Scott Walker (politician)
|Scott Walker speaking at the 2013 CPAC in Washington D.C. on March 15, 2013.|
|45th Governor of Wisconsin|
January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||Jim Doyle|
|Milwaukee County Executive|
April 30, 2002 – December 27, 2010
|Preceded by||Janine Geske|
|Succeeded by||Lee Holloway (acting)|
|Member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
from the 17th district
June 30, 1993 – May 14, 2002
|Preceded by||Peggy Rosenzweig|
|Succeeded by||Leah Vukmir|
|Born||Scott Kevin Walker
November 2, 1967
Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Tonette Marie Walker (née Tarantino; m. 1993); 2 sons|
|Residence||Governor's Mansion (official)
Wauwatosa, Wisconsin (personal)
|Alma mater||Delavan-Darien High School1986
Marquette University(attended, 1986–1990)
|Religion||Non-denominational, evangelical Christianity|
Born in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Walker attended Marquette University in Milwaukee. He started his career working for IBM before gaining a marketing job with the American Red Cross. At age 22, Walker lost a run for the Wisconsin State Assembly in a Milwaukee district in 1990, though he won later, after moving to a more Conservative district in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. He served five more terms in the Wisconsin Assembly from 1993 to 2002. In 2002, after the resignation of Tom Ament as Executive of Milwaukee County, Walker won in a special election to fill the seat, winning the first of three terms serving as County Executive in Milwaukee County from 2002 to 2010.
In his first run for Governor in 2006 he dropped out before the Republican primaries. Walker again ran for the governorship in 2010 winning in a three person race in the Republican primary. He faced Democratic nominee, Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett, in the general election, where Walker won with 52% of the vote. After being sworn into office in 2011, Walker introduced a controversial budget repair plan which eliminated many collective bargaining rights for most public employees and made over $1 billion in cuts to the state's biennial education budget and $500 million in cuts from the state's biennial Medicaid budget. The budget cuts led to significant protests at the Wisconsin State Capitol and sparked an effort to recall Walker.
In a special election in June 2012, Walker again faced Barrett in Wisconsin's first and only Gubernatorial recall election and defeated him for a second time, obtaining more than 53% of the vote. Walker is the first and only governor in the U.S. to date to win a gubernatorial recall election.
- 1 Early life, education, and business career
- 2 Wisconsin State Assembly
- 3 Milwaukee County Executive
- 4 2006 campaign for governor
- 5 2010 campaign for governor
- 6 Governor of Wisconsin
- 6.1 2011 budget repair bill and protests
- 6.2 2012 recall election
- 6.3 2012–2013 budget proposal
- 6.4 Domestic partner registry defense
- 6.5 Regulatory Reform Bill
- 6.6 Voter ID law
- 6.7 Rejection of health care funds
- 6.8 Education
- 6.9 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 Electoral history
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early life, education, and business career
Walker was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado, one of two sons of Patricia Ann "Pat" (née Fitch) and Llewellyn Scott "Llew" Walker, a bookkeeper and a Baptist minister, respectively. He has a brother, David. The family first moved to Plainfield, Iowa and then, when Scott was ten years old, to Delavan, Wisconsin, a city of about 8,000, where his father became a prominent preacher. In high school he attended two weeks of American Legion-sponsored training in leadership and government at Badger Boys State in Wisconsin and the selective Boys Nation in Washington, D.C. Walker has credited the experience with solidifying his interest in public service and giving him the "political bug". He attained the highest rank, Eagle Scout, in the Boy Scouts of America, and graduated from Delavan-Darien High School in 1986.
Walker enrolled at Marquette University in Milwaukee in the Fall of 1986. While in college, Walker volunteered for Governor Tommy Thompson's campaign, became a student senator, and ran for class president, losing a hard-fought race to a more liberal student. Walker dropped out of Marquette in the Spring semester of 1990. During college Walker worked part-time for IBM selling warranties. His IBM job led to a full-time position in marketing and fundraising at the American Red Cross from 1990 to 1994.
