Sealant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Sealand.
Self-leveling silicone firestop system used around pipe through-penetration in a two-hour fire-resistance rated concrete floor assembly.

Sealants are typically lower strength, yet flexible, bonding agents used between substrates of differing physical properties to form a seal between the materials.

Function[edit]

Sealants, despite not having great strength, convey a number of properties. They seal top structures to the substrate, and are particularly effective in waterproofing processes by keeping moisture out (or in) the components in which they are used. They can provide thermal and acoustical insulation, and may serve as fire barriers. They may have electrical properties, as well. Sealants can also be used for simple smoothing or filling. They are often called upon to perform several of these functions at once.

A corking sealant has three basic functions: It fills a gap between two or more substrates; it forms a barrier through the physical properties of the sealant itself and by adhesion to the substrate; and, it maintains sealing properties for the expected lifetime, service conditions, and environments. The sealant performs these functions by way of correct formulation to achieve specific application and performance properties. Other than adhesives, however, there are few functional alternatives to the sealing process. Soldering or welding can perhaps be used as alternatives in certain instances, depending on the substrates and the relative movement that the substrates will see in service. However, the simplicity and reliability offered by organic elastomers usually make them the clear choice for performing these functions.

Types of sealants[edit]

A sealant may be viscous material that has little or no flow characteristics and which stay where they are applied; or they can be thin and runny so as to allow it to penetrate the substrate by means of capillary action. Anaerobic acrylic sealants (generally referred to as impregnants) are the most desirable, as they are required to cure in the absence of air, unlike surface sealants that require air as part of the cure mechanism that changes state to become solid, once applied, and is used to prevent the penetration of air, gas, noise, dust, fire, smoke, or liquid from one location through a barrier into another. Typically, sealants are used to close small openings that are difficult to shut with other materials, such as concrete, drywall, etc. Desirable properties of sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, and adhesion. Uses of sealants vary widely and sealants are used in many industries, for example, construction, automotive and aerospace industries.

Types of sealants fall between the higher-strength, adhesive-derived sealers and coatings at one end, and extremely low-strength putties, waxes, and caulks at the other. Putties and caulks serve only one function – i.e., to take up space and fill voids. Silicone is an example of a sealant.

Common areas of use[edit]

  • Asphalt
  • Pipe threads
  • Aerospace industry
  • Aircraft
  • Aquariums
  • Car
  • Casting
  • Cement/Concrete
  • Engines
  • Gaskets
  • Glass
  • HVAC systems
  • Hydraulic systems
  • Marine industry
  • Military grade
  • Radiators
  • Reservoirs
  • Roofs
  • Tires
  • Wood

Comparison with adhesives[edit]

The main difference between adhesives and sealants is that sealants typically have lower strength and higher elongation than adhesives do. When sealants are used between substrates having different thermal coefficients of expansion or differing elongation under stress, they need to have adequate flexibility and elongation. Sealants generally contain inert filler material and are usually formulated with an elastomer to give the required flexibility and elongation. They usually have a paste consistency to allow filling of gaps between substrates. Low shrinkage after application is often required. Many adhesive technologies can be formulated into sealants.

References[edit]