Second Battle of Fallujah

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Second Battle of Fallujah
(Operation Phantom Fury)
Part of the Iraq War
4-14 Marines in Fallujah.jpg
U.S. Marines from Mike Battery, 4th Battalion, 14th Marines, operate the 155mm M198 howitzer at Camp Fallujah, November 2004
Date 7 November – 23 December 2004[1]
Location Fallujah, Iraq
Result Coalition victory
Belligerents
United States of America
Republic of Iraq
 United Kingdom
Iraqi insurgency
al-Qaeda in Iraq
Commanders and leaders
Richard F. Natonski
James Mattis
James Cowan
Abdullah al-Janabi
Umar Hussein Hadid
Strength
10,500 troops[2]
2,000 security forces[2]
850 troops[3]
Total: 13,350 troops
~3,700–4,000 insurgents[4][5]
Casualties and losses
American:
95 killed, 560 wounded[6]
(54 killed and 425 wounded from 7 to 16 November)[7] Iraqi:
8 killed, 43 wounded[7]
British:
4 killed, 10 wounded[8][9][10]
Total: 107 killed, 613 wounded
1,200–1,500 killed[11][12]
1,500 captured[11]
~800 civilians killed[13]

The Second Battle of Fallujahcode-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic,الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury — was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S. Marine Corps against the Iraqi insurgency stronghold in the city of Fallujah and was authorized by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Interim Government. The U.S. military called it "some of the heaviest urban combat U.S. Marines have been involved in since the Battle of Huế City in Vietnam in 1968."[14][15]

This operation was the second major operation in Fallujah. Earlier, in April 2004, coalition forces fought the First Battle of Fallujah in order to capture or kill insurgent elements considered responsible for the deaths of a Blackwater Security team. When coalition forces fought into the center of the city, the Iraqi government requested that the city's control be transferred to an Iraqi-run local security force, which then began stockpiling weapons and building complex defenses across the city through mid-2004.[16] The second battle was the bloodiest battle of the entire Iraq War, and is notable for being the first major engagement of the Iraq War fought solely against insurgents rather than the forces of the former Ba'athist Iraqi government, which was deposed in 2003.

Background[edit]

In February 2004, control of Fallujah and the surrounding area in the Al-Anbar province was transferred from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division to the 1st Marine Division. Shortly afterward, on 31 March 2004, four American private military contractors from Blackwater USA were ambushed and killed in the city. Images of their mutilated bodies were broadcast around the world.[17]

Within days, U.S. Marine Corps forces launched Operation Vigilant Resolve (4 April 2004) to take back control of the city from insurgent forces. On 28 April 2004, Operation Vigilant Resolve ended with an agreement where the local population was ordered to keep the insurgents out of the city.[16] The Fallujah Brigade, composed of local Iraqis under the command of Muhammed Latif, a former Ba'athist general, was allowed to pass through coalition lines and take over the city.[citation needed]

Insurgent strength and control began to grow to such an extent that by 24 September 2004, a senior U.S. official told ABC News that catching Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi, said to be in Fallujah, was now "the highest priority," and estimated his troops at 5,000 men, mostly non-Iraqis.[18]

Timeline[edit]

  • 7 November 2004: U.S. Marines stage just north of Fallujah. The city was under complete insurgent control with no American presence since April, and there were a large number of booby traps and IEDs set in place.[16][19] Additionally, elevated sniper and fortified defensive positions had been created in preparation for a major offensive. American UAVs observed insurgents conducting live-fire exercises in the city in preparation for the coming attack.
  • 8 November 2004: Operation Phantom Fury begins.
  • 16 November 2004: American spokesmen describe fighting in the city as mopping up isolated pockets of resistance.
  • 23 December 2004: Last pockets of resistance are neutralized. Three U.S. Marines are killed in the last skirmish, along with 24 insurgents.[20] Operation Phantom Fury is the bloodiest battle of the Iraq War.

Preparations[edit]

Coalition forces[edit]

Before beginning their attack, U.S. and Iraqi forces had established checkpoints around the city to prevent anyone from entering the city, and to intercept insurgents attempting to flee.

In addition, overhead imagery was used to prepare maps of the city for use by the attackers. American units were augmented by Iraqi interpreters to assist them in the planned fight. After weeks of withstanding air strikes and artillery bombardment, the militants holed up in the city appeared to be vulnerable to direct attack.

