Second Battle of Fallujah
|Second Battle of Fallujah
(Operation Phantom Fury)
|Part of the Iraq War|
A group of U.S. Marines fight in the city of Fallujah, Iraq, during the Second Battle of Fallujah in 2004.
| United States of America
| Iraqi insurgency
al-Qaeda in Iraq
|Commanders and leaders|
| Richard F. Natonski
| Abdullah al-Janabi
Omar Hussein Hadid
| 10,500 troops
Total: 13,350 troops
|Casualties and losses|
95 killed, 560 wounded
(54 killed and 425 wounded from 7 to 16 November)
|~800 civilians killed|
The Second Battle of Fallujah — code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic,الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury — was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S. Marine Corps against the Iraqi insurgency stronghold in the city of Fallujah and was authorized by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Interim Government. The U.S. military called it "some of the heaviest urban combat U.S. Marines have been involved in since the Battle of Huế City in Vietnam in 1968."
This operation was the second major operation in Fallujah. Earlier, in April 2004, coalition forces fought the First Battle of Fallujah in order to capture or kill insurgent elements considered responsible for the deaths of a Blackwater Security team. When coalition forces (mostly U.S. Marines) fought into the center of the city, the Iraqi government requested that the city's control be transferred to an Iraqi-run local security force, which then began stockpiling weapons and building complex defenses across the city through mid-2004. The second battle was the bloodiest battle of the entire Iraq War, and is notable for being the first major engagement of the Iraq War fought solely against insurgents rather than the forces of the former Ba'athist Iraqi government, which was deposed in 2003.
In February 2004, control of Fallujah and the surrounding area in the Al-Anbar province was transferred from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division to the 1st Marine Division. Shortly afterward, on 31 March 2004, four American contractors from Blackwater USA were ambushed and killed in the city. Images of their mutilated bodies were broadcast around the world.
Within days, U.S. Marine Corps forces launched Operation Vigilant Resolve (4 April 2004) to take back control of the city from insurgent forces. On 28 April 2004, Operation Vigilant Resolve ended with an agreement where the local population is ordered to keep the insurgents out of the city. The Fallujah Brigade, composed of local Iraqis under the command of Muhammed Latif, a former Ba'athist general, was allowed to pass through coalition lines and take over the city.
Insurgent strength and control began to grow to such an extent that by 24 September 2004, a senior U.S. official told ABC News that catching Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi, said to be in Fallujah, was now "the highest priority," and estimated his troops at 5,000 men, mostly non-Iraqis.
- 7 November 2004: U.S. Marines stage just north of Fallujah. The city was under complete insurgent control with no American presence since April, and there were a large number of booby traps and IEDs set in place. Additionally, elevated sniper and fortified defensive positions had been created in preparation for a major offensive. American UAVs observed insurgents conducting live-fire exercises in the city in preparation for the coming attack.
- 8 November 2004: Operation Phantom Fury begins.
- 16 November 2004: American spokesmen describe fighting in the city as mopping up isolated pockets of resistance.
- 23 December 2004: Last pockets of resistance are neutralized. Three U.S. Marines are killed in the last skirmish, along with 24 insurgents. Operation Phantom Fury is the bloodiest battle of the Iraq War.
Before beginning their attack, U.S. and Iraqi forces had established checkpoints around the city to prevent anyone from entering the city, and to intercept insurgents attempting to flee.
In addition, overhead imagery was used to prepare maps of the city for use by the attackers. American units were augmented by Iraqi interpreters to assist them in the planned fight. After weeks of withstanding air strikes and artillery bombardment, the militants holed up in the city appeared to be vulnerable to direct attack.
U.S., Iraqi and British forces totaled about 13,500. The U.S. had gathered some 6,500 Marines and 1,500 Army soldiers that would take part in the assault with about 2,500 Navy personnel in support roles. U.S. troops were grouped in two Regimental Combat Teams: Regimental Combat Team 1 comprised 3rd Battalion/1st Marines, 3rd Battalion/5th Marines, Naval Moble Construction Battalion 4 and 23 (Seabees) as well as the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/7th Cavalry. Regimental Combat Team 7 comprised the 1st Battalion/8th Marines, 1st Battalion/3rd Marines, the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/2nd Infantry and 2nd Battalion/12th Cavalry. About 2,000 Iraqi troops assisted with the assault. All were supported by aircraft and U.S. Marine and U.S. Army artillery battalions.
