SeaWorld

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For the Australian theme park, see Sea World.
For other uses, see Sea-world (disambiguation).
SeaWorld
Seaworld logo.svg
Slogan The Voyage Begins
Location San Diego, CA, San Antonio, TX, Orlando, Florida
Theme Marine mammal park
Owner SeaWorld Entertainment
Opened March 21, 1964 (1964-03-21)
Operating season Year-round
Visitors per annum 11 million[1]
Rides
Total 47 Rides
Website Official website

SeaWorld is a United States chain of marine mammal parks, oceanariums, and animal theme parks owned by SeaWorld Entertainment. The parks feature orca, sea lion, and dolphin shows and zoological displays featuring various other marine animals. There are operations in Orlando, Florida; San Diego, California; San Antonio, Texas; and previously Aurora, Ohio. On March 5, 2007, SeaWorld Orlando announced addition of the Aquatica water park to its adventure park family, which already includes SeaWorld and Discovery Cove.

SeaWorld parks also feature a variety of thrill rides, including roller coasters like Kraken and Manta at SeaWorld Orlando and Steel Eel and The Great White at SeaWorld San Antonio. Journey to Atlantis, a combination roller coaster and splashdown ride, can be found at all three US parks. The parks were owned by Busch Entertainment Corp., the family entertainment division of Anheuser-Busch, which is best known for brewing beer. In November 2009, Busch Entertainment was sold to the Blackstone Group and subsequently renamed SeaWorld Entertainment. On April 19, 2013 SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment had an initial public offering of stock. Blackstone sold 19.9 million SeaWorld shares at $27 apiece in the offering. After accounting for underwriting fees, Blackstone saw proceeds of about $505 million. After the IPO Blackstone retained a 63% stake in SeaWorld.[2]

In 2003 SeaWorld created the non-profit SeaWorld & Busch Gardens Conservation Fund. SeaWorld is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA).[3]

History[edit]

Kasatka, one of SeaWorld San Diego's nine killer whales, performs during a routine Shamu Adventure show.
Trainer "surfing" on top of Katina, a killer whale at SeaWorld Orlando.
Marble, Porter, Jensen, Starbuck, Baretta, and Clyde performing in Blue Horizons at SeaWorld Orlando.

SeaWorld was opened in 1964 by Milton C. Shedd, Ken Norris, David Demott, and George Millay. The four graduates of UCLA originally set out to build an underwater restaurant and marine life show.[4] When the underwater restaurant concept was deemed unfeasible, they scrapped those plans and decided to build a park instead, and SeaWorld San Diego was opened on March 21, 1964.[5] With only a few dolphins, sea lions, 6 attractions and 22 acres (89,000 m2), the park proved to be a success and more than 400,000 guests visited in the first 12 months.

After considering other locations in the midwest, including the Lake Milton/Newton Falls area west of Youngstown, Ohio, it was decided that Aurora, Ohio would be the new home of a SeaWorld. The Aurora site was approximately 15 miles (24 km) northwest of the Lake Milton site, and 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Cleveland.[6] By this time the founders of the company had captured a few more species of animals, including a killer whale that was brought to the new facility. The harsh winter climate permitted the park to be open only from mid-May until mid-September.

The Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Florida opened near the end of the second operating season of SeaWorld of Ohio. The success of Disney in Orlando provided a location that was already popular with tourists. SeaWorld Orlando opened in 1973.

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. (HBJ) purchased the company in 1976 and 12 years later they began a venture in Texas. In 1988, SeaWorld San Antonio opened just a few miles outside of San Antonio.[7] Growth has pushed the city outwards, and now SeaWorld San Antonio lies in the Westover Hills community in West San Antonio. The park was open year-round like its sister parks in California and Florida in 1988 and 1989, then went to a seasonal schedule. The stress and financial resources it took to build and maintain a state-of-the-art marine mammal facility in the late '80s eventually took its toll on the company. HBJ, whose primary focus was producing school books, needed to reduce its assets in order to avoid a bankruptcy.

