|City of Seattle|
Downtown Seattle from Queen Anne Hill
|Nickname(s): The Emerald City / The Jet City|
|Motto: The City of Flowers / The City of Goodwill|
Location of Seattle in
King County and Washington
|Incorporated||December 2, 1869|
|• Body||Seattle City Council|
|• Mayor||Ed Murray|
|• Deputy mayor||Hyeok Kim and Kate Joncas|
|• City||142.5 sq mi (369.2 km2)|
|• Land||83.87 sq mi (217.2 km2)|
|• Water||58.67 sq mi (152.0 km2)|
|• Metro||8,186 sq mi (21,202 km2)|
|Elevation||0–520 ft (0–158 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||652,405|
|• Rank||US: 21st|
|• Density||7,774/sq mi (3,002/km2)|
|• Urban||3,059,393 (US: 14th)|
|• Metro||3,610,105 (US: 15th)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature ID||1512650|
Seattle (i// see-AT-əl) is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and, as of July 2013, the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.
The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.
Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.
Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District, to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Professional sports
- 7 Recreation and parks
- 8 Government and politics
- 9 Education
- 10 Media
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Sister cities
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Bibliography
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people (subsequently called the Duwamish tribe) occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River; they formally claimed it on September 14, 1851. Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851. The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, Oregon and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851.
After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and founded the village of "Dewamps" or "Duwamps" on the site of present day Pioneer Square. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and established a village they initially called "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning, roughly, "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson ("Doc") Maynard, one of Duwamps's founders, was the primary advocate to rename the village "Seattle" after Chief Sealth ("Seattle") of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city. The town of Seattle remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated with a Mayor-council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869".
Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure.
The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, rode on the lumber industry. (During this period the road now known as Yesler Way won the nickname "Skid Road", supposedly after the timber skidding down the hill to Henry Yesler's sawmill. The later dereliction of the area may be a possible origin for the term which later entered the wider American lexicon as Skid Row.) Like much of the American West, Seattle saw numerous conflicts between labor and management, as well as ethnic tensions that culminated in the anti-Chinese riots of 1885–1886. This violence originated with unemployed whites who were determined to drive the Chinese from Seattle (anti-Chinese riots also occurred in Tacoma). In 1900, Asians were 4.2% of the population. Authorities declared martial law and federal troops arrived to put down the disorder. Nevertheless, the economic success in the Seattle area was so great that when the Great Seattle fire of 1889 destroyed the central business district, a far grander city-center rapidly emerged in its place. Finance company Washington Mutual, for example, was founded in the immediate wake of the fire. This boom was followed by the construction of a park system, designed by the Olmsted brothers' landscape architecture firm. However, the Panic of 1893 hit Seattle hard.
Gold Rush, World War I, and the Great Depression
The second and most dramatic boom and bust resulted from the Klondike Gold Rush, which ended the depression that had begun with the Panic of 1893; in a short time, Seattle became a major transportation center. On July 14, 1897, the S.S. Portland docked with its famed "ton of gold", and Seattle became the main transport and supply point for the miners in Alaska and the Yukon. Few of those working men found lasting wealth, however; it was Seattle's business of clothing the miners and feeding them salmon that panned out in the long run. Along with Seattle, other cities like Everett, Tacoma, Port Townsend, Bremerton, and Olympia, all in the Puget Sound region, became competitors for exchange, rather than mother lodes for extraction, of precious metals. The boom lasted well into the early part of the 20th century and funded many new Seattle companies and products. In 1907, 19-year-old James E. Casey borrowed $100 from a friend and founded the American Messenger Company (later UPS). Other Seattle companies founded during this period include Nordstrom and Eddie Bauer. The Gold Rush era culminated in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909, which is largely responsible for the layout of today's University of Washington campus.
A shipbuilding boom in the early part of the 20th century became massive during World War I, making Seattle somewhat of a company town; the subsequent retrenchment led to the Seattle General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in the country. A 1912 city development plan by Virgil Bogue went largely unused. Seattle was mildly prosperous in the 1920s but was particularly hard hit in the Great Depression, experiencing some of the country's harshest labor strife in that era. Violence during the Maritime Strike of 1934 cost Seattle much of its maritime traffic, which was rerouted to the Port of Los Angeles.
Seattle was also the home base of impresario Alexander Pantages who, starting in 1902, opened a number of theaters in the city exhibiting vaudeville acts and silent movies. His activities soon expanded, and the thrifty Greek went on and became one of America's greatest theater and movie tycoons. Between Pantages and his rival John Considine, Seattle was for a while the western United States' vaudeville mecca. B. Marcus Priteca, the Scottish-born and Seattle-based architect, built several theaters for Pantages, including some in Seattle. The theaters he built for Pantages in Seattle have been either demolished or converted to other uses, but many other theaters survive in other cities of the U.S., often retaining the Pantages name; Seattle's surviving Paramount Theatre, on which he collaborated, was not a Pantages theater.
Post-war years: aircraft and software
War work again brought local prosperity during World War II, this time centered on Boeing aircraft. The war dispersed the city's numerous Japanese-American businessmen due to the Japanese American internment. After the war, the local economy dipped. It rose again with Boeing's growing dominance in the commercial airliner market. Seattle celebrated its restored prosperity and made a bid for world recognition with the Century 21 Exposition, the 1962 World's Fair. Another major local economic downturn was in the late 1960s and early 1970s, at a time when Boeing was heavily affected by the oil crises, loss of Government contracts, and costs and delays associated with the Boeing 747. Many people left the area to look for work elsewhere, and two local real estate agents put up a billboard reading "Will the last person leaving Seattle – Turn out the lights."
Seattle remained the corporate headquarters of Boeing until 2001, when the company separated its headquarters from its major production facilities; the headquarters were moved to Chicago. The Seattle area is still home to Boeing's Renton narrow-body plant (where the 707, 720, 727, and 757 were assembled, and the 737 is assembled today) and Everett wide-body plant (assembly plant for the 747, 767, 777, and 787). The company's credit union for employees, BECU, remains based in the Seattle area, though it is now open to all residents of Washington.
As prosperity began to return in the 1980s, the city was stunned by the Wah Mee massacre in 1983, when 13 people were killed in an illegal gambling club in the International District, Seattle's Chinatown. Beginning with Microsoft's 1979 move from Albuquerque, New Mexico to nearby Bellevue, Washington, Seattle and its suburbs became home to a number of technology companies including Amazon.com, RealNetworks, Nintendo of America, McCaw Cellular (now part of AT&T Mobility), VoiceStream (now T-Mobile), and biomedical corporations such as HeartStream (later purchased by Philips), Heart Technologies (later purchased by Boston Scientific), Physio-Control (later purchased by Medtronic), ZymoGenetics, ICOS (later purchased by Eli Lilly and Company) and Immunex (later purchased by Amgen). This success brought an influx of new residents with a population increase within city limits of almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000, and saw Seattle's real estate become some of the most expensive in the country. Many of the Seattle area's tech companies remain relatively strong, but the frenzied dot-com boom years ended in early 2001.
Seattle in this period attracted widespread attention as home to these many companies, but also by hosting the 1990 Goodwill Games and the APEC leaders conference in 1993, as well as through the worldwide popularity of grunge, a sound that had developed in Seattle's independent music scene. Another bid for worldwide attention—hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999—garnered visibility, but not in the way its sponsors desired, as related protest activity and police reactions to those protests overshadowed the conference itself. The city was further shaken by the Mardi Gras Riots in 2001, and then literally shaken the following day by the Nisqually Earthquake.
With a total area of 83.9 square miles, Seattle is the northernmost city with at least 500,000 people in the United States, further north than Canadian cities such as Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal, at about the same latitude as Salzburg, Austria.
The topography of Seattle is hilly. The city lies on several hills, including Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Magnolia, Denny Hill, and Queen Anne. The Kitsap and the Olympic peninsulas along with the Olympic mountains lie to the west of Puget Sound, while the Cascade Range and Lake Sammamish lie to the east of Lake Washington. The city has over 5,540 acres (2,242 ha) of parkland.
Seattle is located between the saltwater Puget Sound (an arm of the Pacific Ocean) to the west and Lake Washington to the east. The city's chief harbor, Elliott Bay, is part of Puget Sound, which makes the city an oceanic port. To the west, beyond Puget Sound, are the Kitsap Peninsula and Olympic Mountains on the Olympic Peninsula; to the east, beyond Lake Washington and the eastside suburbs, are Lake Sammamish and the Cascade Range. Lake Washington's waters flow to Puget Sound through the Lake Washington Ship Canal (consisting of two man-made canals, Lake Union, and the Hiram M. Chittenden Locks at Salmon Bay, ending in Shilshole Bay on Puget Sound).
The sea, rivers, forests, lakes, and fields surrounding Seattle were once rich enough to support one of the world's few sedentary hunter-gatherer societies. The surrounding area lends itself well to sailing, skiing, bicycling, camping, and hiking year-round.