In April, Fallujah was defended by about 500 "hardcore" and 2,000+ "part time" insurgents. By November it was estimated[who?] that the numbers had doubled. Another estimate put the number of insurgents at 3,000; however a number of insurgent leaders escaped before the attack. By the time of the attack on Fallujah in November 2004, the number of insurgents in the city was estimated at around 3,000 to 4,000.
The Iraqi insurgents and foreign mujahadeen present in the city prepared fortified defenses in advance of the anticipated attack. They dug tunnels, trenches, prepared spider holes, and built and hid a wide variety of IEDs. In some locations they filled the interiors of darkened homes with large numbers of propane bottles, large drums of gasoline, and ordnance, all wired to a remote trigger that could be set off by an insurgent when troops entered the building. They blocked streets with Jersey barriers and even emplaced them within homes to create strong points behind which they could attack unsuspecting troops entering the building. Insurgents were equipped with a variety of advanced small arms, and had captured a variety of U.S. armament, including M14s, M16s, body armor, uniforms and helmets.
They booby-trapped buildings and vehicles, including wiring doors and windows to grenades and other ordnance. Anticipating U.S. tactics to seize the roof of high buildings, they bricked up stairwells to the roofs of many buildings, creating paths into prepared fields of fire which they hoped the troops would enter.
Meanwhile, most of Fallujah’s civilian population fled the city, which greatly reduced the potential for noncombatant casualties. U.S. military officials estimated that 70–90% of the 300,000 civilians in the city fled before the attack.
Ground operations began on the night of 7 November 2004. Attacking from the west and south, the Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion with their U.S. Army Special Forces advisers and the U.S. Marine Corps Scout Platoon, 2nd Infantry Division's 2nd and 1st Platoon C CO 1–9 INF(MANCHU), 3rd Platoon Alpha Company 2/72nd Tank Battalion, and 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, reinforced by Bravo Company from the Marine Corps Reserve's 1st Battalion, 23rd Regiment, and supported by Combat Service Support Company 113, from Combat Service Support Battalion 1, captured Fallujah General Hospital and villages opposite the Euphrates River along Fallujah's western edge. Troops from the 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines fired 81mm mortar in an operation in south Fallujah. The same unit, operating under the command of the U.S. Army III Corps, then moved to the western approaches to the city and secured the Jurf Kas Sukr Bridge. These initial attacks, however, were a diversion intended to distract and confuse the insurgents holding the city.
After Navy Seabees from NMCB-23 at the substation located just northeast of the city shut off electrical power to the city, two Marine Regimental Combat Teams, the Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) and Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) launched an attack along the northern edge of the city. They were assisted by two U.S. Army heavy battalion-sized units, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, and 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment (Mechanized). These two battalions were followed by four infantry battalions who were tasked with clearing the remaining buildings. The Army's mechanized Second Brigade, First Cavalry Division, augmented by the Marine's Second Reconnaissance Battalion and, for a few days, the 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment [Stryker], was tasked to surround the city. The British Army's 1st Battalion, The Black Watch patrolled the main highways to the east. The RCT's were augmented by three 6-man SEAL Sniper Teams from Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central and one Platoon from 1st Recon who provided advance reconnaissance and overwatch throughout the operation.
The six battalions of Army, Marine and Iraqi forces, moving under the cover of darkness, began the assault in the early hours of 8 November 2004 prepared by an intense artillery barrage and air attack. This was followed by an attack on the main train station that was then used as a staging point for follow-on forces. By that afternoon, under the protection of intense air cover, Marines entered the Hay Naib al-Dubat and al-Naziza districts. The Marines were followed in by the Navy Seabees of NMCB-4 and NMCB-23 who bulldozed the streets clear of debris from the bombardment that morning. Shortly after nightfall on 9 November 2004, Marines had reportedly reached Phase Line Fran at Highway 10 in the center of the city.
The 3rd Bn 5th Marines cleared the Northern Sector Highway 10 city blocks of infiltrated pockets of resistance. Some units deemed combat ineffective handed clearing operations to Darkhorse Marines. 3/5 spearheaded the assault into the harshest area of the city known as the 'Jolan District.' The Battalion sustained 19 Marines killed in action, one died of wounds in 2012 and, 245 wounded during the operation.