The Anheuser-Busch Company made an offer to purchase the SeaWorld parks. However, HBJ also owned and operated two other parks, Cypress Gardens and Boardwalk and Baseball, and out of fear of not being able to find a buyer for the two other parks, HBJ refused to sell the parks individually. Despite a long negotiation, Anheuser-Busch bought all six parks in 1989: SeaWorld in San Diego, Aurora, Orlando and San Antonio as well as Cypress Gardens in Winter Haven and Boardwalk and Baseball in Haines City. Soon after the sale was final, Busch sold Cypress Gardens to the park's management and closed Boardwalk and Baseball.[8] Anheuser-Busch put millions of dollars back into the parks to revive and to prolong their longevity.

On August 15, 2014, SeaWorld announced the Blue World Project; a major renovation to all three of the SeaWorld parks Killer Whale habitats. The project will begin with SeaWorld San Diego in 2015 and is scheduled to be completed sometime in 2018 with a cost in the hundreds of millions of dollars. The company has also pledged $10 million in matching funds for killer whale research.[9]

Locations[edit]

SeaWorld San Diego[edit]

Main article: SeaWorld San Diego

SeaWorld San Diego, the first SeaWorld park, opened on March 21, 1964. The park features shows such as One Ocean, the current Shamu show and Sea Lions Live, a comedic show with sea lions and otters. Rides include Journey to Atlantis, a splashdown ride that also has characteristics of a roller coaster. The Summer Nights program changes some shows and adds others. One show featuring Shamu is available during the night called Shamu's Celebration: Light Up the Night, a live DJ choreographs music to the shows sound track and the Orcas' trainers spend interaction time in front of the stadium's crowd, and then the fireworks show Celebrate the Wonder Fireworks Spectacular, which uses music from the 50th Anniversary's theme song "Beneath the Blue", which the song can also be heard in the overture at the Explorer's Reef's theme music.

SeaWorld Orlando[edit]

Main article: SeaWorld Orlando

SeaWorld Orlando opened on December 15, 1973, and had crowds topping 5,400 on its opening day.[10] One Ocean, a new Shamu show which premiered April 22, 2011, is hosted here, along with, Blue Horizons, the park's dolphin show, and a new comedy based sea lion show will be debuting in 2015.[11] The park contains 3 roller coasters: Kraken, a floorless coaster based on the mythical sea creature, Manta, a coaster designed to simulate how manta rays move, and the Shamu Express, a coaster oriented to kids located in Shamu's Happy Harbor. It is also home to the original Journey to Atlantis Water Coaster. SeaWorld After Dark is SeaWorld Orlando's night program, featuring the fireworks show Reflections, a sea lions show Sea Lions Tonite and Shamu show Shamu Celebration: Light Up the Nighti.[12][13]

SeaWorld San Antonio[edit]

Main article: SeaWorld San Antonio

SeaWorld San Antonio opened on May 27, 1988.[7] Its formal opening over Memorial Day Weekend 1988 held about 75,000 people.[14] 3.3 million people visited SeaWorld San Antonio during its first year, 10% more than what was originally projected.[15] The park shows One Ocean, the new Shamu show; Azul, a show combining diving, synchronized swimming, dolphins and beluga whales; and The Cannery Row Caper, a sea lion show following the sea lions Clyde and Seamore solving a mystery. Parks rides include The Great White, an inverted roller coaster, Steel Eel, a roller coaster reaching a height of 150 feet,[16] and Journey to Atlantis, a water roller coaster into the mythical land of Atlantis.