The city itself is hilly, though not uniformly so. Like Rome, the city is said to lie on seven hills; the lists vary, but typically include Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Queen Anne, Magnolia, and the former Denny Hill. The Wallingford, Mount Baker, and Crown Hill neighborhoods are technically located on hills as well. Many of the hilliest areas are near the city center, with Capitol Hill, First Hill, and Beacon Hill collectively constituting something of a ridge along an isthmus between Elliott Bay and Lake Washington. The break in the ridge between First Hill and Beacon Hill is man-made, the result of two of the many regrading projects that reshaped the topography of the city center. The topography of the city center was also changed by the construction of a seawall and the artificial Harbor Island (completed 1909) at the mouth of the city's industrial Duwamish Waterway, the terminus of the Green River. The highest point within city limits is at High Point in West Seattle, which is roughly located near 35th Ave SW and SW Myrtle St. Other notable hills include Crown Hill, View Ridge/Wedgwood/Bryant, Maple Leaf, Phinney Ridge, Mt. Baker Ridge and Highlands/Carkeek/Bitterlake.
Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Seattle is in a major earthquake zone. On February 28, 2001, the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquake did significant architectural damage, especially in the Pioneer Square area (built on reclaimed land, as are the Industrial District and part of the city center), but caused only one fatality. Other strong quakes occurred on January 26, 1700 (estimated at 9 magnitude), December 14, 1872 (7.3 or 7.4), April 13, 1949 (7.1), and April 29, 1965 (6.5). The 1965 quake caused three deaths in Seattle directly, and one more by heart failure. Although the Seattle Fault passes just south of the city center, neither it nor the Cascadia subduction zone has caused an earthquake since the city's founding. The Cascadia subduction zone poses the threat of an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater, capable of seriously damaging the city and collapsing many buildings, especially in zones built on fill.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.5 square miles (369 km2), 83.9 square miles (217 km2) of which is land and 58.7 square miles (152 km2) water (41.16% of the total area).
||Bainbridge Island||Shoreline||Lake Forest Park|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Seattle's climate is usually described as oceanic or temperate marine, with cool, wet winters and very warm and dry summers. Like much of the Pacific Northwest, according to the Köppen climate classification it has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb). Other climate classification systems, such as Trewartha, place it firmly in the Oceanic zone (Do), like much of Western Europe. The city and environs are part of USDA hardiness zone 8b, with isolated coastal pockets falling under 9a.
Temperature extremes are moderated by the adjacent Puget Sound, greater Pacific Ocean, and Lake Washington. The region is largely denied Pacific storms by the Olympic Mountains and Arctic air by the Cascade Range. Despite being on the margin of the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, the city has a misleading reputation for frequent rain. This reputation stems from the frequency of light precipitation in the fall, winter, and spring. In an average year, at least 0.01 inches (0.25 mm) of precipitation falls on 150 days, more than nearly all U.S. cities east of the Rocky Mountains. It is cloudy 201 days out of the year and partly cloudy 93 days. The location of official weather and climatic records, the Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, is located about 19 km (12 mi) south of downtown in the city of SeaTac and at a higher elevation, and records more cloudy days and fewer partly cloudy days per year.
At 37.41 in (950 mm), Seattle receives less total precipitation annually than almost the entire Eastern Seaboard of the U.S.; annual precipitation at SeaTac Airport has ranged from 23.78 in (604 mm) in 1952 to 55.14 in (1,401 mm) in 1950; for water year (October 1–September 30) precipitation, the range is 23.16 in (588 mm) in 1976–77 to 51.82 in (1,316 mm) in 1996–97. Due to local variations in microclimate, Seattle proper also receives significantly less precipitation than some other locations west of the Cascades. Around 80 mi (129 km) to the west, the Hoh Rain Forest in Olympic National Park on the western flank of the Olympic Mountains receives an annual average precipitation of 142 in (3.61 m). Sixty miles to the south of Seattle, the state capital Olympia, which is out of the Olympic Mountains' rain shadow, receives an annual average precipitation of 50 in (1,270 mm). The city of Bremerton, about 15 mi (24 km) west of downtown Seattle, receives 56.4 in (1,430 mm) of precipitation annually.
Seattle receives the largest amount of rainfall of any U.S. city of more than 250,000 people in November, and is in the top 10 through winter, but is in the lowest tier of all cities from June to September. Seattle is in the top 5 rainiest major U.S. cities by number of precipitation days, and it receives among the least amount of annual sunlight of all major cities in the lower 48 states, with cities in the Northeast, Ohio and Michigan receiving about the same amount annually. Thunderstorms are rare, as the city reports thunder on just seven days per year. By comparison, Fort Myers, Florida reports thunder on 93 days per year, Kansas City on 52, and New York City on 25.
Seattle experiences its heaviest rainfall during the months of November, December and January, receiving roughly half of its annual rainfall (by volume) during this period. In late fall/early winter, atmospheric rivers (also known as "Pineapple Express" systems), strong frontal systems, and Pacific low pressure systems are common. Light rain & drizzle are the predominant forms of precipitation during the remainder of the year; for instance, on average, less than 1.6 in (41 mm) of rain falls in July and August combined when rain is rare. On occasion, Seattle experiences somewhat more significant weather events. One such event occurred on December 2–4, 2007, when sustained hurricane-force winds and widespread heavy rainfall associated with a strong Pineapple Express event occurred in the greater Puget Sound area and the western parts of Washington and Oregon. Precipitation totals exceeded 13.8 in (350 mm) in some areas with winds topping out at 209 km/h (130 mph) along coastal Oregon. It became the second wettest event in Seattle history when a little over 130 mm (5.1 in) of rain fell on Seattle in a 24-hour period. Lack of adaptation to the heavy rain contributed to five deaths and widespread flooding and damage.
Autumn, winter, and early spring are frequently characterized by rain. Winters are cool and wet with December, the coolest month, averaging 40.6 °F (4.8 °C), with 28 annual days with lows that reach the freezing mark, and 2.0 days where the temperature stays at or below freezing all day; the temperature rarely lowers to 20 °F (−7 °C). Summers are sunny, dry and warm to hot, with August, the warmest month, averaging 66.1 °F (18.9 °C), and with temperatures reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on 3.1 days per year, although 2011 is the most recent year to not reach 90 °F. The hottest officially recorded temperature was 103 °F (39 °C) on July 29, 2009; the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °F (−18 °C) on January 31, 1950; the record cold daily maximum is 16 °F (−9 °C) on January 14, 1950, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 71 °F (22 °C) the day the official record high was set. The average window for freezing temperatures is November 16 thru March 10, allowing a growing season of 250 days.
Seattle typically receives some snowfall on an annual basis but heavy snow is rare. Average annual snowfall, as measured at Sea-Tac Airport, is 6.8 inches (17.3 cm). Single calendar-day snowfall of six inches or greater has occurred on only 15 days since 1948, and only once since February 17, 1990, when 6.8 in (17.3 cm) of snow officially fell at Sea-Tac airport on January 18, 2012. This moderate snow event was officially the 12th snowiest calendar day at the airport since 1948 and snowiest since November 1985. Much of the city of Seattle proper received somewhat lesser snowfall accumulations. Locations to the south of Seattle received more, with Olympia and Chehalis receiving 14 to 18 in (36 to 46 cm). Another moderate snow event occurred from December 12–25, 2008, when over one foot (30 cm) of snow fell and stuck on much of the roads over those two weeks, when temperatures remained below 32 °F (0 °C), causing widespread difficulties in a city not equipped for clearing snow. The largest documented snowstorm occurred from January 5–9, 1880, with snow drifting to 6 feet (1.8 m) in places at the end of the snow event. From January 31 to February 2, 1916, another heavy snow event occurred with 29 in (74 cm) of snow on the ground by the time the event was over. With official records dating to 1948, the largest single-day snowfall is 20.0 in (51 cm) on January 13, 1950. Seasonal snowfall has ranged from zero in 1991–92 to 67.5 in (171 cm) in 1968–69, with trace amounts having occurred as recently as 2009–10. The month of January 1950 was particularly severe, bringing 57.2 in (145 cm) of snow, the most of any month along with the aforementioned record cold.
The Puget Sound Convergence Zone is an important feature of Seattle's weather. In the convergence zone, air arriving from the north meets air flowing in from the south. Both streams of air originate over the Pacific Ocean; airflow is split by the Olympic Mountains to Seattle's west, then reunited to the east. When the air currents meet, they are forced upward, resulting in convection. Primarily weak thunderstorms caused by this activity can occur north and south of town, but Seattle itself rarely receives more weather than occasional thunder and small hail showers. The Hanukkah Eve Wind Storm in December 2006 is an exception that brought heavy rain and winds gusting up to 69 mph (111 km/h), a widespread event across the Pacific Northwest.