Wisconsin State Assembly
Walker first ran for government office in 1990 at age 22, winning the Republican nomination for Milwaukee's 7th District seat in the Wisconsin State Assembly, but losing in the general election to incumbent Democrat Gwen Moore. This is the only competitive race for public office that Walker has lost to date. He moved to the then-predominantly Republican edge city of Wauwatosa when its Assembly seat opened up in 1993, winning the special election over Democrat Chris Ament, son of then-Milwaukee County Executive Tom Ament.
During the campaign, Walker backed welfare reform and opposed the expansion of mass transit. He supported a cap on state spending and said that the law on resolving labor disputes with local government employees needed to be reformed. Walker received the endorsements of Wisconsin Right to Life and The Milwaukee Sentinel, which called him a fiscal conservative and noted his pro-life, tough-on-crime, and pro-welfare reform positions. He was re-elected four times, serving until 2002 when he became a county executive.
While in the State Assembly, Walker took a special interest in criminal justice matters and chaired the Committees on Correctional Facilities, and Corrections and the Courts. Over the years he served on a number of other committees, including Health, Census and Redistricting, Financial Institutions, and Housing. In 1999 he took the lead in passing a truth-in-sentencing bill that ended the practice of taking time off prisoners' sentences for good behavior. In 2001 he was the lead sponsor of a bill to prevent pharmacists from being disciplined for refusing to fill prescriptions for emergency contraception and was a strong supporter of a bill to require voters to show photo ID at the polls.
Walker claimed that Witch's hiring as a prison chaplain raised "both personal and political concerns" because she "practice[d] a religion that actually offends people of many other faiths". Walker and Huebsch were ultimately unsuccessful in terminating Witch's employment.
Milwaukee County Executive
Walker became Milwaukee County Executive in a special election run in April 2002, after the former County Executive, Tom Ament, resigned in the wake of a county pension fund scandal. Walker was elected to a four-year term in 2004, winning 57% of the vote to defeat former state budget director, David Riemer. He won another four-year term in 2008, defeating State Senator Lena Taylor with 59% of the vote.
Walker won the office on a platform of fiscal conservatism, promising to give back part of his own salary. He said that his voluntary give-back gave him moral authority to make cuts in the budget. He returned $60,000 per year (slightly less than half of his salary) for several years but, by 2008, he had reduced his give-back to $10,000 per year.
During his eight years in office, there were disputes with the county board "over taxes, privatization of public services, quality of parks and public buildings, and delivery of social services", according to the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. The County Board approved several budgets over Walker's veto and he never submitted a budget with a higher property tax than the board had approved the prior year. He cut the number of county employees by more than 20% and reduced the county's debt by 10%.
Walker appointed Kevin Kavanaugh, treasurer of the local chapter of the Military Order of the Purple Heart, to be a member of the County Veterans Service Commission. Each year Walker raised funds for veterans at a benefit for veterans called Operation Freedom. The proceeds were given to the Military Order of the Purple Heart. Walker's Chief of Staff, Thomas Nardelli, stated that he went to Walker with concerns about missing money in 2009, and Walker told him to report it to the district attorney's office. which led to a secret John Doe investigation. Kavanaugh and four others were arrested for theft of those benefit's funds. Kavanaugh was convicted of theft and sentenced to 21 months in prison.
Tim Russell, who had worked for Walker in a number of posts, was implicated in the same investigation; he was charged in January 2012 and pleaded guilty in November 2012 to diverting more than $21,000 to his personal bank account. In 2010, Walker's last year as Milwaukee County executive, Russell was his deputy chief of staff and Milwaukee Housing Director. Governor Walker was not charged with any wrongdoing regarding any of the above.
2006 campaign for governor
While county executive, Walker became a candidate, in February 2005, in the 2006 race for Wisconsin governor. He dropped out in April 2006, after 14 months of campaigning, citing fundraising difficulties. Walker threw his support to fellow Republican Mark Andrew Green, who won the Republican primary unopposed. Green lost the general election, in November 2006, to the incumbent Democrat, Jim Doyle.
2010 campaign for governor
Walker became an early favorite for the 2010 Republican Party endorsement for Wisconsin governor, winning straw polls of Wisconsin GOP convention attendees in 2007 and 2008. He announced his candidacy in late April 2009 after several months of previewing his campaign themes of reduced taxes and reduced spending to Republican audiences around the state. He criticized the 2009–11 Wisconsin state budget as too big given the slow economy. He won the Wisconsin GOP convention endorsement on May 22, 2010, receiving 91% of the votes cast by the delegates. Walker won the Republican nomination in the primary election of September 14, 2010, receiving 59% of the popular vote, while former U.S. Representative Mark Neumann garnered 39%.
