Sabuktigin

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Sabuktigin
Emir of Ghazna
Reign 977-997
Predecessor Böritigin
Successor Ismail
Spouse the daughter of Alptigin
Issue Ismail, emir of Ghazna
Mahmud, sultan of Ghazna
Nasr, governor of Bost
Yusuf
Hurra-yi Kalji
Full name
Laqab: Nasir ad-Din wa ad-Dawlah
Kunya: Abu Mansur
Given name: Sabuktigin
House House of Sabuktigin
Father Qara Bajkam[1]
Born c. 942
Barskhan[2] (present-day Kyrgyzstan)
Died August 997
Religion Islam

Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (Persian: ابو منصور سبکتگین‎) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 977 to 997.[3] In Turkic the name means beloved prince.[4]

Sabuktigin lived as a slave during his youth and later married the daughter of his master Alptigin, the man who seized the region of Ghazna (modern Ghazni Province in Afghanistan) in a political fallout for the throne of the Samanids of Bukhara.[5] Although the latter and Sabuktigin still recognized Samanid authority, and it was not until the reign of Sabuktigin's son Mahmud that the rulers of Ghazni became independent.[3][6]

When his father-in-law Alptigin died, Sebuktigin became the new ruler and expanded the kingdom after defeating Jayapala to cover the territory as far as the Neelum River in Kashmir and the Indus River in what is now Pakistan.[7]

Early years[edit]

Sebuktigin was born around 942 CE in what is today Barskon, in Kyrgyzstan.[2] Around the age of twelve, Sebuktigin was taken prisoner by a neighbouring warring tribe and sold as a slave to a merchant named Nasr the Haji. He was eventually purchased by Alptigin, the chamberlain of the Samanids of Bukhara.

"A mer­chant of the name of Nusr-Hajy having purchased Sabuktigin while yet a boy, brought him from the Turkic steppes to Bukhara, where he was sold to Aluptugeen, who, perceiving in him the promise of future greatness, raised him by degrees to posts of confidence and distinction, till, at length, on his establishing his independence at Ghazni, he con­ferred on him the title of amir al-umara (chief of the nobles), and also that of Vakil-i-Mutluk, or Representative."[8]

When Alptigin later rebelled against the Samanid rule, capturing Zabulistan and Ghazna south of the Hindu Kush in modern-day Afghanistan, he raised Sebuktigin to the position of a general and gave his daughter in marriage to him. Subuktigin served Alptigin, and his two successors Ishaq and Balkatigin. He later succeeded another slave of Alptigin to the throne, and in 977 became the popular ruler of the Ghazna region south of the Hindu Kush.

Sebuktigin enlarged upon Alptigin's conquests, extending his domain from Ghazna to Balkh in the north, Helmand in the west, and the Indus River in what is today Pakistan.[8]

Sebuktigin was recognized by the Caliph in Baghdad as governor of his dominions. He died in 997, and was succeeded by his younger son Ismail of Ghazni. Sebuktigin's older son, Mahmud, rebelled against his younger brother and took over Ghazna as the new emir.

Ferishta records Sebuktigin's genealogy as descended from the Sassanid emperors: "Sabuktigin, the son of Jukan, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Firuz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia."[8] Some doubt has been cast on this due the lineage having been reckoned as too short to account for the 320 intervening years.[citation needed] What is known about Sebuktigin is that he was of Turkic origin.[2] According to Grousset,

"The Turkic mercenary army which Alptigin had raised in Ghazni, and which was already profoundly influenced by Islam, was from 977 onward led by another Turkic ex-slave -another Mameluke- named Sebuktigin, who made himself master of Tokharistan (Balkh-Kunduz) and Kandahar, and embarked upon the conquest of Kabul."[9]

Military career[edit]

Sebuktegin grew up in the court circles of Alptigin and was conferred the titles of Amīr al-umara (Chief of the Nobles), and Wakīl-e Mūtlak (Representative), ultimately being made general. He was then heavily involved in the defence of Ghazna's independence for the next 15 years, until Alptigin's death in 975.

Upon Alptigin's death, both Sebuktegin and Alptigin's son Abu Ishaq went to Bukhara to mend fences with the Samanids. Mansur I then officially conferred upon Abu Ishaq the governorship of Ghazna and acknowledged Sebuktegin as the heir. Abu Ishaq died soon after in 977 and Sabuktigin succeeded him in the governorship of Ghazna; subsequently marrying Alptigin's daughter.