One of many exceptions to Seattle's reputation as a damp location occurs in El Niño years, when marine weather systems track as far south as California and little precipitation falls in the Puget Sound area. Since the region's water comes from mountain snow packs during the dry summer months, El Niño winters can not only produce substandard skiing but can result in water rationing and a shortage of hydroelectric power the following summer.
|Climate data for Seattle (SeaTac Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1948–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||64
|Average high °F (°C)||47.2
|Daily mean °F (°C)||42.0
|Average low °F (°C)||36.9
|Record low °F (°C)||0
|Precipitation inches (mm)||5.57
|Snowfall inches (cm)||1.4
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||18.2||14.7||16.9||14.3||12.0||9.1||5.0||4.8||7.9||13.1||18.4||17.6||152.0|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||1.3||0.9||0.5||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.3||1.6||4.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||69.8||108.8||178.4||207.3||253.7||268.4||312.0||281.4||221.7||142.6||72.7||52.9||2,169.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||25||38||48||51||54||56||65||64||59||42||26||20||49|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
|Black or African American||7.9%||10.1%||7.1%||1.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||6.6%||3.6%||2.0%||n/a|
|Two or more races||5.1%||n/a||n/a||n/a|
- White: 69.5% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 66.3%)
- Asian: 13.8% (4.1% Chinese, 2.6% Filipino, 2.2% Vietnamese, 1.3% Japanese, 1.1% Korean, 0.8% Indian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.3% Laotian, 0.2% Pakistanis, 0.2% Indonesian, 0.2% Thai)
- Black or African American: 7.9%
- Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 6.6% (4.1% Mexican, 0.3% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Guatemalan, 0.2% Salvadoran, 0.2% Cuban)
- American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.8%
- Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.4%
- Other race: 2.4%
- Two or more races: 5.1%
Seattle's population historically has been predominantly white. The 2010 census showed that Seattle was one of the whitest big cities in the country, but the percentage of whites is lower than that of the nation as a whole and has been gradually declining. In 1960, whites comprised 91.6% of the city's population, but by 2010 the percentage of whites had shrunk to 69.5%, as compared with a national average of 72.4%. According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, approximately 78.9% of residents over the age of five spoke only English at home. Those who spoke Asian languages other than Indo-European languages made up 10.2% of the population, Spanish was spoken by 4.5% of the population, speakers of other Indo-European languages made up 3.9%, and speakers of other languages made up 2.5%.
Seattle's foreign-born population grew 40% between the 1990 and 2000 censuses. The Chinese population in the Seattle area has origins in mainland China, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan. The earliest Chinese-Americans that came in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were almost entirely from Guangdong province. The Seattle area is also home to a large Vietnamese population of more than 55,000 residents, as well as over 30,000 Somali immigrants. The Seattle-Tacoma area is also home to one of the largest Cambodian communities in the United States, numbering about 19,000 Cambodian Americans, and one of the largest Samoan communities in the mainland U.S., with over 15,000 people having Samoan ancestry. Additionally, the Seattle area had the highest percentage of self-identified mixed-race people of any large metropolitan area in the United States, according to the 2000 United States Census Bureau. According to a 2012 HistoryLink study, Seattle's 98118 zip code (in the Columbia City neighbourhood) was one of the most diverse ZIP Code Tabulation Areas in the United States.
In 1999, the median income of a city household was $45,736, and the median income for a family was $62,195. Males had a median income of $40,929 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,306. 11.8% of the population and 6.9% of families are below the poverty line. Of people living in poverty, 13.8% are under the age of 18 and 10.2% are 65 or older.
It is estimated that King County has 8,000 homeless people on any given night, and many of those live in Seattle. In September 2005, King County adopted a "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness", one of the near-term results of which is a shift of funding from homeless shelter beds to permanent housing.
In recent years, the city has seen steady population growth, and has been faced with the issue of accommodating more residents. In 2006, after growing by 4,000 citizens per year for the previous 16 years, regional planners expected the population of Seattle to grow by 200,000 people by 2040. However, former mayor Greg Nickels supported plans that would increase the population by 60%, or 350,000 people, by 2040 and worked on ways to accommodate this growth while keeping Seattle's single-family housing zoning laws. The Seattle City Council later voted to relax height limits on buildings in the greater part of Downtown, partly with the aim to increase residential density in the city centre. As a sign of increasing inner-city growth, the downtown population crested to over 60,000 in 2009, up 77% since 1990.
Seattle also has large lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. A 2006 study by UCLA indicated that the city has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita in the United States. With 12.9% of citizens polled identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, the city ranks second of all major U.S. cities, behind San Francisco and slightly ahead of Atlanta and Minneapolis. Greater Seattle also ranks second among major U.S. metropolitan areas, with 6.5% of the population being gay, lesbian, or bisexual. According to 2012 estimates from the United States Census Bureau, Seattle has the highest percentage of same-sex households in the United States, at 2.6 per cent, surpassing San Francisco.
In addition, Seattle has a relatively high number of people living alone. According to the 2000 U.S. Census interim measurements of 2004, Seattle has the fifth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, at 40.8%.
Seattle's economy is driven by a mix of older industrial companies, and "new economy" Internet and technology companies, service, design and clean technology companies. The city's gross metropolitan product was $231 billion in 2010, making it the 12th largest metropolitan economy in the United States. The Port of Seattle, which also operates Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, is a major gateway for trade with Asia and cruises to Alaska, and is the 8th largest port in the United States in terms of container capacity. Though it was affected by the Great Recession, Seattle has retained a comparatively strong economy, and remains a hotbed for start-up businesses, especially in green building and clean technologies: it was ranked as America's No. 1 "smarter city" based on its government policies and green economy. February 2010, the city government committed Seattle to becoming North America's first "climate neutral" city, with a goal of reaching zero net per capita greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.
Still, very large companies dominate the business landscape. Four companies on the 2013 Fortune 500 list of the United States' largest companies, based on total revenue, are headquartered in Seattle: Internet retailer Amazon.com (#49), coffee chain Starbucks (#208), department store Nordstrom (#227), and freight forwarder Expeditors International of Washington (#428). Other Fortune 500 companies popularly associated with Seattle are based in nearby Puget Sound cities. Warehouse club chain Costco (#22), the largest retail company in Washington, is based in Issaquah. Microsoft (#35) is located in Redmond. Weyerhaeuser, the forest products company (#363), is based in Federal Way. Finally, Bellevue is home to truck manufacturer Paccar (#168). Other major companies in the area include Nintendo of America in Redmond, T-Mobile US in Bellevue, Expedia Inc. in Bellevue and Providence Health & Services — the state's largest health care system and fifth largest employer — in Renton. The city has a reputation for heavy coffee consumption; coffee companies founded or based in Seattle include Starbucks, Seattle's Best Coffee, and Tully's. There are also many successful independent artisanal espresso roasters and cafés.
Prior to moving its headquarters to Chicago, aerospace manufacturer Boeing (#30) was the largest company based in Seattle. Its largest division is still headquartered in nearby Renton, and the company has large aircraft manufacturing plants in Everett and Renton, so it remains the largest private employer in the Seattle metropolitan area. Former Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels announced a desire to spark a new economic boom driven by the biotechnology industry in 2006. Major redevelopment of the South Lake Union neighborhood is underway, in an effort to attract new and established biotech companies to the city, joining biotech companies Corixa (acquired by GlaxoSmithKline), Immunex (now part of Amgen), Trubion, and ZymoGenetics. Vulcan Inc., the holding company of billionaire Paul Allen, is behind most of the development projects in the region. While some see the new development as an economic boon, others have criticized Nickels and the Seattle City Council for pandering to Allen's interests at taxpayers' expense. Also in 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Seattle among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion. In 2005, Forbes ranked Seattle as the most expensive American city for buying a house based on the local income levels. In 2013, however, the magazine ranked Seattle No. 9 on its list of the Best Places for Business and Careers.
In January 2015, Elon Musk, the CEO of Space Exploration Industries (SpaceX), announced he would likely be hiring hundreds of engineers in the Seattle area for his ambitious space exploration related ventures—including traveling to, and possibly colonizing Mars using the company's re-usable rocket systems. This news comes at a time when Boeing has recently announced it will be re-locating thousands of aviation related engineering positions to other states.
From 1869 until 1982, Seattle was known as the "Queen City". Seattle's current official nickname is the "Emerald City", the result of a contest held in 1981; the reference is to the lush evergreen forests of the area. Seattle is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska" for being the nearest major city in the contiguous US to Alaska, "Rain City" for its frequent cloudy and rainy weather, and "Jet City" from the local influence of Boeing. The city has two official slogans or mottos: "The City of Flowers", meant to encourage the planting of flowers to beautify the city, and "The City of Goodwill", adopted prior to the 1990 Goodwill Games. Seattle residents are known as Seattleites.
Seattle has been a regional center for the performing arts for many years. The century-old Seattle Symphony Orchestra is among the world's most recorded and performs primarily at Benaroya Hall. The Seattle Opera and Pacific Northwest Ballet, which perform at McCaw Hall (opened 2003 on the site of the former Seattle Opera House at Seattle Center), are comparably distinguished, with the Opera being particularly known for its performances of the works of Richard Wagner and the PNB School (founded in 1974) ranking as one of the top three ballet training institutions in the United States. The Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras (SYSO) is the largest symphonic youth organization in the United States. The city also boasts lauded summer and winter chamber music festivals organized by the Seattle Chamber Music Society.