While most of the fighting subsided by 13 November 2004, U.S. Marines continued to face determined isolated resistance from insurgents hidden throughout the city. By 16 November 2004, after nine days of fighting, the Marine command described the action as mopping up pockets of resistance. Sporadic fighting continued until 23 December 2004.
Despite its success, the battle was not without controversy. On 16 November 2004, NBC News aired footage that showed a U.S. Marine, with 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, killing a wounded Iraqi fighter. In this video, the Marine was heard claiming that the Iraqi was "playing possum". U.S. Navy investigators NCIS later determined that the Marine was acting in self-defense. The AP reported that military-age males attempting to flee the city were turned back by the U.S. military.
By late January 2005, news reports indicated U.S. combat units were leaving the area, and were assisting the local population in returning to the now heavily-damaged city.
The U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for actions during the battle. Additionally, Operation Phantom Fury yielded two nominees for the Medal of Honor. Sergeant Rafael Peralta with 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, one of the two, was eventually awarded the Navy Cross, the second highest military valor award.
First Sergeant Bradley Kasal of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines was also awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the battle. Staff Sergeant David Bellavia of the Army's Task Force 2-2 Infantry was also nominated for the Medal of Honor, though awarded the Silver Star, for his actions during the battle.
Sergeant Aubrey McDade with Bravo Co, 1st Battalion 8th Marines was also awarded the Navy Cross, the second highest military valor award.
The battle proved to be the bloodiest of the war and the bloodiest battle involving American troops since the Vietnam War. Comparisons with the Battle of Hue City and the Pacific campaign of World War II were made. Coalition forces suffered a total of 107 killed and 613 wounded during Operation Phantom Fury. U.S. forces had 54 killed and 425 wounded in the initial invasion in November. By 23 December when the operation was officially concluded the casualty number had risen to 95 killed and 560 wounded. British forces had 4 killed and 10 wounded in two separate attacks in the outskirts of Fallujah. Iraqi forces suffered 8 killed and 43 wounded Estimates of insurgent casualties are complicated by a lack of official figures. Most estimates places the number of insurgents killed at around 1,200 to 1,500, with some estimations as high as over 2,000 killed. Coalition forces also captured approximately 1,500 insurgents during the operation. The Red Cross estimated directly following the battle that some 800 civilians had been killed during the offensive.
The 1st Marine Division fired a total of 5,685 high-explosive 155mm artillery rounds during the battle. The 3rd Marine Air Wing (aviation assets only) expended 318 precision bombs, 391 rockets and missiles, and 93,000 machine gun and cannon rounds.
Fallujah suffered extensive damage to residences, mosques, city services, and businesses. The city, once referred to as the "City of Mosques", had over 200 pre-battle mosques of which 60 or so were destroyed in the fighting. Many of these mosques had been used as arms caches and weapon strongpoints by Islamist forces. Of the roughly 50,000 buildings in Fallujah, between 7,000 and 10,000 were estimated to have been destroyed in the offensive and from half to two-thirds of the remaining buildings had notable damage.
While pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable, the nominal population was assumed to have been 200,000–350,000. One report claims that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury, created 200,000 internally displaced persons who are still living elsewhere in Iraq. While damage to mosques was heavy, coalition forces reported that 66 out of the city's 133 mosques had been found to be holding significant amounts of insurgent weaponry.
In mid-December, residents were allowed to return after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wear their ID cards all the time. Reconstruction progressed slowly and mainly consisted of clearing rubble from heavily-damaged areas and reestablishing basic utilities. Only 10% of the pre-offensive inhabitants had returned as of mid-January, and only 30% as of the end of March 2005.
Nevertheless the battle proved to be less than the decisive engagement that the U.S. military had hoped for. Some of the nonlocal insurgents were believed to have fled before the military assault along with Zarqawi, leaving mostly local militants behind. Subsequent U.S. military operations against insurgent positions were ineffective at drawing out insurgents into another open battle, and by September 2006 the situation had deteriorated to the point that the Al-Anbar province that contained Fallujah was reported to be in total insurgent control by the U.S. Marine Corps, with the exception of only pacified Fallujah, but now with an insurgent-plagued Ramadi.
After the U.S. military operation of November 2004, the number of insurgent attacks gradually increased in and around the city, and although news reports were often few and far between, several reports of IED attacks on Iraqi troops were reported in the press. Most notable of these attacks was a suicide car bomb attack on 23 June 2005 on a convoy that killed 6 Marines. Thirteen other Marines were injured in the attack. However, fourteen months later insurgents were again able to operate in large numbers.