U.S., Iraqi and British forces totaled about 13,500. The U.S. had gathered some 6,500 Marines and 1,500 Army soldiers that would take part in the assault with about 2,500 Navy personnel in support roles.[2] U.S. troops were grouped in two Regimental Combat Teams: Regimental Combat Team 1 comprised 3rd Battalion/1st Marines, 3rd Battalion/5th Marines, Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 4 and 23 (Seabees) as well as the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/7th Cavalry. Regimental Combat Team 7 comprised the 1st Battalion/8th Marines, 1st Battalion/3rd Marines, the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/2nd Infantry and 2nd Battalion/12th Cavalry.[21] About 2,000 Iraqi troops assisted with the assault.[2] All were supported by aircraft and U.S. Marine and U.S. Army artillery battalions.

The 850-strong 1st Battalion of the Black Watch was ordered to help U.S. and Iraqi forces with the encirclement of Fallujah.[22]

Insurgent forces[edit]

In April, Fallujah was defended by about 500 "hardcore" and 2,000+ "part time" insurgents. By November it was estimated[who?] that the numbers had doubled. Another estimate put the number of insurgents at 3,000; however a number of insurgent leaders escaped before the attack.[23] By the time of the attack on Fallujah in November 2004, the number of insurgents in the city was estimated at around 3,000 to 4,000.[5]

The Iraqi insurgents and foreign mujahadeen present in the city prepared fortified defenses in advance of the anticipated attack.[16][19] They dug tunnels, trenches, prepared spider holes, and built and hid a wide variety of IEDs.[16][19] In some locations they filled the interiors of darkened homes with large numbers of propane bottles, large drums of gasoline, and ordnance, all wired to a remote trigger that could be set off by an insurgent when troops entered the building. They blocked streets with Jersey barriers and even emplaced them within homes to create strong points behind which they could attack unsuspecting troops entering the building.[24] Insurgents were equipped with a variety of advanced small arms, and had captured a variety of U.S. armament, including M14s, M16s, body armor, uniforms and helmets.[24]

They booby-trapped buildings and vehicles, including wiring doors and windows to grenades and other ordnance. Anticipating U.S. tactics to seize the roof of high buildings, they bricked up stairwells to the roofs of many buildings, creating paths into prepared fields of fire which they hoped the troops would enter.[24]

Intelligence briefings given prior to battle reported that coalition forces would encounter Chechen, Filipino, Saudi, Iranian, Libyan, and Syrian combatants, as well as native Iraqis.[25]

Civilian presence[edit]

Meanwhile, most of Fallujah’s civilian population fled the city, which greatly reduced the potential for noncombatant casualties.[24] U.S. military officials estimated that 70–90% of the 300,000 civilians in the city fled before the attack.[23]

The Battle[edit]

Diversion[edit]

U.S. Army soldiers from TF 2–7 CAV, prepare to enter a building during fighting in Fallujah.

Ground operations began on the night of 7 November 2004. Attacking from the west and south, the Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion with their U.S. Army Special Forces advisers and the U.S. Marine Corps Scout Platoon, 2nd Infantry Division's 2nd and 1st Platoon C CO 1–9 INF(MANCHU), 3rd Platoon Alpha Company 2/72nd Tank Battalion, and 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, reinforced by Bravo Company from the Marine Corps Reserve's 1st Battalion, 23rd Regiment, and supported by Combat Service Support Company 113, from Combat Service Support Battalion 1, captured Fallujah General Hospital and villages opposite the Euphrates River along Fallujah's western edge.[26] Troops from the 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines fired 81mm mortar in an operation in south Fallujah. The same unit, operating under the command of the U.S. Army III Corps, then moved to the western approaches to the city and secured the Jurf Kas Sukr Bridge.[26] These initial attacks, however, were a diversion intended to distract and confuse the insurgents holding the city.

Attack[edit]

An M1 Abrams fires its main gun into a building to provide suppressive counter fire against insurgents
Marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines and 3rd Battalion 5th Marines during the Second Battle of Fallujah.

After Navy Seabees from I MEF Engineer Group (MEG) interrupted and disabled electrical power at two substations located just northeast and northwest of the city, two Marine Regimental Combat Teams, the Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) and Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) launched an attack along the northern edge of the city. They were joined by two U.S. Army heavy battalion-sized units, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, and 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment (Mechanized). These two battalions were followed by four infantry battalions who were tasked with clearing the remaining buildings. The Army's mechanized Second Brigade, First Cavalry Division, augmented by the Marine's Second Reconnaissance Battalion and, for a few days, the 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment, was tasked to surround the city.[27] The British Army's 1st Battalion, The Black Watch patrolled the main highways to the east. The RCT's were augmented by three 6-man SEAL Sniper Teams from Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central and one Platoon from 1st Recon who provided advance reconnaissance and overwatch throughout the operation.