The 5th Avenue Theatre, built in 1926, stages Broadway-style musical shows featuring both local talent and international stars. Seattle has "around 100" theatrical production companies and over two dozen live theatre venues, many of them associated with fringe theatre; Seattle is probably second only to New York for number of equity theaters (28 Seattle theater companies have some sort of Actors' Equity contract). In addition, the 900-seat Romanesque Revival Town Hall on First Hill hosts numerous cultural events, especially lectures and recitals.
Seattle is considered the home of grunge music because it was home to artists such as Nirvana, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, and Mudhoney, all of whom reached vast audiences in the early 1990s. The city is also home to such varied musicians as avant-garde jazz musicians Bill Frisell and Wayne Horvitz, hot jazz musician Glenn Crytzer, rappers Sir Mix-a-Lot and Macklemore, smooth jazz saxophonist Kenny G, classic rock staple Heart, heavy metal bands Queensrÿche, Demon Hunter, Metal Church, Nevermore, Himsa, and Sunn O))), as well as such poppier rock bands as Harvey Danger, Goodness, and The Presidents of the United States of America. Such musicians as Jimi Hendrix, Duff McKagan, Nikki Sixx, and Quincy Jones spent their formative years in Seattle.
Since the grunge era, the area has hosted a diverse and influential alternative music scene. The Seattle record label Sub Pop—the first to sign Nirvana and Soundgarden—has signed such non-grunge bands as Foo Fighters, Band of Horses, Modest Mouse, Murder City Devils, Sunny Day Real Estate, Death Cab for Cutie, The Postal Service, Iron and Wine, Flight of the Conchords, and Fleet Foxes. Seattle also continues to have a lively hiphop scene with artists such as Blue Scholars, Macklemore, Fresh Espresso, and group Shabazz Palaces.
Earlier Seattle-based popular music acts include the collegiate folk group The Brothers Four; The Wailers, a 1960s garage band; The Ventures, an instrumental rock band; pop Young Fresh Fellows and The Posies; pop-punk The Fastbacks; the well-traveled avant-rock of Sun City Girls; and the outright punk of The Fartz (later 10 Minute Warning), The Gits.
Over the years, a number of songs have been written about Seattle.
Seattle annually sends a team of spoken word slammers to the National Poetry Slam and considers itself home to such performance poets as Buddy Wakefield, two-time Individual World Poetry Slam Champ; Anis Mojgani, two-time National Poetry Slam Champ; and Danny Sherrard, 2007 National Poetry Slam Champ and 2008 Individual World Poetry Slam Champ. Seattle also hosted the 2001 national Poetry Slam Tournament. The Seattle Poetry Festival is a biennial poetry festival that (launched first as the Poetry Circus in 1997) has featured local, regional, national, and international names in poetry.
The city also has movie houses showing both Hollywood productions and works by independent filmmakers. Among these, the Seattle Cinerama stands out as one of only three movie theaters in the world still capable of showing three-panel Cinerama films.
Among Seattle's prominent annual fairs and festivals are the 24-day Seattle International Film Festival, Northwest Folklife over the Memorial Day weekend, numerous Seafair events throughout July and August (ranging from a Bon Odori celebration to the Seafair Cup hydroplane races), the Bite of Seattle, one of the largest Gay Pride festivals in the United States, and the art and music festival Bumbershoot, which programs music as well as other art and entertainment over the Labor Day weekend. All are typically attended by 100,000 people annually, as are the Seattle Hempfest and two separate Independence Day celebrations.
Other significant events include numerous Native American pow-wows, a Greek Festival hosted by St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church in Montlake, and numerous ethnic festivals (many associated with Festál at Seattle Center).
There are other annual events, ranging from the Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair & Book Arts Show; an anime convention, Sakura-Con; Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention; a two-day, 9,000-rider Seattle to Portland Bicycle Classic, and specialized film festivals, such as the Maelstrom International Fantastic Film Festival, the Seattle Asian American Film Festival (formerly known as the Northwest Asian American Film Festival), Children's Film Festival Seattle, Translation: the Seattle Transgender Film Festival, the Seattle Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, and the Seattle Polish Film Festival.
The Henry Art Gallery opened in 1927, the first public art museum in Washington. The Seattle Art Museum (SAM) opened in 1933; SAM opened a museum downtown in 1991 (expanded and reopened 2007); since 1991, the 1933 building has been SAM's Seattle Asian Art Museum (SAAM). SAM also operates the Olympic Sculpture Park (opened 2007) on the waterfront north of the downtown piers. The Frye Art Museum is a free museum on First Hill. Regional history collections are at the Loghouse Museum in Alki, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, the Museum of History and Industry and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. Industry collections are at the Center for Wooden Boats and the adjacent Northwest Seaport, the Seattle Metropolitan Police Museum, and the Museum of Flight. Regional ethnic collections include the Nordic Heritage Museum, the Wing Luke Asian Museum and the Northwest African American Museum. Seattle has artist-run galleries, including 10-year veteran Soil Art Gallery, and the newer Crawl Space Gallery.
Woodland Park Zoo opened as a private menagerie in 1889, but was sold to the city in 1899. The Seattle Aquarium has been open on the downtown waterfront since 1977 (undergoing a renovation 2006). The Seattle Underground Tour is an exhibit of places that existed before the Great Fire.
The Seattle Great Wheel, one of the largest Ferris wheels in the U.S., opened in June 2012 as a new, permanent attraction on the city's waterfront, at Pier 57, next to Downtown Seattle. The city also has many community centers for recreation, including Rainier Beach, Van Asselt, Rainier, and Jefferson south of the Ship Canal and Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Loyal Heights north of the Canal, and Meadowbrook.
Since the middle 1990s, Seattle has experienced significant growth in the cruise industry, especially as a departure point for Alaska cruises. In 2008, a record total of 886,039 cruise passengers passed through the city, surpassing the number for Vancouver, BC, the other major departure point for Alaska cruises.
|Seattle Seahawks||American football||NFL||CenturyLink Field (67,000)||1976||1||68,174|
|Seattle Sounders FC||Soccer||MLS||CenturyLink Field (67,000)||2007||0||44,038|
|Seattle Mariners||Baseball||MLB||Safeco Field (47,500)||1977||0||21,747|
|Seattle Storm||Basketball||WNBA||KeyArena (17,000)||2000||2||7,486|
|Seattle Reign FC||Soccer||NWSL||Memorial Stadium (12,000)||2012||0||2,306|
Seattle has three major men's professional sports teams: the National Football League's Seattle Seahawks, Major League Baseball's Seattle Mariners, and Major League Soccer's Seattle Sounders FC. Other professional sports teams include the 2004 and 2010 Women's National Basketball Association champions, Seattle Storm. The Seahawks' CenturyLink Field has hosted playoff games in 2006, 2008, 2011 and 2014. The Seattle Seahawks have advanced to the Super Bowl three times (2005,2013 and 2014 seasons. They won the Super Bowl title in the 2013-2014 season and will play for another title against the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XLIX. The Seattle Sounders FC began play in Major League Soccer in 2009, and also play at CenturyLink Field.
Seattle's professional sports history began at the start of the 20th century with the PCHA's Seattle Metropolitans, which in 1917 became the first American hockey team to win the Stanley Cup. Seattle was also home to a previous Major League Baseball franchise in 1969: the Seattle Pilots. The team relocated to Milwaukee, Wisconsin and became the Milwaukee Brewers in 1970. From 1967 to 2008 Seattle was also home to an NBA franchise: the Seattle SuperSonics, who were the 1978–79 NBA champions. The team relocated to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and became the Oklahoma City Thunder for the 2008-09 NBA season.
The Major League Baseball All-Star Game was held in Seattle twice, first at the Kingdome in 1979 and again at Safeco Field in 2001. That same year, the Seattle Mariners tied the all-time single regular season wins record with 116 wins. The NBA All-Star game was also held in Seattle twice, the first in 1974 at the Seattle Center Coliseum and the second in 1987 at the Kingdome.
The Seattle Thunderbirds hockey team plays in the Canadian major-junior Western Hockey League and are based in the Seattle suburb of Kent. Seattle also boasts a strong history in collegiate sports. The University of Washington and Seattle University are NCAA Division I schools.
Recreation and parks
Seattle's mild, temperate marine climate allows year-round outdoor recreation, including walking, cycling, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, kayaking, rock climbing, motor boating, sailing, team sports, and swimming. In town, many people walk around Green Lake, through the forests and along the bluffs and beaches of 535-acre (2.2 km2) Discovery Park (the largest park in the city) in Magnolia, along the shores of Myrtle Edwards Park on the Downtown waterfront, along the shoreline of Lake Washington at Seward Park, along Alki Beach in West Seattle, or along the Burke-Gilman Trail. Also popular are hikes and skiing in the nearby Cascade or Olympic Mountains and kayaking and sailing in the waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia. In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Seattle the fittest city in the United States.
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land, reported that Seattle had the 20th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes acreage, access, and service and investment.
