Sebastián Vizcaíno

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Sebastián Vizcaíno
Vizcaino.jpg
Born ca. 1548
Extremadura, Spain
Died 1624 (aged 75–76)
Mexico City, New Spain

Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548–1624) was a conquistador whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, the California coast and Japan.

Vizcaíno's Career[edit]

Sebastian was born in 1548 in Extremadura, Spain. He saw military service in the Spanish invasion of Portugal during 1580–1583. He was going to New Spain in 1583, he sailed as a merchant on the Manila galleon to the Philippines in 1586–1589. In 1587 he was on board the Santa Fanta when it was captured by Thomas Cavendish.

The Voyage[edit]

In 1593 the disputed concession for pearl fishing on the western shores of the Gulf of California was transferred to Vizcaíno. He succeeded in sailing with three ships to La Paz, Baja California Sur in 1596. He gave this site (known to Hernándo Cortés as Santa Cruz) its modern name and attempted to establish a settlement. However, problems of resupply, declining morale, and a fire soon forced its abandonment.

In 1601 the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico City, the Conde de Monterrey, appointed Vizcaíno general-in-charge of a second expedition - to locate safe harbors in Alta California for Spanish Manila Galleons to use on their return voyage to Acapulco from Manila. He was also given the mandate to map in detail the California coastline that Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo had first reconnoitered 60 years earlier. He departed Acapulco with three ships on May 5, 1602. His flagship was the San Diego and the other two ships were the San Tomás and the Tres Reyes.

On November 10, 1602, Vizcaíno entered and named San Diego Bay. Sailing up the coast, Vizcaíno named many prominent features such as the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Point Conception, the Santa Lucia Mountains, Point Lobos, Carmel River and Monterey Bay (thus obliterating some of the names given these same features by Cabrillo in 1542). He was the first person in recorded history to note certain ecological features of the California coast such as the Monterey Cypress forest at Point Lobos.[1]

The commander of the Tres Reyes, Martin d'Aguilar, became separated from Vizcaíno and continued up the coast as far as present-day Cape Blanco (Oregon).[2]

One result of Vizcaíno's voyage was a flurry of enthusiasm for establishing a Spanish settlement at Monterey, but this was ultimately deferred for another 167 years after the Conde de Monterrey left to become Viceroy of Peru and his successor was less favorable. A colonizing expedition was authorized in 1606 for 1607 but was delayed and then cancelled in 1608.[3]

Japanese relations[edit]

In 1611 he carried a Japanese delegation led by Tanaka Shōsuke from Mexico back to Japan. In an ambassadorial capacity, Vizcaíno met with the shogun Tokugawa Hidetada and his father, the retired first shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, founder of the Tokugawa dynasty. However, diplomacy soured due to Vizcaíno's disregard of Japanese court etiquette. After taking his leave in 1612, he surveyed the east coast of Japan and searched for two mythical islands called Rico de Oro and Rico de Plata. Failing to find them, he returned to Japan.

In 1613, Vizcaíno accompanied the Japanese embassy led by Hasekura Tsunenaga to Mexico. In Acapulco, Vizcaíno was seriously injured in a fight with the Japanese, as recorded by 17th century Aztec historian Chimalpahin in his journal, "Annals of His Time." The Japanese entourage continued to Mexico City, and embarked a ship at Veracruz bound for Europe.

Dutch conflict[edit]

On November 11, 1616, Vizcaíno commanded 200 men at the port of Salagua against an attack by 200 Dutch pirates. In the afternoon, both sides ran out of ammunition. Vizcaíno's men retreated after the Dutch later returned with more ammunition.[4]

Death[edit]

Sebastián Vizcaíno died on 1642 in Mexico City, Mexico.

References[edit]

  1. ^ C.Michael Hogan and Michael P. Frankis. 2009. Monterey Cypress: Cupressus macrocarpa, GlobalTwitcher.com ed. N. Stromberg
  2. ^ Cogswell, Philip Jr. (1977). Capitol Names: Individuals Woven Into Oregon's History. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. pp. 9–10. 
  3. ^ Cutter, Donald C. (Winter 1978). "Plans for the Occupation of Upper California A New Look at the "Dark Age" from 1602 to 1769". The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY 24 (1). Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  4. ^ Gerhard, Peter (2003). Pirates of New Spain, 1575-1742. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. pp. 117–119. ISBN 0-486-42611-4. 
  • Mathes, W. Michael. 1965. Californiana I: documentos para la historia de la demarcación commercial de California, 1583-1632. José Porrúa Turanzas, Madrid.
  • Mathes, W. Michael. 1968. Vizcaíno and Spanish Expansion in the Pacific Ocean, 1580-1630. California Historical Society.
  • Derek Hayes, Historical Atlas of the North Pacific Ocean, 2003, page 31.