The six battalions of Army, Marine and Iraqi forces, moving under the cover of darkness, began the assault in the early hours of 8 November 2004 prepared by an intense artillery barrage and air attack. This was followed by an attack on the main train station that was then used as a staging point for follow-on forces. By that afternoon, under the protection of intense air cover, Marines entered the Hay Naib al-Dubat and al-Naziza districts. The Marines were followed in by the Navy Seabees of NMCB 4 and NMCB 23 who bulldozed the streets clear of debris from the bombardment that morning. The Seabees used Armored bulldozer to plow the streets while remaining safe and protected from enemy fire. Shortly after nightfall on 9 November 2004, Marines had reportedly reached Phase Line Fran at Highway 10 in the center of the city.

An air strike is called in on a suspected insurgent hideout in Fallujah.

The 3rd Bn 5th Marines cleared the Northern Sector Highway 10 city blocks of infiltrated pockets of resistance. Some units deemed combat ineffective handed clearing operations to Darkhorse Marines. 3/5 spearheaded the assault into the harshest area of the city known as the 'Jolan District.' The Battalion sustained 19 Marines killed in action, one died of wounds in 2012 and, 245 wounded during the operation.

While most of the fighting subsided by 13 November 2004, U.S. Marines continued to face determined isolated resistance from insurgents hidden throughout the city. By 16 November 2004, after nine days of fighting, the Marine command described the action as mopping up pockets of resistance. Sporadic fighting continued until 23 December 2004.

A four-picture series of photographs. Clockwise from the upper left: A Marine tries dragging a wounded Marine down a city street; a sailor runs over to help him; the rescuing Marine is shot; both Marines lie wounded on the street.
In this series of photographs a Marine and Corpsman from 1st Battalion 8th Marines attempt to recover a Marine wounded by a sniper; the sniper then shoots one of the would-be rescuers.[28]

Despite its success, the battle was not without controversy. On 16 November 2004, NBC News aired footage that showed a U.S. Marine, with 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, killing a wounded Iraqi fighter. In this video, the Marine was heard claiming that the Iraqi was "playing possum". U.S. Navy investigators NCIS later determined that the Marine was acting in self-defense.[29] The AP reported that military-age males attempting to flee the city were turned back by the U.S. military.[30]

By late January 2005, news reports indicated U.S. combat units were leaving the area, and were assisting the local population in returning to the now heavily-damaged city.

Recognition[edit]

The U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for actions during the battle.[31] Additionally, Operation Phantom Fury yielded two nominees for the Medal of Honor. Sergeant Rafael Peralta with 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, one of the two, was eventually awarded the Navy Cross, the second highest military valor award.[32]

First Sergeant Bradley Kasal of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines was also awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the battle. Staff Sergeant David Bellavia of the Army's Task Force 2-2 Infantry was also nominated for the Medal of Honor, though awarded the Silver Star, for his actions during the battle.

Staff Sergeant Aubrey McDade with Bravo Co, 1st Battalion 8th Marines was also awarded the Navy Cross, the second highest military valor award.[33][34]

Corporal Dominic Esquibel with H&S Company, Scout Sniper Platoon, 1st Battalion 8th Marines was awarded the Navy Cross for his actions on 25 Nov 2004 in Fallujah. In a rare move, Cpl. Esquibel cited "personal reasons" and refused the award.[35]

Aftermath[edit]

U.S. Army soldiers rush a wounded soldier to a waiting U.S. Marine CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter during the Second Battle of Fallujah in November 2004.