Government and politics
Seattle is a charter city, with a Mayor–Council form of government. Since 1911, Seattle's nine city councillors have been elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions. In 2015, this will change to a hybrid system of seven district members and two at large members as a result of a ballot measure passed on November 5, 2013. The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. All city offices are technically non-partisan. Like most parts of the United States, government and laws are also run by a series of ballot initiatives (whereby citizens can pass or reject laws), referenda (whereby citizens can approve or reject legislation already passed), and propositions (where specific government agencies can propose new laws/tax increases directly to the people). Federally, Seattle is part of Washington's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jim McDermott, elected in 1988 and one of Congress's liberal members. Ed Murray is currently serving as mayor.
Seattle's political culture is very liberal and progressive for the United States, with over 80% of the population voting for the Democratic Party. All precincts in Seattle voted for Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election. In partisan elections for the Washington State Legislature and United States Congress, nearly all elections are won by Democrats. Seattle is considered the first major American city to elect a female mayor, Bertha Knight Landes. It has also elected an openly gay mayor, Ed Murray, and a socialist councillor, Kshama Sawant.
Seattle is widely considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States, even surpassing its neighbor, Portland, Oregon. Support for issues such as same-sex marriage and reproductive rights are largely taken for granted in local politics. In the 2012 U.S. general election, an overwhelming majority of Seattleites voted to approve Referendum 74 and legalize gay marriage in Washington state. In the same election, an overwhelming majority of Seattleites also voted to approve the legalization of the recreational use of cannabis in the state. Like much of the Pacific Northwest (which has the lowest rate of church attendance in the United States and consistently reports the highest percentage of atheism), church attendance, religious belief, and political influence of religious leaders are much lower than in other parts of America.
Seattle also has a thriving alternative press, with the Web-based daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer, several other online dailies (including Publicola and Crosscut), The Stranger (an alternative, left-leaning weekly), Seattle Weekly, and a number of issue-focused publications, including the nation's two largest online environmental magazines, Worldchanging and Grist.org.
In July 2012, Seattle became the largest city in Washington state to ban plastic shopping bags. In June 2014 the city passed a local ordinance to increase the minimum wage to $15 an hour on a staged basis from 2015 to 2021. When fully implemented the $15 hourly rate will be the highest minimum wage in the nation. In October 2014, Seattle officially replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples' Day, honoring Seattle's Native American community.
Of the city's population over the age of 25, 53.8% (vs. a national average of 27.4%) hold a bachelor's degree or higher, and 91.9% (vs. 84.5% nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent. A 2008 United States Census Bureau survey showed that Seattle had the highest percentage of college and university graduates of any major U.S. city. The city was listed as the most literate of the country's 69 largest cities in 2005 and 2006, the second most literate in 2007 and the most literate in 2008 in studies conducted by Central Connecticut State University.
Seattle Public Schools desegregated without a court order but continue to struggle to achieve racial balance in a somewhat ethnically divided city (the south part of town having more ethnic minorities than the north). In 2007, Seattle's racial tie-breaking system was struck down by the United States Supreme Court, but the ruling left the door open for desegregation formulae based on other indicators (e.g., income or socioeconomic class).
Seattle is home to the University of Washington, as well as the institution's professional and continuing education unit, the University of Washington Educational Outreach. A study by Newsweek International in 2006 cited the University of Washington as the twenty-second best university in the world. Seattle also has a number of smaller private universities including Seattle University and Seattle Pacific University, the former a Jesuit Catholic institution, the latter Free Methodist; universities aimed at the working adult, like City University and Antioch University; colleges within the Seattle Colleges District system, comprising North, Central, and South; and a number of arts colleges, such as Cornish College of the Arts, Pratt Fine Arts Center, and The Art Institute of Seattle. In 2001, Time magazine selected Seattle Central Community College as community college of the year, stating the school "pushes diverse students to work together in small teams".
As of 2010, Seattle has one major daily newspaper, The Seattle Times. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, known as the P-I, published a daily newspaper from 1863 to March 17, 2009, before switching to a strictly on-line publication. There is also the Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, and the University of Washington publishes The Daily, a student-run publication, when school is in session. The most prominent weeklies are the Seattle Weekly and The Stranger; both consider themselves "alternative" papers. The weekly LGBT newspaper is the Seattle Gay News. Real Change is a weekly street newspaper that is sold mainly by homeless persons as an alternative to panhandling. There are also several ethnic newspapers, including the Northwest Asian Weekly and the International Examiner, and numerous neighborhood newspapers, including Westside Weekly and the Queen Anne & Magnolia News.
Seattle is also well served by television and radio, with all major U.S. networks represented, along with at least five other English-language stations and two Spanish-language stations. Seattle cable viewers also receive CBUT 2 (CBC) from Vancouver, British Columbia.
Non-commercial radio stations include NPR affiliates KUOW-FM 94.9 and KPLU-FM 88.5 (Tacoma), as well as classical music station KING-FM 98.1. Other stations include KEXP-FM 90.3 (affiliated with the UW), community radio KBCS-FM 91.3 (affiliated with Bellevue College), and high school radio KNHC-FM 89.5, which broadcasts an electronic dance music radio format and is owned by the public school system and operated by students of Nathan Hale High School. Many Seattle radio stations are also available through Internet radio, with KEXP in particular being a pioneer of Internet radio. Seattle also has numerous commercial radio stations. In a March 2012 report by the consumer research firm Arbitron, the top FM stations were KRWM (adult contemporary format), KIRO-FM (news/talk), and KISW (active rock) while the top AM stations were KOMO (AM) (all news), KJR (AM) (all sports), KIRO (AM) (all sports).
Seattle also has many online news media websites. The two largest are The Seattle Times and Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
The University of Washington is consistently ranked among the country's top leading institutions in medical research, earning special merits for programs in neurology and neurosurgery. Seattle has seen local developments of modern paramedic services with the establishment of Medic One in 1970. In 1974, a 60 Minutes story on the success of the then four-year-old Medic One paramedic system called Seattle "the best place in the world to have a heart attack".
Three of Seattle's largest medical centers are located on First Hill. Harborview Medical Center, the public county hospital, is the only Level I trauma hospital in a region that includes Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Virginia Mason Medical Center and Swedish Medical Center's two largest campuses are also located in this part of Seattle, including the Virginia Mason Hospital. This concentration of hospitals resulted in the neighborhood's nickname "Pill Hill".
Located in the Laurelhurst neighborhood, Seattle Children's, formerly Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, is the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has a campus in the Eastlake neighborhood and also shares facilities with the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and University of Washington Medical Center. The University District is home to the University of Washington Medical Center which, along with Harborview, is operated by the University of Washington. Seattle is also served by a Veterans Affairs hospital on Beacon Hill, a third campus of Swedish in Ballard, and Northwest Hospital and Medical Center near Northgate Mall.
The first streetcars appeared in 1889 and were instrumental in the creation of a relatively well-defined downtown and strong neighborhoods at the end of their lines. The advent of the automobile sounded the death knell for rail in Seattle. Tacoma–Seattle railway service ended in 1929 and the Everett–Seattle service came to an end in 1939, replaced by inexpensive automobiles running on the recently developed highway system. Rails on city streets were paved over or removed, and the opening of the Seattle trolleybus system brought the end of streetcars in Seattle in 1941. This left an extensive network of privately owned buses (later public) as the only mass transit within the city and throughout the region.
King County Metro provides frequent stop bus service within the city and surrounding county, as well as a South Lake Union Streetcar line between the South Lake Union neighborhood and Westlake Center in downtown. Seattle is one of the few cities in North America whose bus fleet includes electric trolleybuses. Sound Transit currently provides an express bus service within the metropolitan area; two Sounder commuter rail lines between the suburbs and downtown; its Central Link light rail line, which opened in 2009, between downtown and Sea-Tac Airport gives the city its first rapid transit line that has intermediate stops within the city limits. Washington State Ferries, which manages the largest network of ferries in the United States and third largest in the world, connects Seattle to Bainbridge and Vashon Islands in Puget Sound and to Bremerton and Southworth on the Kitsap Peninsula.
According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 18.6% of Seattle residents used one of the three public transit systems that serve the city, giving it the highest transit ridership of all major cities without heavy or light rail prior to the completion of Sound Transit's Central Link line. The city has also been described by Bert Sperling as the fourth most walkable U.S. city and by Walk Score as the sixth most walkable of the fifty largest U.S. cities.
Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, locally known as Sea-Tac Airport and located just south in the neighboring city of SeaTac, is operated by the Port of Seattle and provides commercial air service to destinations throughout the world. Closer to downtown, Boeing Field is used for general aviation, cargo flights, and testing/delivery of Boeing airliners.
The main mode of transportation, however, relies on Seattle's streets, which are laid out in a cardinal directions grid pattern, except in the central business district where early city leaders Arthur Denny and Carson Boren insisted on orienting their plats relative to the shoreline rather than to true North. Only two roads, Interstate 5 and State Route 99 (both limited-access highways), run uninterrupted through the city from north to south. State Route 99 runs through downtown Seattle on the Alaskan Way Viaduct, which was built in 1953. However, due to damage sustained during the 2001 Nisqually earthquake the viaduct will be replaced by a tunnel in 2015 at a cost of US$4.25 billion. Seattle has the 8th worst traffic congestion of all American cities, and is 10th among all North American cities.