Middle East[edit]

In 2008, Busch Entertainment had previously announced plans to open a fourth SeaWorld park in Dubai, UAE,[17] but those plans were abandoned amidst the international financial crisis.[18]

In May 2014, SeaWorld announced renewed plans to build a park in the Middle East, but did not specify a timeline or specific location.[19]

SeaWorld Ohio sale, re-birth, and eventual transition[edit]

Main article: SeaWorld Ohio

In February 2001, Anheuser-Busch sold the SeaWorld Ohio park to Six Flags, Inc., operators of neighboring "Six Flags Ohio" (Geauga Lake until the end of 1999, reverting to the "Geauga Lake" name in 2004). Upon completion of the sale, the two parks were combined in spring 2001 as the so-called "mega-park" "Six Flags Worlds Of Adventure", which boasted its "Three parks in one" uniqueness: a waterpark, an amusement park, and a wildlife animal park - all included in one price of admission. SeaWorld executives replied that their park had been sold because of the short season of the animal park, because of Northeastern Ohio's cold winter months, and also because they were not able to get the rights to build roller coasters like the other SeaWorld properties had been able to.

In March 2004, Six Flags, Inc., announced that it had sold "Six Flags Worlds of Adventure" to Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, the operators of the Cedar Point amusement park in Sandusky, Ohio. Cedar Fair took the park back to its original "Geauga Lake" name, which had a history dating back to 1888. Since the Six Flags company retained ownership of the animals, the majority of the animal portion of the park, including all of the exhibits and animal stadiums, was either emptied or fenced off for the 2004 season.

After a nearly season-long wait, the Cedar Fair company announced its plans for the non-operational side of the former SeaWorld Ohio/Six Flags Worlds of Adventure-Wildlife Side. That entire portion of the land would become an immense waterpark, named "Wildwater Kingdom", opening in two phases, with the first phase in 2005, followed by the second phase in 2006. This decision marked the end of the marine-life park permanently.

All of the animal stadiums and buildings were next torn down or converted into other venues. Some of the SeaWorld property remained intact, albeit hidden or modified. What remained included the former seal and sea lion area, the Ski Stadium (to be used in a Lumberjack show in 2006), the Aquarium (to be used for unknown purposes), and two movie theater houses/simulators, once housing 3D/4D movies. The Ski Stadium was removed in off-season 2008 to make way for "Coconut Cove", a refreshment station/observation area. All of these, except for Wildwater Kingdom, closed in 2007.

Animals at SeaWorld[edit]

Takara demonstrating a breaching move during the Believe show at SeaWorld Orlando.

SeaWorld's main attraction are its orcas, several of which are housed in 7-million-gallon habitats that are each known as Shamu Stadium. Shamu was the name of the first orca brought to SeaWorld San Diego in the 1960s from the Seattle Marine Aquarium. 'Shamu' is now used as a stage name for orcas in performances at SeaWorld parks. Currently, SeaWorld houses 23 orcas in its three parks.

  • Ten orcas live at Seaworld San Diego: Corky, Kasatka, Ulises, Orkid, Nakai, Ikaika, Kalia, Keet, Shouka, and Makani.
  • Seven orcas live at SeaWorld Orlando: Katina, Tilikum, Kayla, Trua, Nalani, Makaio, and Malia.
  • Six orcas live at SeaWorld San Antonio: Kyuquot, Unna, Takara, Sakari,[20] Tuar, and Kamea.
  • SeaWorld also has five orcas on breeding loan: Keto, Tekoa, Kohana, Skyla, and Adan.

Lists of other animals that can be found at each SeaWorld park can be found on each park's individual pages (SeaWorld San Diego, SeaWorld Orlando and SeaWorld San Antonio).

Animal rescue and rehabilitation program[edit]

SeaWorld operates its conservation program in cooperation with the Department of the Interior, National Marine Fisheries Service and state agencies; its rescue and rehabilitation program was developed to comply with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and the Endangered Species Act of 1973.[21] Since its inception SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment has rescued or helped more than 23,000 animals, including ill, orphaned or abandoned and injured manatees, dolphins, pilot whales, sea turtles, and birds.[22] As part of its animal rehabilitation program, SeaWorld has claimed the first birth of a killer whale in captivity, the first birth of a marine mammal via artificial insemination, and the first hatching of captive green sea turtles.[23] While acknowledging the value of these programs, critics and animal rights advocates have questioned SeaWorld's balance of conservation and education alongside the commercial activities of its theme parks.[24]

Criticism[edit]

Dolphins gesture language

Captivity, treatment, and occupational hazard issues[edit]

Organizations such as World Animal Protection and the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society campaign against the captivity of dolphins and killer whales; SeaWorld, which holds most of the world's captive killer whales, is cited for its role.