The battle proved to be the bloodiest of the war and the bloodiest battle involving American troops since the Vietnam War. Comparisons with the Battle of Hue City and the Pacific campaign of World War II were made.[36] Coalition forces suffered a total of 107 killed and 613 wounded during Operation Phantom Fury. U.S. forces had 54 killed and 425 wounded in the initial attack in November.[7] By 23 December when the operation was officially concluded the casualty number had risen to 95 killed and 560 wounded.[37] British forces had 4 killed and 10 wounded in two separate attacks in the outskirts of Fallujah.[9][10] Iraqi forces suffered 8 killed and 43 wounded[7] Estimates of insurgent casualties are complicated by a lack of official figures. Most estimates places the number of insurgents killed at around 1,200[12] to 1,500,[11] with some estimations as high as over 2,000 killed.[7][37] Coalition forces also captured approximately 1,500 insurgents during the operation.[11] The Red Cross estimated directly following the battle that some 800 civilians had been killed during the offensive.[13]

The 1st Marine Division fired a total of 5,685 high-explosive 155mm artillery rounds during the battle.[38] The 3rd Marine Air Wing (aviation assets only) expended 318 precision bombs, 391 rockets and missiles, and 93,000 machine gun and cannon rounds.[38]

Fallujah suffered extensive damage to residences, mosques, city services, and businesses. The city, once referred to as the "City of Mosques", had over 200 pre-battle mosques of which 60 or so were destroyed in the fighting. Many of these mosques had been used as arms caches and weapon strongpoints by Islamist forces. Of the roughly 50,000 buildings in Fallujah, between 7,000 and 10,000 were estimated to have been destroyed in the offensive and from half to two-thirds of the remaining buildings had notable damage.[39][40]

While pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable, the nominal population was assumed to have been 200,000–350,000. One report claims that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury, created 200,000 internally displaced persons who are still living elsewhere in Iraq.[41] While damage to mosques was heavy, coalition forces reported that 66 out of the city's 133 mosques had been found to be holding significant amounts of insurgent weaponry.[42]

A city street in Fallujah heavily damaged by the fighting.

In mid-December, residents were allowed to return after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wear their ID cards all the time. Reconstruction progressed slowly and mainly consisted of clearing rubble from heavily-damaged areas and reestablishing basic utilities. Only 10% of the pre-offensive inhabitants had returned as of mid-January, and only 30% as of the end of March 2005.[43]

Nevertheless the battle proved to be less than the decisive engagement that the U.S. military had hoped for. Some of the nonlocal insurgents were believed to have fled before the military assault along with Zarqawi, leaving mostly local militants behind. Subsequent U.S. military operations against insurgent positions were ineffective at drawing out insurgents into another open battle, and by September 2006 the situation had deteriorated to the point that the Al-Anbar province that contained Fallujah was reported to be in total insurgent control by the U.S. Marine Corps, with the exception of only pacified Fallujah, but now with an insurgent-plagued Ramadi.[44][45]

After the U.S. military operation of November 2004, the number of insurgent attacks gradually increased in and around the city, and although news reports were often few and far between, several reports of IED attacks on Iraqi troops were reported in the press. Most notable of these attacks was a suicide car bomb attack on 23 June 2005 on a convoy that killed 6 Marines. Thirteen other Marines were injured in the attack. However, fourteen months later insurgents were again able to operate in large numbers.

A third push was mounted from September 2006 and lasting until mid-January 2007. Tactics developed in what has been called the "Third Battle of Fallujah," when applied on a larger scale in Ramadi and the surrounding area led to what became known as "the Great Sunni Awakening." After four years of bitter fighting, Fallujah was turned over to the Iraqi Forces and Iraqi Provincial Authority during the Fall of 2007.

Al Qaeda-linked Sunni insurgents from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant subsequently took over Fallujah and parts of Ramadi in late 2013.[46]

Use of white phosphorus[edit]

An American M-109A6 self-propelled howitzer fires at insurgent positions during the Second Battle of Fallujah.

On 10 November 2004, the Washington Post reported that some U.S. artillery guns fired white phosphorus rounds that created a screen of fire.[47] Insurgents reported being attacked with a substance that melted their skin, a reaction consistent with white phosphorus burns.[47] On 26 November 2004, Dahr Jamail also reported that white phosphorus had been used in the battle.[48]

On 9 November 2005 the Italian state-run broadcaster Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A. aired a documentary titled "Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre", alleging that the United States' used white phosphorus as a weapon in Fallujah causing insurgents and civilians to be killed or injured by chemical burns. The filmmakers further claimed that the United States used incendiary MK-77 bombs in violation of Protocol III of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, quoted in the documentary, white phosphorus is permitted for use as an illumination device and as a weapon with regard to heat energy, but not permitted as an offensive weapon with regard to its toxic chemical properties.[49][50]