As part of his campaign platform, Walker said he would create 250,000 jobs in his first term through a program that would include tax cuts for small businesses, capital gains tax cuts, and income tax cuts for the highest-earning Wisconsinites. He proposed cutting state employee wages and benefits to help pay for these tax cuts. Critics argued that his proposals would help only the wealthy and that cutting the salaries of public employees would adversely affect state services, while supporters argued that tax cuts for businesses would reduce the cost of labor, which would ultimately promote consumer demand and more job growth.
Walker indicated he would refuse an $810 million award from the federal Department of Transportation to build a high speed railroad line from Madison to Milwaukee, because he believed it would cost the state $7.5 million per year to operate and would not prove profitable. The award was later rescinded and split among other states.
Social issues played a part in the campaign. Walker has stated that he is "100% pro-life" and that he believes life should be protected from conception to natural death. He opposes abortion, including in cases of rape and incest. He supports abstinence-only sex education in the public schools and opposes state supported clinical services that provide birth control and testing and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases to teens under age 18 without parental consent. He supports the right of pharmacists to refuse to fill prescriptions for contraceptives on religious or moral grounds. He supports adult stem cell research but opposes human embryonic stem cell research. As a supporter of traditional marriage, he opposed a law that allowed gay couples to register with counties to get certain benefits, such as hospital visitation rights.
On November 2, 2010, his 43rd birthday, Walker won the general election with 52% of total votes cast, while Democrat Tom Barrett received 46%. His running mate, now Lieutenant Governor, was Rebecca Kleefisch, a former Milwaukee television news reporter.
Governor of Wisconsin
Walker took the oath of office to become the 45th Governor of Wisconsin on January 3, 2011. On January 25, 2011, the state legislature passed a series of Walker-backed bills, the largest of which would cut taxes for businesses at "a two-year cost of $67 million", according to the Associated Press.
Walker became a figure of national recognition and controversy after he proposed the "Wisconsin budget repair bill" in 2011. The bill, which would eventually be passed by the Wisconsin Legislature, significantly changed the collective bargaining process for most public employees in Wisconsin. Opponents of Walker's actions launched a push for a recall election and received enough support to force an election on June 5, 2012, the first time a Governor of Wisconsin had ever faced recall. Walker successfully kept his seat as governor after winning the Wisconsin recall election against two-time opponent Tom Barrett. Walker won the recall by a slightly larger margin (53% to 46%) than the 2010 election (52% to 46%), making him the first U.S. governor to have successfully kept the seat as governor in a recall election.
During Walker's tenure, 100,000 jobs have been created in the state of Wisconsin.
2011 budget repair bill and protests
Walker proposed a budget repair bill on February 11, 2011, estimated to save Wisconsin $30 million in the current fiscal year and $300 million over the next two years. The bill would require additional contributions by state and local government workers to their health care plans and pensions, amounting to roughly an 8% decrease in the average government worker's take home pay. The bill would eliminate, for most state workers, other than certain public safety workers, many collective bargaining rights aside from seeking pay increases, and then not above the rate of inflation, unless approved by a voter referendum. Under the bill unions would have to win yearly votes to continue representing government workers and could no longer have dues automatically deducted from government workers' paychecks. Law enforcement personnel and firefighters would be exempt from the bargaining changes.
In announcing the proposed legislation, Walker said the Wisconsin National Guard and other state agencies were prepared to prevent disruptions in state services. He later explained that police and firefighters were excluded from the changes because he would not jeopardize public safety. Walker said that the bill was necessary to avoid laying off thousands of state employees and that no one should be surprised by its provisions. Union leaders and Democratic legislators immediately criticized the bill, claiming Walker had never campaigned on doing away with collective bargaining rights. In a media interview a week later, Walker said he was not trying to break the public sector unions, noting that Wisconsin government employees would retain the protections of civil service laws. He said that asking employees to pay half the national average for health care benefits was a modest request.
