|— Town —|
|• Mayor||Dr. Ante Županović|
|Elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Šibenik (Croatian pronunciation: [ʃîbe̞niːk]) is a historic town in Croatia, located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea. Šibenik is a political, educational, transport, industrial and tourist center of Šibenik-Knin county.
Early history 
Unlike other cities along the Adriatic coast, which were established by Greeks, Illyrians and Romans, Šibenik was founded by Croats. Excavations of the castle of Saint Michael, have since proven that the place was inhabited long before the actual arrival of the Croats. It was mentioned for the first time under its present name in 1066 in a Charter of the Croatian King Petar Krešimir IV and, for a period of time, it was a seat of this Croatian King. For that reason, Šibenik is also called "Krešimirov grad" (Krešimir's city). It is the oldest native Croatian town on the eastern shores of the Adriatic.
Between the 11th and 12th centuries, Šibenik was tossed back and forth among Venice, Byzantium, Hungary and the Kingdom of Bosnia. It was conquered by the Republic of Venice in 1116, who held it until 1124, when they briefly lost it to the Byzantine Empire, and then held it again until 1133 when it was retaken by the Kingdom of Hungary. It would change hands among the aforementioned states several more times until 1180.
Under Venice and the Habsburgs 
The city, like the rest of Dalmatia, resisted the Venetians in a three-year war that was resolved in their favor in 1412. The Ottoman Empire started to threaten Šibenik, as part of their struggle against Venice, at the end of the 15th century, but they never succeeded in conquering it. In the 16th century, St. Nicholas Fortress was built and, by the 17th century, its fortifications were improved again by the fortresses of St. John (Tanaja) and Šubićevac (Barone).
After the Congress of Vienna until 1918, the town (bilingual names ŠIBENIK- SEBENICO) was (again) part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Dalmatia. The Italian name only was used until around 1871.
In 1872, at the time in the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Ante Šupuk became the town's first Croat mayor elected under universal suffrage. He was instrumental in the process of the modernization of the city, and is particularly remembered for the 1895 project to provide street lights powered by the early AC Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant.
20th century 
After World War I, Šibenik was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy until 12 June 1921. As a result of the Treaty of Rapallo, the Italians gave up their claim to the city and it became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II it was occupied by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Over the course of Allied bombing of the city, the Church of Sveti Nikola (Saint Nicholas) in the Mandalina settlement was destroyed. After WWII it became a part of the SFR Yugoslavia until Croatia declared independence in 1991.
During the Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995), Šibenik was heavily attacked by the Yugoslav National Army and Serbian paramilitary troops. Although under-armed, the nascent Croatian army and the people of Šibenik managed to defend the city. The battle lasted for six days (16–22 September), often referred to as the "September battle". The bombings damaged numerous buildings and monuments, including the dome of the Cathedral of St. James and the 1870-built theatre building.
In an August 1995 military operation, the Croatian Army defeated the Serb forces and freed the occupied areas, which allowed the region to recover from the war and continue to develop as the centre of Šibenik-Knin county. Since then, the damaged areas of the city have been fully reconstructed.
Šibenik has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers. January and February are the coldest months, July and August are the hottest months. In July the average maximum temperature is around 30 °C (86 °F).
|Climate data for Šibenik|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||74.1
|Avg. rainy days||10||9||9||10||9||8||5||5||7||9||12||12||105|
|Avg. snowy days||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||128.6||150.6||196.1||222.4||286.3||312.1||358.0||326.0||254.3||199.7||131.0||113.8||2,678.9|
|Source: National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (Croatia) |
Main sights 
Several successive architects built it completely in stone between 1431 and 1536, both in Gothic and in Renaissance style. The interlocking stone slabs of the Cathedral's roof were damaged when the city was shelled by Serbian forces in 1991. The damage has since been repaired.
Fortifications in Šibenik 
In the town of Šibenik there are four fortresses:
- St. Nicholas Fortress (Croatian: Tvrđava Sv. Nikole) is a fortress located at sea, at the entrance of Šibenik's port.
- Tvrđava Sv. Mihovila
- Tvrđava Sv. Ivana
- Tvrđava Šubićevac
Natural heritage 
- A couple of kilometers north of the city is the Krka National Park, similar to the more famous Plitvice Lakes National Park, renowned for its many waterfalls, flora, fauna, and historical and archaeological remains.
- The Kornati archipelago, west of Šibenik, consists of 150 islands in a sea area of about 320 km², making it the densest archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Culture and events 
The annual Šibenik International Children's Festival (Međunarodni Dječji Festival) takes place every summer.
|Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005|
The list of settlements is as follows:
- Boraja, population 249
- Brnjica, population 72
- Brodarica, population 2.509
- Čvrljevo, population 64
- Danilo, population 372
- Danilo Biranj, population 435
- Danilo Kraljice, population 102
- Donje Polje, population 265
- Dubrava kod Šibenika, population 1.179
- Goriš, population 143
- Gradina, population 303
- Grebaštica, population 940
- Jadrtovac, population 170
- Kaprije, population 164
- Konjevrate, population 166
- Krapanj, population 170
- Lepenica, population 67
- Lozovac, population 366
- Mandalina, population 415
- Mravnica, population 78
- Perković, population 110
- Podine, population 26
- Radonić, population 79
- Raslina, population 570
- Sitno Donje, population 562
- Slivno, population 109
- Šibenik, population 34.242
- Vrpolje, population 772
- Vrsno, population 68
- Zaton, population 977
- Zlarin, population 278
- Žaborić, population 465
- Žirje, population 94
The town of Šibenik was the first city in the world to receive a polyphase system of alternating current. The system supplied 340 street lights and some electrified houses in the town.
International relations 
Šibenik is twinned with:
- Civitanova Marche in Italy (since 2002)
- San Benedetto del Tronto in Italy
- Kreis Herford in Germany
See also 
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2009)|
- "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011, First Results by Settlements" (HTML). Statistical Reports (in Croatian and English) (Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics) (1441). June 2011. ISSN 1332-0297. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Foster, Jane (2004). Footprint Croatia, Footprint Handbooks, 2nd ed. p. 218. ISBN 1-903471-79-6
- Oliver, Jeanne (2007). Croatia. Lonely Planet 4th ed. p. 182. ISBN 1-74104-475-8
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843). The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge 26. Great Britain: C. Knight. p. 236. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Giuseppe Praga, Franco Luxardo (1993). History of Dalmatia. Giardini. p. 91. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Robert Lambert Playfair (1881). Handbook to the Mediterranean. John Murray. p. 310. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
- Mandalina: crkva s vidikovcem, Slobodna Dalmacija
- "Monthly Climate Values". Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
- Skračiċ, Vladimir (2003). Kornat Islands. Zadar: Forum. ISBN 953-179-600-9.
- "Civitanova Marche — Twin Towns". Civitanova Marche. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
Further reading 
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Šibenik|
Media related to Šibenik at Wikimedia Commons
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sebenico". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
||74 km (46 mi) to Zadar||54 km (34 mi) to Burnum||56 km (35 mi) to Knin|
|35 km (22 mi) to Kornat||60 km (37 mi) to Sinj|
|21 km (13 mi) to Žirje||16 km (10 mi) to Primošten||80 km (50 mi) to Split|