On 16 November 2005, BBC News reported that an article published in the March–April 2005 issue of Field Artillery, a U.S. Army magazine, noted that white phosphorus had been used during the battle. According to the article written by a captain, a first lieutenant, and a sergeant, "WP [White Phosphorus] proved to be an effective and versatile munition. We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes where we could not get effects on them with HE [High Explosives]. We fired "shake and bake" missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out."[49] BBC News noted that the article had been discovered by bloggers after the US ambassador in London, Robert Holmes Tuttle, stated that US forces do not use napalm or white phosphorus as weapons.[49] The United States continues to maintain that white phosphorus was not used against civilians, but has since confirmed its use as an offensive heat weapon against enemy combatants.[51]

Participating units[edit]

American forces[edit]

U.S. Marines take a break while searching the city of Fallujah in November 2004.
U.S. Marines from the 3rd Battalion 5th Marines seize apartments at the edge of Fallujah in November 2004.
U.S. Army soldiers use a wall and a pillar as a shield while they tactically enter and clear a building in Fallujah in November 2004.

Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) built around the 1st Marine Regiment:

Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) built around the 7th Marine Regiment:

2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (U.S. Army)

1st Squadron, 124th Cavalry, 36th Infantry Division (U.S. Army)

    • 81st BCT QRF Platoon
  • 81st BCT 181 BN C Co Med

CROWS Team One

  • Small Craft Company Special Operations River Recon

U.S. Special Operations Command (embedded)

  • Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central (Sniper Elements Alpha, Bravo and Charlie from SEAL Team THREE, SEAL Team FIVE and SEAL Team EIGHT)

Iraqi forces[edit]

British forces[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Demonstration in front of the British parliament against the war and the consequences of the Second Battle of Fallujah.

Documentaries[edit]

  • Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre, a documentary alleging the use of white phosphorus and the Mk-77 by the U.S. Army against civilians in the city.
  • Occupation: Dreamland, a 2005 documentary film that follows soldiers of the 1/505 of the 82nd Airborne Division in Fallujah, Iraq, in the beginning of 2004.
  • Shootout! - Episode 1: D-Day: Fallujah (UPC: 733961741353), a 2006 A&E History Channel Special detailing various gun battles that occurred during the Second Battle of Fallujah.
  • And Then They Came Home, Garrett Anderson's 2013 documentary about the transition from fighting in Fallujah to civilian life.

Games[edit]

  • Six Days in Fallujah, is a video game that follows a squad of U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines over the span of the six bloodiest days in the battle for Fallujah. It was designed with input from active-duty and retired Marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, as well as interviews from the U.S. Marines, Iraqi insurgents, and Iraqi civilians involved in the battle. Currently the game has no publisher after being dropped by Konami for the controversy surrounding it and remains in limbo.[57]
  • Close Combat: First to Fight, is a video game that was also designed with input from former and active-duty U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines, who had participated in combat around Fallujah, Iraq during Operation Phantom Fury.
  • Phantom Fury: The 2nd Battle for Fallujah, is a solitaire board game based on the actions 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division in the Jolan district in November 2004.[58]