Demonstrators began protesting the proposed bill on February 14, 2011. During the sixth day of the protests, leaders of the two largest unions said publicly they were prepared to accept the financial concessions in the bill, but would not agree to the limitations of collective bargaining rights. All 14 of the Democratic state senators fled the state to Illinois on February 17, preventing the passage of the bill by the (Republican-controlled) legislature in the absence of the quorum necessary for a vote. The missing legislators said they would not return to Madison unless Walker agreed to remove the limitations on collective bargaining from the bill. Walker warned that if the budget repair bill was not passed by March 1, refinancing of a $165 million state debt would fail, and more cuts would be needed to balance the budget.
Appearing on Meet the Press on February 27, Walker stated that he did not believe the unions were negotiating in good faith in offering pension and health care concessions because local unions had recently pushed through contracts with school boards and city councils that did not include contributions to the pensions and health care and that, in one case, a contract even included a pay increase. On February 28, the largest public union filed an unfair labor practices complaint with the state labor relations board, claiming that Walker had a duty to negotiate, but had refused.
On March 8, private emails dating back to February 28 were released. These emails showed that Governor Walker had tried to negotiate with Democratic legislators, even proposing to allow some collective bargaining rights. However, after failing to reach a compromise with Democratic legislators, the Republican Senate legislators removed certain fiscal provisions from the bill, allowing it to be passed by a simple senate majority.
On March 18, Judge Maryann Sumi issued a court order to prohibit publication of the bill by the Secretary of State while legal challenges to it were being considered. On March 26, the Legislative Reference Bureau (LRB) published the bill. Republicans contended the court order did not mention the LRB, which is (also) responsible for publishing laws, and that the publication made the bill law. Democrats maintained the bill could not become law until the Secretary of State took action, and the entire law was published in the state newspaper of record, the Wisconsin State Journal. Judge Sumi subsequently clarified that, pursuant to her order, the bill could not be considered to be published, pending completion of court review.
On May 26, Judge Sumi struck down the budget repair bill, finding that its passage was in violation of state open meetings laws. The Wisconsin Supreme Court overturned Sumi's ruling on June 14.
2012 recall election
After the contentious collective bargaining dispute, Walker's disapproval ratings varied between 50% and 51% while his approval ratings varied between 47% and 49% in 2011. The effort to recall Walker officially began on November 15, 2011.
Walker reportedly raised more than $30 million during the recall effort, with a significant portion from out of state. [clarification needed] Commentators claimed the amount of money raised was "illustrating the national significance both political parties saw in the recall fight." In March 2012, the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board announced there were more than 900,000 valid signatures to force a recall vote, well above the required minimum.
In February 2012, Walker's campaign requested additional time for the petition signatures to be verified, claiming about 20% of the signatures were not valid. Democrats argued that even if 20% of the signatures were disregarded they still had obtained 300,000 more signatures than required to initiate the recall. Wisconsin Democratic Party Communications Director Graeme Zielinski claimed Walker was "delaying the inevitable". On February 17, 2012, Dane County judge Richard Niess denied Walker's request for additional time. On March 30, 2012, the Government Accountability Board unanimously ruled in favor of the recall election. The recall election for both Walker and Kleefisch took place on June 5, 2012.
During the Republican primary election for the recall, Walker received 626,538 votes. In the Democratic primary, all of the Democratic candidates combined received 670,288, with the winner, Tom Barrett, receiving 390,109, a majority. On June 5, 2012, Walker won the recall election against Barrett. This was only the third gubernatorial recall election in U.S. history and the first in which the incumbent won. Walker won the recall by a slightly larger margin (53% to 46%) than the 2010 election (52% to 46%).
Investigation of alleged illegal campaign coordination
In February 2012, a John Doe probe was launched to investigate possible illegal campaign coordination among conservative groups during the 2011 recall and 2012 gubernatorial elections. The investigation, which was initially launched by the Milwaukee district attorney and later expanded to include four additional county district attorneys, all Democrats, was turned over to a special prosecutor in October 2013. The initial state judge[who?] overseeing the John Doe investigation issued up to 100 subpoenas and authorized raids of at least 29 organizations. By state law, all those being investigated were unable to discuss the investigation publicly. One of the groups being investigated, the Wisconsin Club for Growth, brought a lawsuit to quash the probe, alleging the probe was partisan and violates their First Amendment rights to free expression. The state judge who currently handles the investigation oversight later quashed the subpoenas in the investigation, saying "there was no probable cause shown that they violated campaign finance laws". Federal judge Rudolph Randa twice ordered a stop to the investigation and ordered the return of all documents seized in raids, saying that it violated constitutional rights of free speech, and that appeals by the prosecutors were "frivolous".