In 977 he marched against Toghan, who had opposed his succession. Toghan fled to Bost, so Sebuktigin marched upon it and captured Kandahar and its surrounding area. This prompted the Shahi King Jayapala to launch an attack on Ghazna. Despite the fact that Jayapala amassed about 100,000 troops for the battle, Sebuktigin was soundly victorious.[10] The battle was fought at Laghman (near Kabul) and Jayapala was forced to pay a large tribute. He defaulted upon the payments, imprisoned Sebuktigin's collectors, and assembled a more larger army of 100,000 horse and an innumerable host of foot, allied with forces from the kingdoms of Delhi, Ajmer, Kalinjar, and Kannauj, which was defeated in battle with Sebuktigin's Ghaznavids at the banks of the Neelum River in Kashmir.[8] Sebuktegin then annexed the regions of Afghanistan, Peshawar, and all the lands west of the Neelum River.

"The Afghans and Khiljies who resided among the mountains having taken the oath of allegiance to Sabuktigin, many of them were enlisted in his army, after which he returned in triumph to Ghazni."[7]

In 994 he was involved in aiding Nuh II of the Samanids against internal uprisings and defeated the rebels at Balkh and then at Nishapur, thereby earning for himself the title of Nāsir ud-Dīn ("Hero of the Faith") and for his son Mahmud the title of Governor of Khorasan and Saif ud-Dawlah ("Sword of the State").[11]

Sebuktigin had increased upon Alptigin's domains by extending his domain to cover the area south of the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and east to the Indus River in what is today Pakistan; he was eventually recognized by the Caliph in Baghdad as governor of his dominions.

Censuring the people of innovation[edit]

A pious ruler, Sebuktegin grew concerned over the increasing amount of innovation (commonly known as bidah) in the Islamic creed, and consequently censured those who he believed were promulgating heretical doctrines or beliefs that contravened orthodox Sunni principles.[12] Ibn Taymiyyah duly eulogizes Sebüktegin, stating that he:

"commanded that Ahlul Bidah be publicly cursed on the minbars, and as a result the Jahmiyyah, Rafida, Hululiyah, Mu'tazilah, and Qadariyah were all publicly cursed, along with the Asharites."[13]

Death and legacy[edit]

After becoming sick during one of his campaigns, Sebuktigin died in August 997 while travelling from Balkh to Ghazni in Afghanistan. The nature of his illness is unknown and the exact location of his death is uncertain. Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani, a 13th-century historian, stated that "Sabuktigin died in the village of (Bermel Madwari, or Madar wa Moi, or Madawri, or Madraiwi, or Barmel Maderwi)." In modern times, Henry George Raverty has also mentioned Termez in his translations of the village name. Firishta, a 16th-century historian, has also mentioned Termez as the place of death of Subuktageen.[14] Abdul Hai Habibi believes that Sebuktigin's place of death is Marmal, Mazar-i-Sharif.[15] He was buried in a tomb in Ghazni which can be visited by tourists. He was succeeded by his younger son, Ismail. Sebuktegin is generally regarded as the architect of the Ghaznavid Empire.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "İslâm Ansiklopedisi Online (in Turkish)" PDF "TDV Encyclopedia of Islam". Retrieved 17 August 2014
  2. ^ a b c "Sebüktigin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-12-30. 
  3. ^ a b C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids" in Encyclopaedia Iranica. Date: December 15, 2001. Accessdate: July 4, 2012.
  4. ^ The Turkish name Sebüktegin means “beloved prince,” but the second element (tegin “prince”) had declined in status from Orkhon Turkish times, becoming part of the onomastic of Turkish slave (ḡolām) commanders under the ʿAbbasids (Golden, pp. 52-53). "SEBÜKTEGIN" Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 17 August 2014
  5. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Ghaznavid Dynasty"
  6. ^ Frye 1975, pp. 165-166.
  7. ^ a b "AMEER NASIR-OOD-DEEN SUBOOKTUGEEN". Ferishta, History of the Rise of Mohammedan Power in India, Volume 1: Section 15. Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2012-12-31. 
  8. ^ a b c d "AMEER NASIR-OOD-DEEN SUBOOKTUGEEN". Ferishta, History of the Rise of Mohammedan Power in India, Volume 1: Section 15. Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2012-12-30. 
  9. ^ Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes, 1970, p.143, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  10. ^ The History of India: The Hindu and Mahometan Periods, Elphinstone, pg 321
  11. ^ The Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, Age of Achievement: A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Vol. 4, ed. M. S. Asimov, C. E. Bosworth, (UNESCO, 1998), 98.
  12. ^ The Ash'aris: in the Scales of Ahlus Sunnah, Shaykh al-Jasim, pg. 155
  13. ^ al-Jasim, pg. 155
  14. ^ Tareekh-e-Firishta, by Mohammad Qasim Firishta,written in 1611 CE, Accessed 2013 CE
  15. ^ "Madr wa Moi". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 

Sources[edit]

Preceded by:
Böritigin
Emir of Ghazna
977–997
Followed by:
Ismail