The city has started moving away from the automobile and towards mass transit. From 2004 to 2009, the annual number of unlinked public transportation trips increased by approximately 21%. In 2006, voters in King County passed proposition 2 (Transit Now) which increased bus service hours on high ridership routes and paid for five bus rapid transit lines called RapidRide. After rejecting a roads and transit measure in 2007, Seattle-area voters passed a transit only measure in 2008 to increase ST Express bus service, extend the Link Light Rail system, and expand and improve Sounder commuter rail service. A light rail line from downtown heading south to Sea-Tac Airport began service on December 19, 2009, giving the city its first rapid transit line with intermediate stations within the city limits. An extension north to the University of Washington is scheduled to open in 2016; and further extensions are planned to reach Lynnwood to the north, Des Moines to the south, and Bellevue and Redmond to the east by 2023. Mayor Michael McGinn has supported building light rail from downtown to Ballard and West Seattle.
Water and electric power are municipal services, provided by Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light respectively. Other utility companies serving Seattle include Puget Sound Energy (natural gas, electricity); Seattle Steam Company (steam); Waste Management, Inc and CleanScapes, Inc. (curbside recycling and solid waste removal); and CenturyLink, Frontier Communications and Comcast (telecommunications and television).
About 90% of Seattle's energy is produced using hydro power. Less than two percent of energy is produced using fossil fuels.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Seattle, Washington
- Seattle Freeze
- Seattle process
- Seattle tugboats
- Sustainable Seattle
- Tillicum Village
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- "Seattle". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Balk, Gene (May 22, 2014). "Census: Seattle is the fastest-growing big city in the U.S.". Seattle Times. FYI Guy.
- "Estimates of Population Change for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Rankings: July 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Seaport Statistics". Port of Seattle. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Doree Armstrong (October 4, 2007). "Feel the beat of history in the park and concert hall at two family-friendly events". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- Andrew Craig Magnuson (July 20, 2014). "In Search of the Schooner Exact". Andrew Craig Magnuson. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
- "Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1910". U.S. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- Heylin, Clinton (2007). Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge. Conongate. p. 606. ISBN 978-1-84195-879-8.
- Greg Lange (October 15, 2000). "Seattle and King County's First European Settlers". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- "The people and their land". Puget Sound Native Art and Culture. Seattle Art Museum. c. July 4, 2003 per "Native Art of the Northwest Coast: Collection Insight". Retrieved April 21, 2006. Check date values in:
- Walt Crowley (March 13, 2003). "Native American tribes sign Point Elliott Treaty at Mukilteo on January 22, 1855". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- George Vancouver; John Vancouver (1801). A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific ocean, and round the world. London: J. Stockdale. ISBN 978-0-665-18642-4.
- Greg Lange (March 8, 2003). "Luther Collins Party, first King County settlers, arrive at mouth of Duwamish River on September 14, 1851.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- Greg Lange (December 16, 2000). "Collins party encounters Denny party scouts at Duwamish Head near future site of Seattle on September 27, 1851.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- Walt Crowley (August 31, 1998). "Seattle – a Snapshot History of Its Founding". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- James R. Warren (October 23, 2001). "Seattle at 150: Charles Terry's unlimited energy influenced a city". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- Greg Lange (March 28, 2001). "Charles Terry homesteads site of Alki business district on May 1, 1852.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- Thomas R. Speer, ed. (July 22, 2004). "Chief Si'ahl and His Family". Duwamish Tribe. Retrieved October 14, 2007. Includes bibliography.
- Kenneth G. Watson (January 18, 2003). "Seattle, Chief Noah". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- Murray Morgan (1982) [First published 1951, 1982 revised and updated, first illustrated edition]. Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-295-95846-0.
- Greg Lange; Cassandra Tate (November 4, 1998). "Legislature incorporates the Town of Seattle for the first time on January 14, 1865.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- "Seattle City Symbols". City of Seattle. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Emmett Shear (Spring 2002). "Seattle: Booms and Busts". Yale University. Author has granted blanket permission for material from that paper to be reused in Wikipedia. Now at s:Seattle: Booms and Busts.
- Junius Rochester (October 7, 1998). "Yesler, Henry L.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- George Kinnear (January 1, 1911). "Anti-Chinese Riots At Seattle, Wn.. February 8, 1876". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 4, 2007. Kinnear's article, originally appearing in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, was later privately published in a small volume.
- "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places in the United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Walt Crowley (January 25, 2003). "Seattle burns down in the Great Fire on June 6, 1889.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- "Hard Drive to the Klondike: Promoting Seattle During the Gold Rush". National Park Service. February 18, 2003. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- J. Kingston Pierce (November 24, 1999). "Panic of 1893: Seattle's First Great Depression.". HistoryLink. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- Greg Lange (January 14, 1999). "Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition's final day is on October 16, 1909.". HistoryLink. Retrieved November 6, 2007.
- Greg Lange (January 14, 1999). "Klondike Gold Rush". HistoryLink.org. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- Greg Lange (May 5, 2003). "Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition opens for a 138-day run on June 1, 1909.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- Patrick McRoberts (February 4, 1999). "Seattle General Strike, 1919, Part I". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- BOLA Architecture + Planning & Northwest Archaeological Associates, Inc., Port of Seattle North Bay Project DEIS: Historic and Cultural Resources at the Wayback Machine (archived July 23, 2011), Port of Seattle, April 5, 2005, p. 12-13 (which is p. 14-15 of the PDF). Retrieved July 25, 2008.
- "History of Seattle: The "Jet City" Takes Off". Seattle's Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- Alan J. Stein (April 18, 2000). "Century 21 – The 1962 Seattle World's Fair, Part I". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- Greg Lange (June 8, 1999). "Billboard appears on April 16, 1971, near Sea–Tac, reading: Will the Last Person Leaving Seattle—Turn Out the Lights.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007. The real estate agents were Bob McDonald and Jim Youngren, as cited at Don Duncan, Washington: the First One Hundred Years, 1889–1989 (Seattle: The Seattle Times, 1989), 108, 109–110; The Seattle Times, February 25, 1986, p. A3; Ronald R. Boyce, Seattle–Tacoma and the Southern Sound (Bozeman, Montana: Northwest Panorama Publishing, 1986), 99; Walt Crowley, Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), 297.
- Kristi Heim (March 21, 2006). "Chicago's got the headquarters, but Seattle's still Jet City, USA". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- Natalie Singer (September 7, 2006). "23 years haven't erased grief caused by Wah Mee Massacre". The Seattle Times. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- "Information for Students: Key Events In Microsoft History". Microsoft Visitor Center Student Information. Retrieved October 1, 2005.
- Strategic Planning Office (March 2011). "Basic Population and Housing Unit Characteristics: Decennial Census" (PDF). City of Seattle. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Jane Hodges (August 20, 2005). "Seattle area 'sticker shock' is a matter of perception". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- Lee Gomes (November 8, 2006). "The Dot-Com Bubble Is Reconsidered – And Maybe Relived". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 4, 2007. Gomes considers the bubble to have ended with the peak of the March 2000 peak of NASDAQ.
- David M. Ewalt (January 27, 2005). "The Bubble Bowl". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2007. Ewalt refers to the advertising on Super Bowl XXXIV (January 2000) as "the dot-com bubble's Waterloo".
- David Wilma (February 25, 2004). "Ted Turner's Goodwill Games open in Seattle on July 20, 1990.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- Pray, D., Helvey-Pray Productions (1996). Hype!. Republic Pictures.
- David Wilma (March 1, 2000). "Protests against the World Trade Organization (WTO) continue on December 1, 1999.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- "Double dose of woe strikes historic Seattle neighborhood". CNN. March 1, 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- "Seattle (city), Washington". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau.
- "Chapter Three – Native American Cultures". The First Americans. Four Directions. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- Howard Morphy (1999). "Traditional and modern visual art of hunting and gathering peoples". In Richard B. Lee. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Cambridge University Press. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-521-57109-8.
- Department of Transportation. "Highest Elevations in Seattle and The Twenty Steepest Streets in Seattle". City of Seattle. Retrieved October 4, 2007.
- Crowley, Walt (January 14, 2003). "Seattle's Seven Hills". HistoryLink. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- Schulz, William H. (November 15, 2006). "Landslide susceptibility revealed by LIDAR imagery and historical records, Seattle, Washington" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- Peterson, Lorin & Davenport, Noah C. (1950), Living in Seattle, Seattle: Seattle Public Schools, p. 44.
- Walt Crowley (March 2, 2001). "Earthquake registering 6.8 on Richter Scale jolts Seattle and Puget Sound on February 28, 2001". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
- Greg Lange (January 1, 2000). "Earthquake hits Puget Sound area on April 13, 1949". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- Greg Lange (March 2, 2000). "Earthquake rattles Western Washington on April 29, 1965". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 4, 2007.