A third push was mounted from September 2006 and lasting until mid-January 2007. Tactics developed in what has been called the "Third Battle of Fallujah," when applied on a larger scale in Ramadi and the surrounding area led to what became known as "the Great Sunni Awakening." After four years of bitter fighting, Fallujah was turned over to the Iraqi Forces and Iraqi Provincial Authority during the Fall of 2007.
Use of white phosphorus
On 10 November 2004, the Washington Post reported that some U.S. artillery guns fired white phosphorus rounds that created a screen of fire. Insurgents reported being attacked with a substance that melted their skin, a reaction consistent with white phosphorus burns. On 26 November 2004, Dahr Jamail also reported that white phosphorus had been used in the battle.[dead link]
On 9 November 2005 the Italian state-run broadcaster Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A. aired a documentary titled "Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre", alleging that the United States' used white phosphorus as a weapon in Fallujah causing insurgents and civilians to be killed or injured by chemical burns. The filmmakers further claimed that the United States used incendiary MK-77 bombs in violation of Protocol III of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, quoted in the documentary, white phosphorus is permitted for use as an illumination device and as a weapon with regard to heat energy, but not permitted as an offensive weapon with regard to its toxic chemical properties.
On 16 November 2005, BBC News reported that an article published in the March–April 2005 issue of Field Artillery, a U.S. Army magazine, noted that white phosphorus had been used during the battle. According to the article written by a captain, a first lieutenant, and a sergeant, "WP [White Phosphorous] proved to be an effective and versatile munition. We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes where we could not get effects on them with HE [High Explosives]. We fired "shake and bake" missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out." BBC News noted that the article had been discovered by bloggers after the US ambassador in London, Robert Holmes Tuttle, stated that US forces do not use not use napalm or white phosphorus as weapons. The United States continues to maintain that white phosphorus was not used against civilians, but has since confirmed its use as an offensive heat weapon against enemy combatants.
Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) built around the 1st Marine Regiment:
- 3rd Battalion 1st Marines (Infantry)
- 3rd Battalion 5th Marines (Infantry)
- 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry (U.S. Army Infantry)
- Company's C and D, 2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion (Armored)
- 1st,2nd and 3rd Platoon, Company A, 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion Armored
- 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion (Mechanized)(Armored)
- Military Police/EOD Platoon [MWSS 373]
- Combat Service Support Company 113, Combat Service Support Battalion 1
- Combat Service Support Company 122, Heavy Equipment Platoon, 1st Maintenance Battalion
- Counter Battery Radar Platoon, 14th Marine Regiment (Artillery)
- 4th Battalion 14th Marines— Battery "M" (Artillery)
- Company C, 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, (U.S. Army)
- 2nd Platoon, Company B, 2nd Battalion, 162nd Infantry (U.S. Army)
- 2nd Tank Battalion – Co C
- TOW Platoon (-), 23rd Marines
- Scout Platoon, Headquarters & Service Company, 4th Tank Battalion
- Scout Platoon, 2nd Tank Battalion (Attached 2/10 MAR HQ BTRY)
- Company A, MP Battalion, 2nd Marine Logistics Group, 2nd Marine Division
- Company B, (reinforced), 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion, 2nd Marine Division
- Military Police Company A, 4th Marine Logistics Group, 4th Marine Division
- Detachment 4, 4th Civil Affairs Group
- Combat Logistics Company 115, Combat Logistics Battalion 1, 1st Marine Logistics Group
- Shock Trauma Platoon, 1st Marine Logistics Group
- Company B, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines
- Company B, 1st Battalion, 23rd Marines
- Evac Platoon, Company C, 181 SPT Battalion, 81 HBCT
- 2nd Battalion 11th Marines, Kilo 3/12, Golf, HQ Btry (Artillery- Serving as Provisionary Rifle Companies)
- 1st Battalion 10th Marines, Charlie Btry (Artillery- Serving as Provisional Infantry Company)
- Battery Lima 3rd Battalion 10th Marines (Artillery- Serving as Provisional Infantry Company)
- 4th Battalion 14th Marines, Kilo Btry (Artillery- Serving as Provisional Infantry Company)
- Motor Transport Platoon, 2nd Battalion 10th Marines, HQ Btry
- Task Force ECHO (NMCB (Naval Mobile Construction Battalion) FOUR, NMCB TWO THREE, and Company A, 120th Engineer Battalion Oklahoma National Guard)