At the request of the Wisconsin Club for Growth, the court unsealed documents from the investigation on June 19, 2014. These documents revealed that prosecutors had alleged Walker was at the center of a plan to illegally coordinate fundraising efforts with a number of outside conservative groups to help him in the 2012 recall election, bypassing state election laws. To date, no one has been charged in the investigation.
In a May 6, 2014 order, Judge Randa found the investigation had no legal basis. However, only one day later, a three-judge panel (Wood, Bauer and Easterbrook) of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago stayed Randa's preliminary injunction, ruling that he had overstepped his authority as prosecutors had already appealed an earlier decision in the case. Randa could issue his injunction only if he certified their appeal as frivolous. The appeals court ruling also said Randa could not order prosecutors to destroy evidence collected in the five-county probe. According to a statement by prosecutors "At the time the investigation was halted, Governor Walker was not a target of the investigation. At no time has he been served with a subpoena", and that they have "no conclusions as to whether there is sufficient evidence to charge anyone with a crime".
On August 21, 2014, a number of email message were disclosed from a previous court filing by a special prosecutor. According to Politico, the emails purports to show that Walker made an early decision for money to be funneled though a group he trusted, and shows that he had a direct hand in “in orchestrating the fundraising logistics of the opposition to the recalls.” According to CBS News, the disclosures show that prosecutors assert that Walker "personally solicited donations for [the] conservative group Wisconsin Club for Growth to get around campaign finance limits and disclosure requirements as he fended off the recall attempt in 2012." One of the emails released read "As the Governor discussed … he wants all the issue advocacy efforts run thru one group to ensure correct messaging. We had some past problems with multiple groups doing work on 'behalf' of Gov. Walker and it caused some issues … The Governor is encouraging all to invest in the Wisconsin Club for Growth." The Washington Post reported that the documents released show Walker solicited donors such as Home Depot co-founder Ken Langone, hedge fund manager Paul Singer, and real estate businessman Donald Trump to give large contributions to a tax-exempt group that backed him during the recall efforts.
According to The Wall Street Journal, it is "legal and common" for politicians to raise money for political action committees, party committees, and 501(c)(4)'s. There are no allegations that the Wisconsin Club for Growth gave the money to Walker, or even advertised on his behalf.
In September 2014, lawyers asked a federal appeals court to uphold an injunction that blocks a Wisconsin prosecutor from reviving an investigation that targeted conservative organizations accused of illegally coordinating with the Governor for the purpose of circumventing campaign finance limits, citing selective prosecution and violations of free speech and equal protection under the law.
2012–2013 budget proposal
Wisconsin faced an anticipated deficit of approximately $3.6 billion in the 2012–13 budget cycle that must be balanced according to state law. Walker was planning in mid-February 2011 to propose a budget bill but was delayed by the protests and the absence of 14 state senators. He confirmed in advance that he would be asking for a 9% (or $900 million) cut in state aid to education. A revenue limit that would reduce the property tax authority by $500 per pupil would also be proposed. The state school superintendent has objected in advance to the budget, saying, "whole parts of what we value in our schools are gone." The governor released information[when?] regarding the effect his budget proposals will have on each district. In the proposal, the projected savings statewide in fringe benefits comes to about $489 million, which is offset by state aid reductions of about $394 million.
Domestic partner registry defense
On May 13, 2011, the Walker administration petitioned the Dane County Circuit Court for permission to withdraw the state as a defendant from Appling v. Doyle, which is a challenge to the state's domestic partner registry, which enumerates 43 rights for registered same-sex couples. Walker inherited the case from the previous administration. The motion to withdraw was made because Walker believes the registry, which was instituted in 2009, violates the state's 2006 constitutional ban of same-sex marriage and the creation of a "legal status identical or substantially similar to that of marriage for unmarried individuals". Walker's predecessor, Doyle, had asked the court to rule that the registry is constitutional. If the court does not allow the state to withdraw, Walker has asked that it allow him to change the state's previous filing and request the court strike the registry as unconstitutional.