Aggression in captivity among orcas is not uncommon. In August 1989, a dominant female killer whale, Kandu V, tried to rake a newcomer killer whale, Corky II, with her mouth during a live show.[25] In February 2010, an experienced female trainer at SeaWorld Orlando, Dawn Brancheau, was killed by killer whale Tilikum shortly after a show in Shamu Stadium.[26] The whale had been associated with the deaths of two people previously.[25][27] In May 2012 Occupational Safety and Health Administration administrative law judge Ken Welsch cited SeaWorld for two violations in the death of Dawn Brancheau and fined the company a total of $12,000.[28] Trainers were banned from making close contact with the whales, but SeaWorld appealed his decision in November 2013.[29] In April 2014 the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia denied their appeal.[30]

The animals are now obtained through breeding including artificial insemination, loans, and purchases from other marine parks around the world.

In 2013, SeaWorld's treatment of orcas in captivity was the basis of the documentary Blackfish, which documents the history of Tilikum, an orca held by SeaWorld Orlando who has been involved in the deaths of three people.[31] In the aftermath of the release of the film, Martina McBride, 38 Special, REO Speedwagon, Cheap Trick, Heart, Barenaked Ladies, Trisha Yearwood, and Willie Nelson canceled scheduled concerts at SeaWorld parks.[32][33] SeaWorld disputes the accuracy of the film and in December 2013 released an ad countering the allegations and emphasizing its contributions to the study of whales and their conservation.[34]

In August 2014, SeaWorld announced it was building new orca tanks that would be almost double the size of the existing ones to provide more space for its whales. The company maintained the move was not in response to the release of the Blackfish documentary. A "larger prison is still a prison," was the response of PETA which opposes whales being kept in captivity and has proposed the theme park operator base its whales in seaside sanctuaries.[35]

Alleged drive hunt captures[edit]

