On November 11, 1909, Major General John J. Pershing assumed his duties as governor of the Moro province. On September 8, 1911, he issued Executive Order No. 24, which ordered the complete disarmament of all Moros; American forces had been plagued with juramentado and amok attacks and Pershing saw total disarmament as the solution. The deadline for disarmament was December 1, 1911.
The attempted enforcement of this order brought about the Second Battle of Bud Dajo. In December 1911, an estimated 1,500 Moros fortified the top of the dormant volcano. Pershing, through negotiations, succeeded in persuading the majority of the assembled Moros to return home. The remaining Moro forces, led by a chieftain named Jailani, were either killed or captured in the battle, which lasted five days.