Secessio plebis

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This article is about secession in ancient Rome. For other uses of secession, see Secession (disambiguation).

Secessio plebis (withdrawal of the commoners, or Secession of the Plebs) was an informal exercise of power by Rome's plebeian citizens, similar to a general strike taken to the extreme. During a secessio plebis, the plebs would simply abandon the city en masse and leave the patrician order to themselves. Therefore a secessio meant that all shops and workshops would shut down and commercial transactions would largely cease. This was an effective strategy in the Conflict of the Orders due to strength in numbers; plebeian citizens made up the vast majority of Rome's populace and produced most of its food and resources, while a patrician citizen was a member of the minority upper class, the equivalent of the landed gentry of later times. Authors report different numbers for how many secessions there were. Cary & Scullard (p. 66) state there were five between 494 BC and 287 BC.[1]

Secessions in Roman history[edit]

494 BC[edit]

The Secession of the People to the Mons Sacer, engraving by B. Barloccini, 1849.

Beginning in 495 BC, and culminating in 494-493 BC, as a result of concerns about debt and the failure of the senate to provide for plebeian welfare, the plebeians seceded to the Mons Sacer (the Sacred Mountain). As part of a negotiated resolution, the patricians freed some of the plebs from their debts and conceded some of their power by creating the office of the Tribune of the Plebs. This office was the first government position held by the plebs, since at this time the office of consul was held by patricians solely. Plebeian Tribunes were made personally sacrosanct during their period in office.

449 BC[edit]

In 449 BC, the plebs seceded again to force the patricians to adopt the Twelve Tables. Unlike the earlier secret laws which only the priests had access to, these new laws amounted to a written and published legal code. And unlike the earlier non-published laws, the Twelve Tables presented a basic set of laws and rights to the Roman public, as opposed to hidden and secret laws which gave no specific rights to the ordinary plebeian Roman. The patricians vehemently opposed it but were nevertheless forced to found a commission headed by a decemvir who in turn announced the Twelve Tables in the Roman Forum. With the announcement of the new laws, the plebs were to a degree freed from injustice and subjectivity during trials. However, they were still obliged to pay slavery debt.

445 BC[edit]

The third secession is alluded to by Florus (Lex Canuleia).

342 BC[edit]

This fourth secession is noted by Livy. The Oxford Classical Dictionary calls this an "obscure military revolt".

287 BC[edit]

In 287 BC, the plebs seceded a final time to the Janiculum to force the patricians to adopt the Lex Hortensia, which gave plebiscites the force of law.

References[edit]

  1. ^ M. Cary, H.H. Scullard (1980). A History of Rome. ISBN 0-333-27830-5. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • 'The Growth of Plebeian Privilege in Rome', The English Historical Review No. II (April 1886)
  • Forsythe, G., A Critical History of Early Rome", Berkeley, 2005

See also[edit]