Second Chōshū expedition

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Second Chōshū expedition
第二次長州征討
Part of Bakumatsu Conflicts
Operations map of the Second Choshu Expedition by Sakamoto Ryoma.jpg
Operations map of the Second Chōshū expedition.
Date 7 June 1866
Location Western Japan
Result Decisive Shogunal defeat
Belligerents
Flag of Choshu domain.svg Chōshū Domain Flag of the Tokugawa Shogunate.svg Tokugawa shogunate
Flag of Aizu domain.svg Aizu Domain
Fukuyama Domain
Hamada Domain
Higo Domain
Hikone Domain
Iyo-Matsuyama Domain
Karatsu Domain
Kishū Domain
Kokura Domain
Kurume Domain
Kuwana Domain
Ōgaki Domain
Nakatsu Domain
Takada Domain
Yanagawa Domain
Strength
3,500-4,000 100,000-150,000
Casualties and losses
261 killed unknown

The Second Chōshū expedition (Japanese:第二次長州征討), also called the Summer War,[1] was a punitive expedition led by the Tokugawa Shogunate against the Chōshū Domain. It followed the First Chōshū expedition of 1864.

The Second Chōshū expedition was announced on 6 March 1865.[2] The operation started on 7 June 1866 with the bombardment of Suō-Ōshima, Yamaguchi by the Navy of the Bakufu.

The expedition ended in military disaster for the Shogunate troops, as Chōshū forces were modernized and organised effectively. By contrast, the Shogunate army was composed of antiquated feudal forces from the Bakufu and numerous neighbouring domains, with only small elements of modernised units.[3] Many domains only put up half-hearted efforts, and several refused Shogunate orders to attack outright, notably Satsuma who had by this point entered into an alliance with Choshu.

Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the new Shogun, managed to negotiate a ceasefire after the death of the previous Shogun, but the defeat fatally weakened the Shogunate's prestige.[3] Tokugawa military prowess was revealed to be a paper tiger, and it became apparent that the Shogunate could no longer impose its will upon the domains. The disastrous campaign is often seen to have sealed the fate of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

The defeat stimulated the Bakufu in making numerous reforms to modernize its administration and army. Yoshinobu's younger brother Ashitake was sent to the 1867 Paris Exposition, Western dress replaced Japanese dress at the Shogunal court, and collaboration with the French was reinforced leading to the 1867 French military mission to Japan.[3]

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Totman, Conrad. (1980). The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862-1868, p. 227.
  2. ^ Medzini, Meron. French Policy in Japan during the Closing Years of the Tokugawa Regime, p. 86., p. 86, at Google Books
  3. ^ a b c Jansen, Marius B. (2000). The Emergence of Meiji Japan, p. 187., p. 187, at Google Books

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