Scutosaurus

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Scutosaurus
Temporal range: Changhsingian, 254–252Ma
Scutosaurus.jpg
Skeleton, American Museum of Natural History
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Procolophonomorpha
Family: Pareiasauridae
Genus: Scutosaurus
Hartmann-Weinberg, 1930
Type species
Scutosaurus karpinskii
Amalitzky, 1922
Synonyms
  • Pareiasuchus elegans Amalitzky, 1922
  • Pareiasuchus horridus Amalitzky, 1922
  • Pareiasuchus tuberculatus Amalitzky, 1922
  • Pareiasaurus karpinskii Amalitzky, 1922
  • Pareiasaurus karpinsky Amalitzky, 1922
  • Proelginia permiana? Hartmann-Weinberg, 1937
  • Scutosaurus itilensis Ivachneko & Lebedev, 1987
  • Scutosaurus permianus? Hartmann-Weinberg, 1937

Scutosaurus ("Shield Reptile") was a genus of armor-covered pareiasaur that lived around 254-252 million years ago in Russia, in the later Permian period. Its genus name refers to large plates of armor scattered across its body. It was a large anapsid reptile that, unlike most reptiles, held its legs underneath its body to support its great weight.[1]

Palaeobiology[edit]

Restoration
Skull of S. karpinskii

Scutosaurus was a massively built reptile, up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) in length, with bony armor, and a number of spikes decorating its skull.[1] Despite its relatively small size, Scutosaurus was heavy, and its short legs meant that it could not move at speed for long periods of time, which made it vulnerable to attack by large predators. To defend itself Scutosaurus had a thick skeleton covered with powerful muscles, especially in the neck region. Underneath the skin were rows of hard, bony plates (scutes) that acted like a form of chain mail.

As a plant-eater living in a semi-arid climate, Scutosaurus would have wandered widely in order find fresh foliage to eat. It may have stuck closely to the riverbanks and floodplains where plant life would have been more abundant, straying further afield only during times of drought. Its teeth were flattened and could grind away at the leaves and young branches before digesting them at length in its large gut. Given that it needed to eat constantly, Scutosaurus probably lived alone, or in very small herds, so as to avoid denuding large areas of their edible plants.

Skull[edit]

The skull is about 50 cm wide.It is very broad, flat, and strongly sculptured, and bears bony protuberances in the jugal (cheek) and rear regions. As with some species of Pareiasaurus, with which it is clearly related, the quadrato-jugal or cheekbones extend outwards and forwards, makings an angle of about 120° with the maxillary border.With its large cheekbones, Scutosaurus may have been able to make a loud bellowing sound.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

Scutosaurus was shown in the BBC/Discovery Walking with Monsters series as being a social animal that migrated in groups. Scutosaurus was depicted as being the main prey of a large gorgonopsid.

Scutosaurus was also shown in a similar sequence in National Geographic Channel's "Earth: Making of a Planet," though not as part of a herd or group.

Scutosaurus was featured in the Primeval series, but increased to nearly the size of an elephant for dramatic reasons.

Scutosaurus appeared as a cave dwelling reptile with bulletproof armor in The People That Time Forgot (film). The last obstacle hindering the crew's escape from Caprona (island), Scutosaurus was killed during a cave-in that was triggered by a volcanic eruption.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 64. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 

External links[edit]