In response to criticism leveled at SeaWorld and other marine parks by the award-winning documentary film The Cove which accuses them of obtaining dolphins obtained in drive hunts, SeaWorld spokesperson Fred Jacobs stated that, "We think we're being unfairly criticized for something we're opposed to."[36] He adds that, "SeaWorld opposes the dolphin hunts documented in The Cove. We do not purchase any animals from these hunts. More than 80 percent of the marine mammals in our care were born in our parks. We haven't collected a dolphin from the wild in decades."[37] Since 1993 there have been no permits issued to facilities in the United States to import dolphins acquired through drive hunt methods.[38] Marilee Menard, the executive director of the Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums, has also stated that she believes that The Cove filmmakers are "misrepresenting that the majority of zoos and aquariums with dolphins around the world are taking these animals."[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barkham, Patrick (December 11, 2013). "Blackfish, SeaWorld and the backlash against killer whale theme park shows". The Guardian. 
  2. ^ Dezember, Ryan (April 22, 2013). "The Many Ways Blackstone Made Money on SeaWorld’s IPO". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  3. ^ AZA Accreditation List 
  4. ^ "Milton Shedd, 79, Co-Founder of SeaWorld". The New York Times. May 28, 2002. Retrieved June 4, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Watch, Touch and Explore at SeaWorld". The Evening Independent. June 13, 1974. Retrieved June 4, 2009. 
  6. ^ Markowitz, Jack (July 27, 1972). "SeaWorld: Whales in Blue-Collar Land". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 4, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b "1988: San Antonio welcomes Shamu and SeaWorld". 
  8. ^ Bachelder, Maryemma (February 24, 1995). "A history of the gardens". The Ledger. Retrieved June 4, 2009. 
  9. ^ Pedicini, Sandra (Aug 15, 2014). "SeaWorld to expand killer-whale habitat at its parks". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "Theme park history: A short history of SeaWorld Orlando". 
  11. ^ http://touch.orlandosentinel.com/#section/-1/article/p2p-81034352/
  12. ^ Bevil, Dewayne (May 21, 2009). "Weekend outlook: Star Wars Weekends, SeaWorld After Dark, 5th Dimension, Mr. Potato Head". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  13. ^ http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2014-06-26/travel/os-dewayne-bevil-seaworld-orlando-shamu-show-20140626_1_oldest-killer-whale-seaworld-orlando-splash-zone
  14. ^ Hayes, Thomas C. (June 19, 1988). "Texas Picks Up the Pieces". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  15. ^ Hayes, Thomas C. (August 14, 1989). "Harcourt Near Sale of SeaWorld". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Steel Eel, SeaWorld San Antonio". Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  17. ^ C'mon in, Shamu: The Dubai water is fine, retrieved July 14, 2008,
  18. ^ Dubai Busch Gardens, SeaWorld plans canceled
  19. ^ SeaWorld strikes tentative deal for theme park in Middle East 
  20. ^ "‘Baby Shamu’ killer whale born at SeaWorld San Antonio". 
  21. ^ Hillard, James M. Aquariums of North America: A Guidebook to Appreciating North America's Aquatic Treasures, p. 50. Scarecrow Press, Jan 1, 1995 ISBN 9780810829237
  22. ^ "SeaWorld rescues week-old manatee". Bay News 13. April 25, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2013. 
  23. ^ Edwards, Larry M. Looking Back and Ahead. San Diego Magazine, December 2004, p. 78
  24. ^ San Diego Magazine, p. 79
  25. ^ a b Parsons, E. C. M. (2012). "Killer Whale Killers". Tourism in Marine Environments 8 (3): 153–160. doi:10.3727/154427312X13491835451494.  edit
  26. ^ "SeaWorld trainer killed by killer whale". CNN. February 25, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  27. ^ Garcia, Jason; Jacobson, Susan (February 25, 2010). "Animal trainer killed at SeaWorld". Los Angeles Times. 
  28. ^ "Secretary of Labor, Complainant v. SeaWorld of Florida - Decision and Order". Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2012. 
  29. ^ Karlamangla, Soumya (November 13, 2013). "Killer whales: Court weighs lifting ban on trainer-orca contact". Los Angeles Times. 
  30. ^ SeaWorld appeal of OSHA citations denied 
  31. ^ Whiting, Candace Calloway. In the Wake of Blackfish -- Is it Time to Retire the Last Killer Whale Whose Capture Was Shown in the Film?", TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc., October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  32. ^ "Martina McBride, 38 Special, cancel SeaWorld gig over 'Blackfish' - CNN.com". CNN. December 16, 2013. 
  33. ^ Streisand, Elizabeth Durand, "Bands Back Out of SeaWorld Concerts Because of 'Blackfish'" Yahoo! News December 9, 2013
  34. ^ Bazzle, Steph (December 20, 2013). "SeaWorld Tries to Combat Animal Abuse Allegations". Indyposted. Retrieved December 26, 2013. 
  35. ^ "SeaWorld to redesign tank for Killer Whales amid public criticism". The Orlando News.Net. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  36. ^ a b Mieszkowski, Katharine (August 7, 2009), "Dolphins Are Dying to Amuse Us", Salon, retrieved June 7, 2011 
  37. ^ "The Cove's Shocking Discovery", The Oprah Winfrey Show, April 22, 2010, retrieved June 7, 2011 
  38. ^ Rose, Naomi A.; E.C.M. Parsons, and Richard Farinato (2009). "The Case Against Marine Mammals in Captivity". The Humane Society of the United States and World Animal Protection. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 32°45′57″N 117°13′35″W / 32.7657°N 117.2263°W / 32.7657; -117.2263