seventh term (Scott A Boman comment)". Detroit Free Press (GANNETT).
- Solucija (2013-03-20). "Recall Sponsors Revel In Levin Retirement, Forgo Do-Over". Business news - BusinessMAX.
- i-Newswire (2013-03-22). "Recall Sponsors Revel In Levin Retirement, Forgo Do-Over". One News Page Ltd.
- newswire, PR (2013-03-20). "Recall Sponsors Revel In Levin Retirement, Forgo Do-Over". PR newswire - PR articles.
- Spangler, Todd (March 8, 2013). "U.S. Sen. Carl Levin won't run for seventh term". Detroit Free Press (GANNETT).
- Winfrey, Janice (May 24, 2013). "Official Candidate List August 6, 2013 Primary Election". Detroit Department of Elections.
- "Detroit Election Results". WXYZ Action News. August 17, 2013.
- Hunter, George (August 1, 2013). "WCCC professor, city clerk candidate claims he was assaulted by school security officers". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- Neavling, Steve (July 31, 2013). "Police assault, bind clerk candidate for 3.5 hours in Detroit". Motor City Muckraker.
- "2014 Official Michigan General Candidate Listing". Michigan Secretary of State. September 4, 2014.
- Richardson, Darcy G. (September 14, 2014). "Libertarian Polling Difference in Tight Michigan Gubernatorial Race". Uncovered Politics.
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- Michigan Information and Research Service (MIRS) is an established subscriber-only news service. Non-subscribers may search to verify headlines and summaries. Those seeking to verify complete content may apply for a trial subscription at the MIRS website"
- United States Senate campaign
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- campaign page for Lieutenant Governor campaign
- Scotty Boman's Vote USA Posting
- Greg Creswell's Vote USA Posting.
- Gregory Creswell's early role in placing MCRI on the Ballot
- League of Women Voters Election Guide
- Brass Roots Web page
- Libertarian Party of Michigan Website
- National Libertarian Party website
- University of Michigan Library Reference
- Vote USA Michigan 2006 Election
- International Society for Individual Liberty, Michigan Chapter
|Party political offices|
|Chairman of the Libertarian Party of Michigan
May 2006 – May 2007
|Vice Chairman of the Libertarian Party of Michigan
November 2013 – Present
|Vice Chairman of the Libertarian Party of Michigan
April 2005 – May 2006
|LEC At-Large Director of the Libertarian Party of Michigan
June 2013 - November 2013