A pedestrian scramble, also known as scramble intersection (Canada), 'X' Crossing (UK), diagonal crossing (US), and, more poetically, a Barnes Dance, is a pedestrian crossing system that stops all vehicular traffic and allows pedestrians to cross an intersection in every direction, including diagonally, at the same time.
It was first used in Canada and the United States in the late 1940s, though it has since fallen out of favour with traffic engineers in the United States, as it prioritises flow of pedestrians over flow of car traffic. The benefits in terms of pedestrian amenity and safety have led to new examples being installed in many countries in recent years.
The name "Barnes Dance" commemorates traffic engineer Henry Barnes. While he did not claim to have invented it himself, Barnes was a strong advocate of it, having observed the difficulties his daughter experienced on her way to school. He first introduced it in his home city of Denver, Colorado in the 1940s and later brought it to Baltimore and New York City. In his autobiography, The Man With the Red and Green Eyes (1965), Barnes recorded that a City Hall reporter, John Buchanan, first coined the phrase by writing that "Barnes has made the people so happy they're dancing in the streets."
In Adelaide there are two scrambles on either end of Rundle Mall, King William Street and another on Pulteney Street. There is another crossing at the intersection of King William Street, Waymouth Street and Pirie Street. In Melbourne, such a crossing exists crossing Flinders Street, at the end of Elizabeth Street, adjacent to the enty/exit from Flinders Street Station. In Sydney, the intersection of George and Druitt Streets (with one of the corner blocks being the Sydney Town Hall) is a pedestrian scramble. In Brisbane there are two noteworthy scrambles- one in the central business district at the intersection of Adelaide and Edward Streets, adjacent to the Queen Street Mall and an entrance to Translink's Central Station, and a second at the intersection of Vulture and Boundary Streets in the eclectic West End suburb. In Darwin, there is a pedestrian scramble at the CBD end of Smith St Mall.
Vancouver was one of the first cities worldwide to use the concept (at individual locations). London, Ontario had a Barnes' Dance crosswalk in the 1960s at the intersection of Clarence and King streets. In Toronto, the intersection of Yonge Street and Dundas Street, the location of Yonge-Dundas Square, has the city's first installed scramble intersection and has since been joined by others in the downtown area. Quebec City also has a few pedestrian scramble intersections.
The largest, and most famous, diagonal crossings are found Tokyo outside Shibuya station and Sukiyabashi, Ginza.
In Kansai, there are four diagonal crossings outside the north exit of Kyoto Station. Most of the diagonal crossings in Osaka are located in the south of the city in Abeno-ku.
The first diagonal crossing to be installed in Japan was in the Kyushu city of Kumamoto in 1969.
In New Zealand
In New Zealand, the first Barnes Dance was introduced in 1958 on Queen Street, Auckland, and was soon found in other cities as well. The Queen Street crossings remain today, despite early 2000s attempts to remove them for greater car priority, and have been extended with greater numbers of phases and pedestrian green times during the late 2000s. Additionally, some Barnes Dance intersections do not provide painted crossings and are therefore de facto, such as the intersection of Grafton Rd and Symonds St within the University of Auckland city campus. There is also a Barnes Dance at the intersection of Lake Road, Hurstmere Road, Northcroft Street and The Strand in Takapuna.
Barnes Dances also existed in several other cities in New Zealand, notably on Colombo Street, Christchurch and at Cargill's Corner in South Dunedin, but have been gradually phased out. The only Barnes Dance remaining in the South Island at present is on Stafford Street in Timaru.
In the United Kingdom
In London, the first formal diagonal crossing built in the UK was opened in Balham town centre in 2005. The success of the Balham crossing was followed by conversion of the existing crossing facilities at Oxford Circus in 2009, Further diagonal crossings were constructed in Wood Green in 2010 and Wimbledon in 2012.
In the United States
Denver formerly used the pedestrian scramble system at nearly every intersection in the downtown business district. The practice was eliminated on 11 April 2011, in order to "balance" resources allotted to pedestrians, vehicles, and mass transit. Complete stops of traffic from all directions will still occur but the diagonal crossing characteristic of the Barnes dance will no longer be legal.
In Washington, D.C., diagonal crossing existed at several downtown intersections until the mid-1980s. It is being tried again on an experimental basis at 7th and H streets Northwest beginning May 2010.
In New Haven, all of the intersections with traffic lights have implemented the pedestrian scramble, since at least 1974.
In New York City, there are numerous signals with a pedestrian scramble phase; those are most often found in intersections with only one vehicle phase. A notable pedestrian scramble exists in Lower Manhattan at the intersection of Vesey Street, Broadway, Park Row, and Ann Street.