- Marine Aircraft Group 39 – HMLA-367, HMLA-169 DET A, HMM-161, HMM-364 and HMM-268 at Al Taqaddum Airbase
- VMFA(AW)-242 at Al Asad Air Base
- H&S and C Cos. 4th Combat Engineer Battalion
- Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central (Sniper Element Alpha and Bravo)
- Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 4 (Seabees)
- Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 23 (Seabees)
- 3rd Squad, 3rd Platoon, A Co, 44th Engineer Battalion, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Inf Div
- 3rd Platoon, A Co, 2/72 Tank Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division (U.S. Army)
Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) built around the 7th Marine Regiment:
- 1st Battalion 3rd Marines (Infantry)
- Tactical PSYOP Team 1171(USAR), attached to 1/3 Marines, 1 NOV-15 Dec 2004
- 1st Battalion 8th Marines (Infantry)
- Task Force 2-2
- 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division (U.S. Army infantry)
- 2nd Platoon, Alpha company, 82nd Engineer Battalion
- F Troop, 4th Cavalry (Brigade Reconnaissance Troop)
- Alpha Company 2nd Battalion, 63rd Armored Regiment
- 1st Platoon, Charlie Company, 82nd Engineer Battlion
- 1st Platoon, Allpha Battery, 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery Regiment (M109A6, 155mm SP)
- 1st Battalion 12th Marines – Battery "C" (Artillery)
- F Troop, 4th Cavalry, 3rd Brigade Reconnaissance Troop, 1st Infantry Division (U.S. Army)
- 2nd Tank Battalion – Co A (Armored)
- Company C, 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion
- 2nd Platoon, C Company, 44th Engineer Battalion, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division (U.S. Army)
- Company C, 2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion (Armored)
- Company B, MP Battalion, 4th Marine Logistics Group
- 3rd Platoon, Combat Engineer Company, Combat Assault Battalion, 3rd Marine Division
- 2nd Force Reconnaissance Company
- 2nd Platoon, Company C, 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion
- 1st Platoon, Engineer Company C, 6th Engineer Support Battalion
- Company C, 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
- Company A, 2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
- MEU Service Support Group 31, 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
- Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit THREE
- 1st Battalion, 506th Infantry Air Assault, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division (U.S. Army)
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (U.S. Army)
- 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry (U.S. Army)
- A Troop 2nd Squadron, 14th Cavalry (U.S. Army)
- 3rd Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery Regiment (U.S. Army)
- 2nd Battalion, 12th Cavalry (U.S. Army)
- 759th Military Police Battalion Composite (U.S. Army)
- HHD, 759th Military Police Battalion (FWD)
- 148th Military Police Team (FWD)(Police Intelligence)
- 21st Military Police Company (Airborne)
- 630th Military Police Company (Combat Support)
- 984th Military Police Company (Combat Support)
- Department Of Defense Security Forces, Tactical Response Team
- 2nd Reconnaissance Battalion (U.S. Marine Corps)
- 15th Forward Support Battalion
- 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division TAC(Bravo Company, 13th Signal, E-31; Bravo Company, 312th Military Intel)
1st Squadron, 124th Cavalry, 36th Infantry Division (U.S. Army)
- CROWS Team One
U.S. Special Operations Command (embedded)
- Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central (Sniper Element Charlie)
- Small Craft Company Special Operations River Recon
- 1st Specialized Special Forces Battalion (Iraqi National Guard), Companies D and B
- Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion
- Iraqi Counterterrorism Force
- Emergency Response Unit (Iraqi-Ministry of Interior) – Attached to RCT-7
- 1st Battalion, 1st Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (ICDC) – Operated independently of Coalition forces
- 2nd Battalion, 1st Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to RCT-7
- 4th Battalion, 1st Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to RCT-1
- 5th Battalion, 3rd Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to RCT-7
- 6th Battalion, 3rd Brigade, Iraqi Intervention Force (IIF) – Attached to 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division
- 1st Battalion, The Black Watch Regiment
- Special Boat Service
- Various Royal Air Force Tornado squadrons
In popular culture
- Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre, a documentary alleging the use of white phosphorus and the Mk-77 by the U.S. Army against civilians in the city.
- Occupation: Dreamland, a 2005 documentary film that follows soldiers of the 1/505 of the 82nd Airborne Division in Fallujah, Iraq, in the beginning of 2004.
