Marble was born in Dixfield, Maine on March 1, 1817. He studied at the Waterville Academy. He then studied law. In 1843, he was admitted to the bar. He practiced law in Waldoboro, Maine. He served as the deputy collector of customs for his district from 1862 to 1863. He became the collector of customs in 1864. He held that position until 1867. He served as the marshal of Maine from 1870 to 1878. He was elected to three terms in the Maine State Senate in 1882 and he served his last term as the president. Joseph R. Bodwell, the Governor of Maine at the time, died on December 15, 1887. Marble, who was President of the Senate at the time, became the new governor of Maine. During his administration, the Mars Bill was opposed and the policies of the Republican Party were supported. And, the 1888 presidential nomination of Benjamin Harrison was also openly endorsed. Marble was unsuccessful in his re-election bid and he left office on January 2, 1889.
After leaving office, Marble served on his local school board. he also served as chairman of the Waldoboro Board of Selectmen. He died on May 10, 1902.