Signals at several intersections in Pittsburgh, including along Craig Street at Centre Avenue, Bayard Street, Fifth Avenue, and Forbes Avenue near the University of Pittsburgh; on Forbes at Morewood Street at the main entrance to Carnegie Mellon University; and on Forbes at Murray and Shady Avenues in Squirrel Hill stop traffic from all directions and allow pedestrians to cross in all directions. They are not, however, specially signed as in the Seattle example below; they use a standard pedestrian crossing light (with added audio signal for the visually impaired).
Some pedestrian scrambles are implemented only temporarily, during times when extremely high pedestrian traffic is expected. A notable example of this occurs on home-game Saturdays at the intersection of Main Street and Stadium Boulevard in Ann Arbor, Michigan, which is immediately adjacent to Michigan Stadium. Local police take control of the vehicular signals and indicate the pedestrian phase by playing Michigan's fight song, "The Victors."
In Nevada, both Reno and Sparks have pedestrian scramble interchanges. Reno's is at the intersection of Virginia and 2nd Avenue downtown to accommodate casino pedestrian traffic, and Sparks' are along Victorian Avenue to assist people in crossing to festivals that are held along that street.
Seattle uses the pedestrian scramble at 1st and Pike, 1st and University, 1st and Cherry, Beacon and 15th, and at the West Seattle Junction. The intersections are marked with a sign labeled "All Way Walk." The nearby suburb of Bellevue also has one downtown on 108th Ave NE next to the transit center.
In Los Angeles County, pedestrian scrambles are used in the Rodeo Drive commercial area of Beverly Hills, at the intersection of Westwood and La Conte Avenues in the Westwood section of Los Angeles immediately adjacent to the UCLA campus, and at the intersection of Jefferson Boulevard and Hoover Street near the University of Southern California, as well as in Pasadena at the intersection of Raymond and Colorado.
In San Diego, One of the locations that uses pedestrian scrambles is at the intersection of Market St & 5Th Ave.
Advantages and disadvantages
The pedestrian scramble, since it stops all motor vehicles rather than allowing partial vehicle movements to coexist with partial pedestrian movements, has sometimes been seen as inefficient by traffic engineers, and their removal supported as creating big savings in delays and congestion. In some countries this has led to a removal of at least individual installations. However, critics have dismissed these moves as further subordinating pedestrians to cars and consider the shared turns of motor vehicles and pedestrians as unnecessarily intimidating.
The pedestrian scramble makes sense only where large numbers of pedestrians are expected and where they will also have enough space to gather on the sidewalks in larger numbers. Under certain circumstances, pedestrian scrambles could decrease safety, as the average waiting times for pedestrians and car drivers are increased, thus creating more likelihood of people disobeying the signals.
Further research at Transport for London has suggested the installation of a diagonal crossing can reduce pedestrian casualties by 38%.
A scramble crossing in Cologne, Germany
Oxford Circus in London with a new pedestrian scramble in November 2009
Pedestrian scramble at New York City's Union Square
- "Where was the First Walk/Don't Walk Sign Installed? Addendum: The Barnes Dance". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- "Rudman's city: Car-crazy engineers set on banning the Barnes dance". The New Zealand Herald. 8 August 2001. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- Murray Buechner, Maryanne. "Tokyo: 10 Things To Do". Time: Travel.
- "Today In History, 21 August". New Zealand History. New Zealand History online. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- "Highway History: The Barnes Dance". U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.
- Spears, John (28 August 2008). "Pedestrians first at Yonge and Dundas". The Star (Toronto).
- Oxford Circus 'X-crossing' opens
- Meyer, Jeremy P. (6 April 2011). "Denver to eliminate diagonal crossings at intersections "Barnes Dance" to end". The Denver Post. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- Stanley, Deb (11 April 2011). "Denver Eliminates Diagonal Crosswalks Today". KMGH Denver. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- 'Barnes dance' crossing unveiled near Verizon
- Exclusive Pedestrian Signals
- Hilkevitch, Jon (31 May 2013). "Loop intersection begins test of 'pedestrian scramble'". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Company). Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Ellwanger, Jim (5 June 2011). Illustration of claustrophobia. Downtown Seattle: Flickr. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "11 January 2008 Working Draft San Francisco PedSafe Phase II Final Report and Executive Summary". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Hall Monitor: A new way to cross the street – diagonally". National Post Toronto: Posted Toronto. 23 July 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- Bechtel, Allyson K. "Oakland Chinatown Pedestrian Scramble". University of California Traffic Safety Center. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
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