- Shootout! - D-Day: Fallujah (UPC: 733961741353), a 2006 A&E History Channel Special detailing various gun battles that occurred during the Second Battle of Fallujah.
- Six Days in Fallujah, is a video game that follows a squad of U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines over the span of the six bloodiest days in the battle for Fallujah. It was designed with input from active-duty and retired marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, as well as interviews from the U.S. Marines, Iraqi insurgents, and Iraqi civilians involved in the battle. Currently the game has no publisher after being dropped by Konami for the controversy surrounding it and remains in limbo.
- Close Combat: First to Fight, is a video game that was also designed with input from former and active-duty U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines, who had participated in combat around Fallujah, Iraq during Operation Phantom Fury.
- Phantom Fury: The 2nd Battle for Fallujah, is a solitaire board game based on the actions 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division in the Jolan district in November 2004.
- "Christmas in Fallujah", song by Jefferson Pepper (2005) (UPC: 669910486467)
- "Christmas in Fallujah", song by Cass Dillon and Billy Joel (2007) (Digital download, CD single)
- Fallujah, an opera with music by the Canadian composer Tobin Stokes and libretto by Heather Raffo.
- No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah, by Bing West (2005) (ISBN 978-0-553-80402-7)
- We Were One: Shoulder to Shoulder with the Marines Who Took Fallujah, by Patrick O'Donnell (2006) (ISBN 978-0-306-81469-3)
- Fighting For Fallujah: A New Dawn for Iraq, by John R. Ballard (2006) (ISBN 978-0-275-99055-8)
- Fallujah With Honor: First Battalion, Eighth Marine's Role in Operation Phantom Fury, by Gary Livingston (2006) (ISBN 1-928724-06-X)
- Battle of Fallujah: Occupation, Resistance And Stalemate in the War in Iraq, by Vincent L. Foulk (2006) (ISBN 0-7864-2677-2)
- Among Warriors In Iraq: True Grit, Special Ops, and Raiding in Mosul and Fallujah, by Mike Tucker (2006) (ISBN 978-1-59228-732-1)
- Iraq 1941: The Battles For Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad, by Robert Lyman (2006) (ISBN 978-1-84176-991-2)
- My Men Are My Heroes: The Brad Kasal Story, by Brad Kasal as told to Nathaniel R. Helms (2007) (ISBN 0-696-23236-7)
- On Call In Hell: A Doctor's Iraq War Story, by Cdr. Richard Jadick (2007) (ISBN 0-451-22053-6)
- House to House: An Epic Memoir of War, by SSG David Bellavia (2007) (ISBN 978-1-4165-7471-2)
- The Navy Cross: Extraordinary Heroism in Iraq, Afghanistan and Other Conflicts, by James E. Wise, Scott Baron (2007) (ISBN 1-59114-945-2)
- Marakat Al-Fallujah: Hazimat Amrika Fi Al-Iraq, by Ahmad Mansur (2008) (ISBN 978-977-427-309-4)
- Sunrise over Fallujah: A Publishers Weekly Best Book of 2008 (2008) (ISBN 978-0-439-91625-7)
- Fallujah: Shock & Awe (2009) (ISBN 978-0-85124-706-9)
- Inside Fallujah: The War on the Ground, Ahmed Mansour (2009) (ISBN 978-1-56656-778-7)
- The Daily Thoughts of a Fallujah Marine: by Josh Daugherty (2009) (ISBN 978-1-60836-044-4)
- Once a Marine: An Iraq War Tank Commander's Inspirational Memoir of Combat, Courage, and Recovery, by Nicholas Popaditch, with Mike Steere (2008) (ISBN 978-1-932714-47-0)
- Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq, by Dick Camp (2009) (ISBN 978-0-7603-3698-4)
- New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah, by Richard S. Lowry (2010) (ISBN 1-932714-77-4)
- "Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq". Motorbooks.com. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7.
- "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". The Independent (London). 22 October 2004. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- John Pike. "Operation al-Fajr (Dawn) / Phantom Fury [Fallujah,". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Karon, Tony (8 November 2004). "The Grim Calculations of Retaking Fallujah". Time. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Fallujah-Iwo Jima Comparison Raises Eyebrows
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7.