Regulatory Reform Bill
On May 23, 2011, Walker signed legislation making important changes to the administrative rulemaking process. This measure, which became 2011 Wisconsin Act 21 (and became effective June 8, 2011), changes State agency authority to promulgate rules, provides for gubernatorial approval of proposed rules, makes revisions to the requirement of an economic impact analysis for proposed rules and changes venue in the process of judicial review of agency rules.
Voter ID law
Rejection of health care funds
In January 2012, Walker returned a $37.6 million federal grant meant to set up a health exchange in Wisconsin for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Walker posited that "Stopping the encroachment of Obamacare in our state, which has the potential to have a devastating impact on Wisconsin's economy, is a top priority." Walker rejected an $11 million federal grant designed to improve Medicaid enrollment systems. It can take up to 3 months to determine whether an applicant qualifies for the program. If the applicant does not qualify, the state must pay the medical costs for the first three months. The Walker administration previously said it wants to end the practice of presuming some applicants are eligible and go to a real-time system for determining eligibility. Walker rejected an expansion of Medicaid coverage for the state, but instead reduced the eligibility requirements for the state's BadgerCare program.
On April 2, 2012, Walker signed a law to fund evaluation of the reading skills of kindergartners as part of an initiative to ensure that students are reading at or above grade level by 3rd grade. The law created a system for evaluating teachers and principals based in part on the performance of their students on standardized tests.
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act
Governor Walker created a modification of the statutory process established by Section 20(b)(1)(A) of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (“IGRA”). This modification to the IGRA, known as the "Walker Rule" gives the Governor unrestricted authority to approve or veto any off-reservation tribal casino located in the state.
Walker married the former Tonette Marie Tarantino (born 1955) in February 1993; the couple has two sons. Walker is a Christian. The family attends Meadowbrook Church, a nondenominational evangelical church in Wauwatosa. She is a former development director for the American Lung Association.
During the summers of 2004 through 2009, as Milwaukee County Executive, Walker led a motorcycle tour called the "Executive's Ride" through Wisconsin and parts of neighboring states. The ride was organized to attract people to Milwaukee County. In 2013 Walker published Unintimidated - A Governor's Story and A Nation's Challenge about his experiences, especially the recall vote and subsequent election.
- Unintimidated: A Governor's Story and a Nation's Challenge by Scott Walker and Marc Thiessen (November 19, 2013); ISBN 978-1595231079
|Wisconsin gubernatorial recall election, 2012|
|Wisconsin gubernatorial election, 2010|
|Republican gain from Democratic|
|Wisconsin Gubernatorial Election 2010 – Republican Primary|
|Milwaukee County Executive Election 2008
|Scott Walker (incumbent)||98,039||59%|
|Milwaukee County Executive Election 2004
|Scott Walker (incumbent)||136,203||57%|
|Milwaukee County Executive Special Election 2002
|Wisconsin State Assembly 14th District Election 2000|
|Republican||Scott Walker (incumbent)||20,268||100%|
|Wisconsin State Assembly 14th District Election 1998|
|Republican||Scott Walker (incumbent)||14,110||68%|
|Wisconsin State Assembly 14th District Election 1996|
|Republican||Scott Walker (incumbent)||15,658||62%|
|Wisconsin State Assembly 14th District Election 1994|
|Republican||Scott Walker (incumbent)||15,487||100%|
|Wisconsin State Assembly 14th District Special Election 1993|
|Democratic||Christopher T. Ament||3,663||42%|
|Libertarian||Larry A. Boge||93||1%|
|Wisconsin State Assembly 7th District Election 1990|
|Democratic||Gwen Moore (incumbent)||3,847||69%|
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|Wisconsin State Assembly|
|Member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
from the 14th District
|Milwaukee County Executive
|Governor of Wisconsin
2011 – present
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
as Vice President
|Order of Precedence of the United States
Mayor of city
in which event is held
Otherwise John Boehner
as Speaker of the House of Representatives
as Governor of Iowa
|Order of Precedence of the United States
as Governor of California