Music[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq". Motorbooks.com. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7. 
  3. ^ "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". The Independent (London). 22 October 2004. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  4. ^ John Pike. "Operation al-Fajr (Dawn) / Phantom Fury Fallujah, Iraq". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Karon, Tony (8 November 2004). "The Grim Calculations of Retaking Fallujah". Time. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  6. ^ Fallujah-Iwo Jima Comparison Raises Eyebrows
  7. ^ a b c d e Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7. 
  8. ^ "Iraq Coalition Casualties: UK Fatalities". Icasualties.org. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  9. ^ a b "Dead Black Watch soldiers named". BBC News. 5 November 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "Black Watch pays price for backing Fallujah offensive". The Independent (London). 9 November 2004. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d "From Fallujah to Qaim". Asia Times. 13 May 2005. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  12. ^ a b "DefenseLink News Article: Fallujah Secure, But Not Yet Safe, Marine Commander Says". Defenselink.mil. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  13. ^ a b "Red Cross Estimates 800 Iraqi Civilians Killed in Fallujah". Democracynow.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  14. ^ ScanEagle Proves Worth in Fallujah Fight, DefenseLINK News
  15. ^ Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2003–2005. Penguin. p. 399. ISBN 0-14-303891-5.
  16. ^ a b c d e Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2003–2005. Penguin. pp. 343–346. ISBN 0-14-303891-5
  17. ^ "Frontline: Private Warriors: Contractors: The High-risk Contracting Business". Frontline. 
  18. ^ By BRIAN ROSS (@brianross) (24 September 2004). "Tracking Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi". ABC News. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c Lowry, Richard S. (2010). New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah. Savas Beatie. p. 20. ISBN 1-932714-77-4.
  20. ^ "Who Won the Battle of Fallujah?". Retrieved 23 September 2010. 
  21. ^ Lowry, Richard S. (2010). New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah. Savas Beatie. pp. 269–279. ISBN 1-932714-77-4.
  22. ^ "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". The Independent (London). 22 October 2004. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  23. ^ a b Filkins, Dexter; James Glanz (8 November 2004). "With Airpower and Armor, Troops Enter Rebel-Held City". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 December 2008. 
  24. ^ a b c d Bellavia, David (2008). House to House: A Tale of Modern War. Pocket Books. p. 336. ISBN 1-84739-118-4. 
  25. ^ Bellavia, David & Bruning, John. House to House: An Epic Memoir of War Free Press. (2007) ISBN 1-4165-7471-9.
  26. ^ a b Wise p.75
  27. ^ Gilbert, Michael (18 November 2004). "Stryker troops rejoin comrades in Mosul". Stryker Brigade News. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  28. ^ McDonald, JoAnna M. (14 March 2006). "Photographing Fallujah". Leatherneck Magazine via Military.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  29. ^ "Marine cleared in videotaped shooting". CNN. 5 May 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  30. ^ "U.S. Won't Let Men Flee Fallujah". Fox News Channel. 13 November 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  31. ^ a b Liewer, Steve (18 May 2005). "Troops Honored for Efforts at Fallujah". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 21 December 2008. 
  32. ^ Fuentes, Gidget (22 September 2008). "Peralta to be given Navy Cross posthumously". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 21 December 2008. 
  33. ^ "Aubrey L. McDade , Jr.". Military Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  34. ^ "Parris Island DI earns Navy Cross". Marine Corps Times. 19 January 2007. 
  35. ^ "Dominic Esquibel". Military Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  36. ^ Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7. 
  37. ^ a b Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. United States: ABC-CLIO. p. 304. ISBN 1-59884-336-2. 
  38. ^ a b http://search.library.wisc.edu/catalog/ocn744863322
  39. ^ "Still locked down, Fallujah slow to rebuild". MSNBC. 14 April 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  40. ^ "Increased Security In Fallujah Slows Efforts to Rebuild". The Washington Post. 19 April 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  41. ^ Holmes, Jonathan (4 April 2007). "The legacy of Fallujah". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  42. ^ "Telling the Fallujah Story to the World" (PPT). IMEF and MNCI Effects Exploitation Team. 3 December 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 
  43. ^ "Fallujah Four Months Later". Voice of America. 31 March 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  44. ^ .Situation Called Dire in West Iraq
  45. ^ US lost control of al-Anbar province[dead link]
  46. ^ "Top Iraqi commander vows to re-capture Fallujah and Ramadi after al-Qa'ida-linked fighters take control of key cities", The Independent, 5 January 2014
  47. ^ a b Spinner, Jackie (10 November 2004). "U.S. Forces Battle Into Heart of Fallujah". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  48. ^ "Dahr Jamail's Mideast Dispatches –". Dahrjamailiraq.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  49. ^ a b c Reynolds, Paul (16 November 2005). "OPCW Spokesman Peter Kaiser elucidates the OPCW position on white phosphorus". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  50. ^ OPCW agrees with US Military that use of white phosphorus as incendiary agent is not prohibited[dead link]
  51. ^ "U.S. official admits phosphorus used as weapon in Iraq". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  52. ^ Dorell, Oren; Zoroya, Gregg (9 November 2006). "Battle for Fallujah". USA Today. 
  53. ^ "History of the 1st Marine Regiment" (DOC). MNF-West. Retrieved 22 December 2008. [dead link]
  54. ^ Roggio, Bill (12 November 2004). "Retooling". Long War Journal. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f "Forces Retake Key Civic Centers in Fallujah". U.S. Department of Defense. 10 November 2004. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  56. ^ Brown, Colin (22 October 2004). "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". Independent (UK). Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  57. ^ Pham, Alex (27 April 2009). "Konami cancels Six Days in Fallujah video game". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  58. ^ "NutsPublishing". 
  59. ^ Iraq war opera helps heal post-conflict trauma

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°21′N 43°47′E / 33.350°N 43.783°E / 33.350; 43.783