- "Iraq Coalition Casualties: UK Fatalities". Icasualties.org. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "Dead Black Watch soldiers named". BBC News. 5 November 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "Black Watch pays price for backing Fallujah offensive". The Independent. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 1 July 2011. Unknown parameter
- "From Fallujah to Qaim". Asia Times. 13 May 2005. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- "Red Cross Estimates 800 Iraqi Civilians Killed in Fallujah". Democracynow.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- ScanEagle Proves Worth in Fallujah Fight, DefenseLINK News
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2003–2005. Penguin. p. 399. ISBN 0-14-303891-5.
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2003–2005. Penguin. pp. 343–346. ISBN 0-14-303891-5
- "Frontline: Private Warriors: Contractors: The High-risk Contracting Business". Frontline.
- By BRIAN ROSS (@brianross) (24 September 2004). "Tracking Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi". ABC News. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Lowry, Richard S. (2010). New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah. Savas Beatie. p. 20. ISBN 1-932714-77-4.
- "Who Won the Battle of Fallujah?". Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- Lowry, Richard S. (2010). New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah. Savas Beatie. pp. 269–279. ISBN 1-932714-77-4.
- "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". The Independent (London). 22 October 2004. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- Filkins, Dexter; James Glanz (8 November 2004). "With Airpower and Armor, Troops Enter Rebel-Held City". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
- Bellavia, David (2008). House to House: A Tale of Modern War. Pocket Books. p. 336. ISBN 1-84739-118-4.
- Bellavia, David & Bruning, John. House to House: An Epic Memoir of War Free Press. (2007) ISBN 1-4165-7471-9.
- Wise p.75
- Gilbert, Michael (18 November 2004). "Stryker troops rejoin comrades in Mosul". Stryker Brigade News. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- McDonald, JoAnna M. (14 March 2006). "Photographing Fallujah". Leatherneck Magazine via Military.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Marine cleared in videotaped shooting". CNN. 5 May 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "U.S. Won't Let Men Flee Fallujah". Fox News Channel. 13 November 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Liewer, Steve (18 May 2005). "Troops Honored for Efforts at Fallujah". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- Fuentes, Gidget (22 September 2008). "Peralta to be given Navy Cross posthumously". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Parris Island DI earns Navy Cross". Marine Corps Times. 19 January 2007.
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7.
- Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. United States: ABC-CLIO. p. 304. ISBN 1-59884-336-2.
- "Still locked down, Fallujah slow to rebuild". MSNBC. 14 April 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "Increased Security In Fallujah Slows Efforts to Rebuild". The Washington Post. 19 April 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Holmes, Jonathan (4 April 2007). "The legacy of Fallujah". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "Telling the Fallujah Story to the World" (PPT). IMEF and MNCI Effects Exploitation Team. 3 December 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "Fallujah Four Months Later". Voice of America. 31 March 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- .Situation Called Dire in West Iraq
- US lost control of al-Anbar province[dead link]
- Spinner, Jackie (10 November 2004). "U.S. Forces Battle Into Heart of Fallujah". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
- "Dahr Jamail's Mideast Dispatches –". Dahrjamailiraq.com. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Reynolds, Paul (16 November 2005). "OPCW Spokesman Peter Kaiser elucidates the OPCW position on white phosphorus". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- OPCW agrees with US Military that use of white phosphorus as incendiary agent is not prohibited[dead link]
- "U.S. official admits phosphorus used as weapon in Iraq". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Dorell, Oren; Zoroya, Gregg (9 November 2006). "Battle for Fallujah". USA Today.
- "History of the 1st Marine Regiment" (DOC). MNF-West. Retrieved 22 December 2008.[dead link]
- Roggio, Bill (12 November 2004). "Retooling". Long War Journal. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "Forces Retake Key Civic Centers in Fallujah". U.S. Department of Defense. 10 November 2004. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- Brown, Colin (22 October 2004). "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". Independent (UK). Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- Pham, Alex (27 April 2009). "Konami cancels Six Days in Fallujah video game". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Shootout: Fallujah – History Channel documentary about the Battle of Fallujah
- Eyewitness Fallujah : A British TV Cameraman's account of Operation Phantom Fury
- Unusual Weapons used in Fallujah
- The Legality of the Use of White Phosphorus by the United States Military during the 2004 Fallujah Assaults" (24 January 2007). Berkeley Electronic Press Preprint Series. Working Paper 1959.
- 3/1 Update from Fallujah, 29 Dec. 2004., Marine Corps Moms