- "Seattle Fault Zone – implications for earthquake hazards". United States Geological Survey. June 15, 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2007. Retrieved October 4, 2007.
- Ray Flynn; Kyle Fletcher (July 2, 2002). "The Cascadia Subduction Zone – What is it? How big are the quakes? How Often?". University of Washington Department of Earth and Space Sciences. Retrieved October 4, 2007.[dead link]
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- National Climatic Data Center. "Cloudiness – Mean Number of Days". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 7, 2010.[dead link]
- Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
- "3 Concept and classification". Global ecological zoning for the global forest resources assessment 2000. Rome: UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Forestry Department. 2001. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". http://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/PHZMWeb/. United States Department of Agriculture.
- "What is offshore flow?".
- "What are the different snow scenarios?".
- "What Is The Olympic Rain Shadow?". KOMOTV.com. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "Mean Number of Days with Precipitation 0.01 Inch or More". NOAA Satellites and Information.
- "Cloudiness – Mean Number of Days". National Climatic Data Center.[dead link]
- "Average Annual Precipitation: United States of America". Western Regional Climate Center.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-12-15.
- "Seattle Weather and Climate". Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Sperling, Bert; Peter Sander (2007). Cities Ranked and Rated. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-06864-9.
- "State of the Climate – National Overview – December 2007". National Climatic Data Center. January 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- "5 Dead in Washington Storm". Kiro TV News. Archived from the original on November 22, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
- Because of its proximity to the sea, Seattle generally remains milder than its outlying suburbs. Eastern suburbs of Seattle are typically even hotter when the temperature in Seattle reaches above 80 °F (27 °C), due to their location closer to downslope winds from the Cascade Mountains and further from Puget Sound. On July 29, 2009, when Seattle recorded its all-time record high, Issaquah reached 110 °F (43 °C). "Seattle breaks record for hottest day ever – Seattle News". MyNorthwest.com. July 29, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "Monthly Averages for Seattle, WA". The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "National Weather Service Seattle – Public Information Statement (12:50 pm, January 18, 2012)". National Weather Service. Retrieved January 18, 2012.
- "Snow and Other Weathers, Seattle and King County". HistoryLink, The Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "Seattle Weather Records". KOMOTV.com. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "What is the Puget Sound Convergence Zone?". KOMOTV.com. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Randolph E. Schmid (October 10, 2006). "El Niño could cause Northwest drought, mild winter elsewhere, forecasters say". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- Nick Perry (February 23, 2005). "Lack of snow may take toll". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Station Name: WA SEATTLE TACOMA INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- "WMO Climate Normals for Seattle/Seattle–Tacoma INTL A, WA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- "New Population Estimates Highlight Nation's Fastest-Growing Cities". Governing.com. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 332.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- From 15% sample
- Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 more information 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File. Factfinder2census.gov. (2010). Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- Bear, Charla (June 29, 2012). "Why is Seattle such a white city?". KPLU. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010". Census.gov. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
- "Seattle in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000". The Brookings Institution. November 2003. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "Vietnamese American Population".
- "Translation Seattle". Lingo-Star. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Lornet Turnbull (September 17, 2004). "1,500 Cambodian refugees face deportation for crimes". The Seattle Times. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- "Puget Sound's Samoan community awaits news". The Seattle Times. September 30, 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- Lornet Turnbull (September 28, 2008). "This is who I am: Defining mixed-race identity". The Seattle Times. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Cassandra Tate (August 13, 2012). "Southeast Seattle ZIP Code 98118: Neighborhood of Nations". HistoryLink.org Essay 10164. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "Census 2000, Summary File 3" (PDF). City of Seattle. September 17, 2002. pp. 32–33, 52–54. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "A Roof Over Every Bed in King County" within ten years". The Committee to End Homelessness in King County. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "Council Adopts Strategies to Implement "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness"". King County. September 19, 2005. Archived from the original on January 21, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Bob Young (August 15, 2006). "Nickels backs 60 percent increase in city's population by 2040". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 28, 2009.
- Bob Young (April 4, 2006). "High-rise boom coming to Seattle?". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Jon Talton (March 17, 2012). "Seattle blessed by downtown's upswing". The Seattle Times. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
- Gary J. Gates (October 2006). "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey". UCLA School of Law. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Gene Balk (September 27, 2013). "Seattle overtakes San Francisco as No. 1 city for gay couples". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- US Census Bureau (March 16, 2004). "City and County Data Book 2000: Cities with 100,000 or More Population Ranked by Subject" (TXT). US Census Bureau. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
- "Gross Metropolitan Product". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "Gross Metropolitan Product". U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. September 29, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "Seaport Statistics". portseattle.org. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- City Profiles / Large Cities / Seattle, WA at the Wayback Machine (archived April 29, 2010). Smartercities.nrdc.org
- "Council Wants City to Go Carbon Neutral in 20 Years". Publicola.net. February 22, 2010. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
- "Fortune 500". Fortune. 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Catharine Reynolds (September 29, 2002). "The List; Seattle: An Insider's Address Book". The New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2001.
...Seattle's coffee culture has become America's...
- "Starbucks Company Profile" (PDF). Starbucks. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- Braiden Rex-Johnson (2003). Pike Place Market Cookbook. Foreword by Tom Douglas. Sasquatch Books. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-57061-319-7.
- "Starbucks Corporation Completes Acquisition of Seattle Coffee Company". Business Wire. July 14, 2003. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Craig Harris (August 15, 2007). "Markets prompt Tully's to delay IPO". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- "Locke Unveils Boeing 7E7 Tax Cut Wish List". KOMO News. June 9, 2003. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- George Howland Jr. (June 23, 2004). "The Billion-Dollar Neighborhood". Seattle Weekly. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Bill King (August 15, 2006). "2006 Mayor's Challenge: Where Are the Best Metros for Future Business Locations?". Expansion Magazine. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Sara Clemence (July 14, 2005). "Most Overpriced Places in the U.S. 2005". Forbes. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "Best Places For Business and Careers - Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Media Contacts: Alaska Airlines". Alaska Airlines. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Greg Lange (November 4, 1998). "Seattle receives epithet Queen City in 1869". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- "We're not in Washington Anymore". Seattlest. October 27, 2005. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- David Wilma (October 24, 2001). "Seattle becomes The Emerald City in 1982". HistoryLink. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011.
- "Seattle City Symbols". City of Seattle, Office of the City Clerk. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- "Recordings and Broadcasts". Seattle Symphony. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- "History". Seattle Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- "About the School". Pacific Northwest Ballet. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- "Met Opera and Seattle Opera to Co-Produce Gluck's Final Operatic Masterpiece "Iphigénie en Tauride"". Press release. Metropolitan Opera. December 18, 2006. Retrieved October 21, 2007. This press release from New York's Metropolitan Opera describes the Seattle Opera as "one of the leading opera companies in the United States... recognized internationally..."
- "Wagner". Seattle Opera. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- Matthew Westphal (August 21, 2006). "Seattle Opera's First International Wagner Competition Announces Winners". Playbill Arts. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- "Home page". SYSO. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- Hahn, Sumi Seattle Chamber Music Society's summer festivals: for newbies and longtime fans. The Seattle Times, July 6, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- Eric L. Flom (April 21, 2002). "Fifth (5th) Avenue Theatre". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- Examples of local talent are Billy Joe Huels (lead singer of the Dusty 45s starring in Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story and Sarah Rudinoff in Wonderful Town. National-level stars include Stephen Lynch in The Wedding Singer, which went on to Broadway and Cathy Rigby in Peter Pan
Misha Berson (February 11, 2006). "Eager-to-please new musical raids the '80s". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
- Brendan Kiley (January 31, 2008). "Old Timers, New Theater". The Stranger. p. 27. Retrieved January 9, 2009. "around 100 theater companies ... Twenty-eight have some sort of Actors' Equity contract ..."
- "Theater Calendar". The Stranger. October 18, 2007. p. 45. This lists 23 distinct venues in Seattle hosting live theater (in the narrow sense) that week; it also lists 7 other venues hosting burlesque or cabaret, and three hosting improv. In any given week, some theaters are "dark".
- Misha Berson (February 16, 2005). "A new wave of fringe theater groups hits Seattle". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 26, 2007. This article mentions five fringe theater groups that were new at that time, each with a venue.
- Daniel C. Schechter (2002). Pacific Northwest. Lonely Planet. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-86450-377-7.
