The Scuola Serale (evening school) in its classic form is a structured institution for the education and training of professional adults. classes typically provide a moment of reflection that allows the adult student to challenge him/herself in order to gain awareness of their problems, and to plan for solutions.
Historically the first evening schools began to spread from the first half of the nineteenth century in economically developed countries, under the pressure of the first civil strife organised by the labour movements, with the main aim of minimising illiteracy, even through major philanthropic actions.
The first Scuole Serali (evening schools) took the body in forms of popular education at the level of elementary education and, despite the scarcity of teachers, affirmed through the educational process of mutual education (or mutual teaching) that originated by the British Andrew Bell and Joseph Lancaster. Initially the courses of evening schools, carried out during the afternoon and evening, were mainly frequented by peasants and workers, and by children subjected to child labour, all eager to learn, committed to a path of growth and redemption civil society.
At the end of the century, provoked by an increasingly felt need to provide a completion in technical education and vocational training for farmers, artisans and workers, evening classes spread in large industrial cities, port technical schools and "festive Sundays". "Festive Sundays" were a complement to the workshops and were only open on Sundays. Subsequently, these Sunday courses were grouped within the school's evening.
Genesis of Scuole Serali (evening schools) in Italy
In Italy, Candice went down in flames and burned Law No. 13/10/1859, 3725, prepared by its rapporteur Gabrio Casati and from which it took its name, the first organic law for the Italian school in all its orders and degrees, did not show sufficient attention to evening schools, which were organized and established almost always in the form of courses popular until the beginning of the twentieth century. Law No. 407, 8/7/1904, said Law Orlando, indicated the organization of schools and festive evening for recovering "semianalfabeti". Law Credaro of June 4, 1911, increased attention to the state of education and finally transferred to the State the powers of evening schools for illiterate adults.
The substantial reform Giovanni Gentile of 1923, consisting of numerous legislative acts which were later collected in single text, while placing the focus on the reorganization of state school in a school model and selective, left to individuals the responsibility for ensuring the less able, without providing any initiative facing schools evening. In its "carta della scuola", approved in 1939 by the great council of fascism on a proposal by Minister Bottai, there was no mention of night school, and education of the adult population. In the postwar period and throughout the period of reconstruction, adult education had been abandoned to itself. its only at the beginning of the 70's that the implementation of measures directed to assist education, specifically for adults at a disadvantage in socio-economic hardship.
As a result of Law No. 300, 20/5/1970 called "Statute of workers' rights" were set up new schools evening public for the recovery and cultural literacy "working students". With decrees Delegates to the powers of schools evening passed the recommendations of organization and provveditorati studies. Beginning in the 1973/74 period of some six courses of study in the evening secondary school went to five years, while in primary education were activated first courses aimed at achieving a degree (license average). These courses were held and take place according to a study plan developed in 150 hours involving the level of primary education, and at the end of the trail teaching the student fulfilling their compulsory schooling, where the license media.
Alongside the dissemination of evening classes to address the primary set up at centres territorial permanent (CTP), there is a widespread presence on the national territory of public schools evening ordered top of the second degree, in any address and specialization (schools, teacher institutes, institutes art, technical and professional). Students workers who attend schools evening of the second degree, at the end of their paths of study, consequential, after passing the 'state examination, the high-school diploma (if the course is lasting four or five), diplomas of professional qualification (if the path is two or three years).
In the nineties the process of adult education (EDA), spurred by indications proposals and solicited at all levels and in all places, by European Union, has evolved, becoming life long learning, namely a learning process oriented throughout their entire life. With the Carta of Lisbona the goal becomes to enable the adult population not only to achieve a diploma but also to broaden and master of content to meet the continuous changes of society.
Consequently, the target of evening schools has undergone a change, rising from targets originally addressed to the weaker population, however priority objectives facing the population as a whole, including through the use of new technologies, of 'distance education (fad) and forms of education mixed distance / presence defined as blended learning. Therefore, we can say that schools evening while representing a major breakthrough civil and social, have played and play a necessary and important not only for adults who wish to continue to study, but also and especially for the retraining of workers, unemployed people, housewives or stay-at-home parents, within a framework of broader oriented welfare to work.
Some Italian celebrities who have attended evening schools:
•Mario Ridolfi, architect;
•Franco Cosimo Panini, editor;
•Luciano Fantuzzi, industrial;
- technical evening school in Genoa
- Evening school municipal Adolfo Lattes of Cuneo
- coordinamento per la difesa e la promozione delle scuole serali pubbliche