- Stuart Eskenazi (March 1, 2005). "Where culture goes to town". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- Clark Humphrey (May 4, 2000). "Rock Music – Seattle". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- Lori Patrick (August 2, 2007). "Skip your commute for a 'Traffic Jam' with a twist, a Hip Hop & Spoken Word Mashup at City Hall, Aug. 16". City of Seattle. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
- "Indie and Team Semis results". National Poetry Slam 2006. August 12, 2006. Archived from the original on August 30, 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
- "Home". Seattle Poetry Slam. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
- John Marshall (August 19, 2007). "Eleventh Hour's volunteers deserve credit for a strong poetry fest revival". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
- Kristin Dizon (June 10, 2004). "Now showing in Seattle: an explosion of indie theaters". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
- Moira Macdonald (February 23, 2003). "Looking back at Cinerama format". The Seattle Times. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
- "Cruise Seattle". Port of Seattle. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
- Annie Wagner (May 25–31, 2006). "Everything SIFF". The Stranger. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Judy Chia Hui Hsu (July 23, 2007). "Rains wash records away". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Casey McNerthney (August 14, 2007). "Where there's smoke, there's Hempfest". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Misha Berson (September 3, 2007). "Report from Bumbershoot: Monday: Strong attendance, but not a record: 8:30 pm". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Kyung M. Song (June 30, 2008). "Marchers soak in the sun, gay pride". The Seattle Times.
- "Create Your Seattle Center Experience". Seattle Center. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- "Home page". The Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair & Book Arts Show. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- "Sakura-Con English-language site". Asia Northwest Cultural Education Association. Retrieved October 25, 2007. Relevant information is on "Location" and "History" pages.
- Regina Hackett (August 24, 2007). "Video games rule at Penny Arcade Expo". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- Amy Rolph (July 13, 2007). "9,000 bicyclists ready to ride in annual event". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- "Home page". Three Dollar Bill Cinema. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
- "Seattle Film Office: Filming in Seattle: Film Events and Festivals". City of Seattle. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "About the Henry". Henry Art Gallery. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Dave Wilma. "Seattle Art Museum opens in Volunteer Park on June 23, 1933.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Carrie E.A. Scott. "And the Galleries Marched in Two by Two". Visual Codec. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- "About SOIL". SOIL Gallery. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
- "About the gallery". Crawl Space Gallery. Archived from the original on September 6, 2006. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
- Walt Crowley (July 8, 1999). "Woodland Park Zoo – A Snapshot History". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Patrick McRoberts (January 1, 1999). "Seattle Aquarium opens to excited crowds on May 20, 1977.". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Ken Van Vechten (November 13, 2011). "History hidden in Seattle's basement". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- Jennifer Sullivan (June 29, 2012). "The Seattle Great Wheel opens to a big crowd". The Seattle Times. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- "Community Centers". City of Seattle. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- Kristin Jackson (April 26, 2009). "First cruise ship docks at Seattle's new $72 million terminal". The Seattle Times. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- Cassandra Tate (May 25, 2005). "Seattle Storm wins WNBA championship on October 12, 2004.". HistoryLink. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- "Seattle Sounders to announce they're moving to up to MLS". The Province (Canada.com). November 6, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- Greg Lange (March 14, 2003). "Seattle Metropolitan hockey team wins the Stanley Cup on March 26, 1917.". HistoryLink. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- "NBA approves Sonics' move to Oklahoma amid legal wrangling". KOMO-TV. April 18, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "MLB All-Star Game History". ESPN. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- Greg Johns (July 13, 2011). "Mariners celebrate anniversary of 116-win club". Major League Baseball.
- "NBA & ABA All-Star Game History and Statistics". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- "Preliminaries are Over; Kent to Become Home to Events Center". City of Kent. July 27, 2007. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Richard C. Berner (1991). Seattle 1900–1920: From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration. Seattle: Charles Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-9629889-0-5.
- "Seattle named fittest city in America". MSNBC. January 6, 2005. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Van Sant, Ashley “Seattle parks ranked 10th best in US”. June 6, 2013. Q13 Fox News. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- "Seattle City Council Members, 1869–present Chronological Listing". Seattle City Archives. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
- Ethics and Elections Commission. "Seattle Form of Government". City of Seattle. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- "The most liberal House members based on vote ratings, according to the National Journal". National Journal. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- Neil Modie (August 15, 2005). "Where have Seattle's lefties gone?". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Office of the City Clerk. "Mayor Bertha Knight Landes". City of Seattle. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- "McGinn concedes election to Seattle's mayor-elect Ed Murry". KOMO News. Associated Press. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- Emily Heffter. "Socialist Sawant ready to shake up Seattle City Council". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- N.L. "Urbane Development". The Economist. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "Washington State Referendum 74 Passage Voter Map". The Seattle Lesbian. December 11, 2002. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Marijuana initiative wildly popular in Seattle & Eastside". The Seattle Times. December 3, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Killen, Patricia O'Connell; Silk, Mark (2004). Religion and Public Life in the Pacific Northwest. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0624-6.
- "Charting the unchurched in America". USA Today. March 7, 2002. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- Religious identification in the U.S. Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- Thompson, Lynn. "Local News | Seattle Times Newspaper". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- "Seattle City takes lead to raise minimum wage to $15 per hour". Seattle News. Net. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "ACS: Ranking Table – Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 3, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- Sandi Doughton (December 28, 2007). "Minneapolis ousts Seattle as most literate city". The Seattle Times. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
- "Parents involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 Et Al." (PDF). Supreme Court of the United States. June 28, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- Cassandra Tate (September 7, 2002). "Busing in Seattle: A Well-Intentioned Failure". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- "High court rejects school integration plans". The Seattle Times. June 28, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- "School Guide". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- "The Complete List: The Top 100 Global Universities". Newsweek International Edition. August 13, 2006. Archived from the original on March 15, 2007. Retrieved November 2, 2007.
- Andrew Goldstein (September 10, 2001). "Seattle Central". Time. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce". Retrieved November 3, 2007.
- Mike Lewis (August 17, 2006). "A new history at Seattle Weekly". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- "TV Listings (Zip Code 98101)". Zap2It. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- Brier Dudley (April 30, 2007). "At KEXP, technology and music embrace". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- Celina Kareiva (April 8, 2012). "KRWM edges out KIRO in March Seattle radio rankings". The Seattle Times.
- "Top Green Websites". Time. April 17, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- "Cobb honored as one of 'Resuscitation Greats'". UW School of Medicine Online News. August 16, 2002. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- "King County Medic One: A History of Excellence". King County. March 29, 2007. Archived from the original on July 7, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- "Trauma Center". UW Medicine. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- Tom Boyer (August 19, 2005). "Pill Hill property sells for a bundle". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- Walt Crowley (September 19, 2000). "Interurban Rail Transit in King County and the Puget Sound Region – A Snapshot History". HistoryLink.org. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- "The South Lake Union Streetcar". Seattle Department of Transportation. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- "History". Washington State Department of Transit. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- Les Christie (June 29, 2007). "New Yorkers are Top Transit Users". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- Cindy Perman (April 19, 2011). "Most Walkable Cities". CNBC. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Junius Rochester (November 10, 1998). "Maynard, Dr. David Swinson (1808–1873)". HistoryLink. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- "INRIX Traffic Scorecard". April 28, 2013.
- Public Transportation Fact Book (57th ed.). American Public Transportation Association. April 2006. p. 14.
Public Transportation Fact Book (62nd ed.). American Public Transportation Association. April 2011. p. 9.
- "Transit Now". King County Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Future.soundtransit.org". Future.soundtransit.org. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
- "Sound Transit: What you'll pay, what you'll get". The Seattle Times. November 20, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
- Regional Transit System Plan. (PDF). soundtransit.org. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- Dominic Holden (December 22, 2009). "McGinn May Push Light-Rail Vote in 2010". Slog. The Stranger. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Mike Lindblom (March 31, 2011). "McGinn seeks vote to speed up Seattle light rail". The Seattle Times.
- "Seattle City Light | Fuel Mix". Seattle.gov. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
- "Seattle, Washington Sister Cities". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on July 17, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "Kobe's Sister Cities". Kobe Trade Information Office. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
- "Seattle sister cities". Seattle.gov. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
- Jones, Nard (1972). Seattle. New York City: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-01875-3.
- Morgan, Murray (1982) . Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle (revised and updated, first illustrated ed.). Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-95846-0.
- Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, ed. (1998) . Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-97366-1.
- Sale, Roger (1976). Seattle: Past To Present. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-95615-2.
- Speidel, William C. (1978). Doc Maynard: The Man Who Invented Seattle. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 978-0-914890-02-7.
- Speidel, William C. (1967). Sons of the profits; or, There's no business like grow business: the Seattle story, 1851–1901. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-00-X.
- Klingle, Matthew (2007). Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11641-0.
- MacGibbon, Elma (1904). "Seattle, the city of destiny". Leaves of knowledge (DJVU). Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection. Shaw & Borden. OCLC 61326250.
- Pierce, J. Kingston (2003). Eccentric Seattle: Pillars and Pariahs Who Made the City Not Such a Boring Place After All. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87422-269-2.
- Sanders, Jeffrey Craig. Seattle and the Roots of Urban Sustainability: Inventing Ecotopia (University of Pittsburgh Press; 2010) 288 pages; the rise of environmental activism
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
- Official website of the City of Seattle
- Seattle travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Historylink.org, history of Seattle and Washington
- Seattle Photographs from the University of Washington Digital Collections
- Seattle Historic Photograph Collection from the Seattle Public Library
- Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project
- Seattle, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary