War of the Second Coalition
|The Second Coalition|
|Part of the French Revolutionary Wars|
Louis-François Lejeune: The Battle of Marengo
|| French Republic
French client republics:
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second attempt by European monarchs, led by the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Russian Empire, to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France. They formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back France's previous military conquests. Austria and Russia raised fresh armies for campaigns in Germany and Italy in 1799.
In the summer of 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt. Meanwhile, during his absence from Europe, the outbreak of violence in Switzerland drew French support against the old Swiss Confederation. When revolutionaries overthrew the cantonal government in Bern, the French Army of the Alps invaded, ostensibly to support the Swiss Republicans. In northern Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories, driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valley, forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic (Switzerland) were defeated by French commander André Masséna, and Suvorov eventually withdrew. Ultimately the Russians left the Coalition when Great Britain insisted on the right to search all vessels it stopped at sea. In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine and won several victories in Switzerland. Jourdan was replaced by Massena, who then combined the Armies of the Danube and Helvetia.
- 1 Background
- 2 Peace interrupted
- 3 Preliminaries to war against Austria
- 4 War between France and the Habsburgs
- 5 See also
- 6 Sources
- 7 External links
Initially, such rulers of Europe as Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, viewed the revolution in France as an event between the French king and his subjects, and not something in which they should interfere. As the rhetoric grew more strident, the monarchies started to view events with distrust. Leopold, who had succeeded Joseph as Emperor in 1790, saw the situation surrounding his sister, Marie Antoinette, and her children, with greater and greater alarm. As the revolution grew more and more radical, he still sought to avoid war, but in the late summer, he, in consultation with French émigré nobles and Frederick William II of Prussia, issued the Declaration of Pilnitz, in which they declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe as one with the interests of Louis and his family. They threatened vague, but serious, consequences if anything should happen to the royal family.
By 1792, the French republican position had become increasingly difficult. Compounding internal economic and social problems, French émigrés agitated abroad for support of a counter-revolution in France that would restore an absolute monarchy. Chief among them were the Prince of Condé (cousin of Louis XVI), Condé's son, the Duke of Bourbon, and Condé's grandson, the Duke d'Enghien. From their base in Koblenz, immediately over the French border, they sought direct support for military intervention from the royal houses of Europe, and themselves raised a small army. The ascension of young and uncompromising Francis as Holy Roman Emperor-elect on the death of his father in July 1792 also contributed to their unease.
War of the First Coalition
On 20 April 1792, the French National Convention declared war on Austria. In this War of the First Coalition (1792–98), France ranged itself against most of the European states sharing land or water borders with her, plus Portugal and the Ottoman Empire. Although the Coalition forces achieved several victories at the outset of the war, they were ultimately repulsed from French territory and then lost significant territories to the French, who began to set up client republics in their occupied territories. The efforts of Napoleon Bonaparte in northern Italy pushed Austrian forces back and resulted in the negotiation of the Peace of Leoben (17 April 1797) and the subsequent Treaty of Campo Formio (October 1797).
From October 1797 until March 1799, the signatories of the Treaty of Campo Formio avoided armed conflict. Despite their agreement at Campo Formio, two primary combatants, France and Austria, remained suspicious of each other and several diplomatic incidents undermined the agreement. The French demanded additional territory not mentioned in the Treaty. The Habsburgs were reluctant to hand over designated territories, much less additional ones. The Congress at Rastatt proved inept at orchestrating the transfer of territories to compensate the German princes for their losses. Ferdinand of Naples refused to pay tribute to France, followed by the Neapolitan rebellion and the subsequent establishment of the Parthenopaean Republic. Republicans in the Swiss cantons, supported by the French army, overthrew the central government in Bern and established the Helvetic Republic.
Other factors contributed to the rising tensions. On his way to Egypt, Napoleon had stopped at the heavily fortified port city of Valletta. The governor of Malta would only allow two ships at a time into the harbor, in accordance with the island's neutrality. Bonaparte immediately ordered the bombardment of Valletta and on 11 June, General Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers directed a landing of several thousand French troops at strategic locations around the island. The French Knights of the order deserted, and the remaining Knights failed to mount a successful resistance. Bonaparte forcibly removed the Hospitallers from their possessions, angering Paul, Tsar of Russia, who was the honorary head of the Order. The French Directory, furthermore, was convinced that the Austrians were conniving to start another war. Indeed, the weaker the French Republic seemed, the more seriously the Austrians, the Neapolitans, the Russians and the British actually discussed this possibility.
Preliminaries to war against Austria
Military planners in Paris understood that the northern Rhine Valley, the south-western German territories, and Switzerland were strategically important for the defense of the Republic. The Swiss passes commanded access to northern Italy; consequently, the army that held those passes could move troops to and from northern and southern theaters quickly.
Toward this end, in the early November 1798, Jourdan arrived in Hüningen to take command of the French forces there, the so-called Army of Observation because its function was to observe the security of the French border on the Rhine. Once there, he assessed the quality and disposition of the forces and identified needed supplies and manpower. He found the army woefully inadequate for its assignment. The Army of the Danube, and its two flanking armies, the Army of Helvetia and the Army of Mayence, or Mainz, were equally short of manpower, supplies, ammunition, and training; most resources were already directed to the Army in Northern Italy, and Army of Britain, and the Egyptian expedition. Jourdan documented assiduously these shortages, pointing out in lengthy correspondence to the Directory the consequences of an under-manned and under-supplied army; his petitions seemed to have little effect on the Directory, which sent neither significant additional manpower nor supplies.
Jourdan's orders were to take the army into Germany and secure strategic positions, particularly on the south-west roads through Stockach and Schaffhausen, at the western-most border of Lake Constance. Similarly, as commander of the Army of Helvetia (Switzerland), Andre Massena would acquire strategic positions in Switzerland, in particular the St. Gotthard Pass, the passes above Feldkirch, particularly Maienfeld (St. Luciensteig), and hold the central plateau in and around Zürich and Winterthur. These positions would prevent the Allies of the Second Coalition from moving troops back and forth between the northern Italian and German theaters, but would allow French access to these strategic passes. Ultimately, this positioning would allow the French to control all western roads leading to and from Vienna. Finally, the army of Mayence would sweep through the north, blocking further access to and from Vienna from any of the northern Provinces, or from Britain.
War between France and the Habsburgs
|This section requires expansion. (January 2011)|
Austrian and French conflict in southwestern Germany
Anglo-Russian Invasion of Holland
Disruption in France
By the end of 1799, Napoleon had returned from Egypt, leaving his army behind. He reorganized the French armies and command for the next year's campaign.
In 1800, Napoleon took personal command of the army in Italy, and eventually won a victory at the Battle of Marengo against the Austrian general Michael Melas, driving the Austrians back toward the Alps.
On 2 April 1801, the British navy defeated the Danish fleet at the Battle of Copenhagen.
Notes and citations
- Nominally the Holy Roman Empire, of which the Austrian Netherlands and the Duchy of Milan were under direct Austrian rule. Also encompassed many other Italian states, as well as other Habsburg states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
- Officially neutral but Danish fleet was attacked by Britain at the Battle of Copenhagen.
- Abolished following the restoration of the neutral Papal States in 1799.
- Short lived state that replaced the Kingdom of Naples in 1799.
- Timothy Blanning. The French Revolutionary Wars, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 41–59.
- Blanning, pp. 44–59.
- Blanning, pp. 230–232.
- John Gallagher. Napoleon's enfant terrible: General Dominique Vandamme, Tulsa: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-8061-3875-6 p. 70.
- Gunther E. Rothenberg. Napoleon’s Great Adversary: Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army, 1792–1914, Stroud, (Gloucester): Spellmount, 2007, ISBN 978-1-86227-383-2 pp. 70–74.
- Jourdan, pp. 60–90.
- Jourdan, pp. 50–60; Rothenberg, pp. 70–74.
- Acerbi, Enrico. "The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Klenau and Ott Vanguards and the Coalition’s Left Wing April–June 1799". Napoleon Series, Robert Burnham, editor in chief. March 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- (German) "Klenau, Johann Graf" in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, herausgegeben von der Historischen Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Band 16 (1882), ab Seite 156, Digitale Volltext-Ausgabe in (Version vom 27. Oktober 2009, 21:33 Uhr UTC).
- Arnold, James R. Napoleon Conquers Austria: the 1809 campaign for Vienna, 1809. Westport: Conn: Praeger, 1995, ISBN 1995978-0-275-94694-4.
- Ashton, John. English caricature and satire on Napoleon I. London: Chatto & Windus, 1888.
- Atkinson, Christopher Thomas. A history of Germany, 1715–1815. London: Methuen, 1908.
- (German) Bernau, Friedrich. Studien und Materialien zur Specialgeschichte und Heimatskunde des deutschen Sprachgebiets in Böhmen und Mähren. Prag: J.G. Calve, 1903.
- Blanning, Timothy. The French Revolutionary Wars. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-340-56911-5.
- Boué, Gilles. The Battle of Essling: Napoleon's first defeat? Alan McKay, Translator. Elkar, Spain: Histoire & Collectgions, 2008. ISBN 978-2-35250-055-1.
- Boycott-Brown, Martin. The Road to Rivoli. London: Cassell & Co., 2001. ISBN 0-304-35305-1.
- Bruce, Robert B. et al. Fighting techniques of the Napoleonic Age, 1792–1815. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Martin's Press, 2008, 978-0312375874
- Castle, Ian. The Battle of Wagram. The Napoleon Foundation 2009. Also found in (German) Zusammenfassung der Beitraege zum Napoleon Symposium "Feldzug 1809", Vienna: Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum, 2009, pp. 191–199.
- Chandler, David. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Macmillan, 1966. ISBN 978-0-02-523660-8.
- (German) Haan, Hermann. Die Habsburger, Ein biographisches Lexikon. München: Piper 1988.
- Dill, Marshall. Germany: a modern history. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970. ASIN B000NW7BFM
- Dyer, Thomas Henry. Modern Europe from the fall of Constantinople to the establishment of the German Empire, A.D. 1453–1871. London: G. Bell & Sons, 1877.
- (German) Ebert, Jens-Florian. "Klenau". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online.DE. Retrieved 15 October 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
- (French) Feller, François-Xavier and François Marie Pérennès. Biographie universelle, ou Dictionnaire historique des hommes qui se sont fait un nom par leur talens, leur génie..., Paris: Éditeurs Gauthier frères, 1834. Volume 4.
- Gates, David. The Napoleonic Wars 1803–1815. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN=0-340-61447-1.
- Gill, John. Thunder on the Danube Napoleon's Defeat of the Habsburgs, Volume 1. London: Frontline Books, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84415-713-6.
- (German) Heermannm, Norbert (or Enoch), Johann Matthäus Klimesch, and Václav Březan. Norbert Heermann's Rosenberg'sche chronik. Prag, Köngl. Böhmische gesellschaft der wissenschaften, 1897
- Herold, Stephen. The Austrian Army in 1812. In: Le Societé Napoléonienne. 1996–2003. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
- Hicks, Peter. The Battle of Aspern-Essling. History of Two Empires Reading Room. Napoleon Foundation, 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- Hochedlinger, Michael. Austria's Wars of Emergence 1683–1797. London: Pearson, 2003, ISBN 0-582-29084-8.
- Hofschroer, Peter, M. Townsend, et al. "Battle of Wagram 1809". Napoleon, His Army and Enemies. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- Kagan, Frederick W. The End of the Old Order. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press 2006, ISBN 978-0-306-81545-4.
- Leggiere, Michael V. "From Berlin to Leipzig: Napoleon's Gamble in North Germany, 1813." The Journal of Military History, Vol. 67, No. 1 (January 2003), pp. 39–84.
- de Marbot, Jean Baptiste Antoine (Baron), The Memoirs of General Baron De Marbot, Volume II, Chapter 23, no pagination. Electronic book widely available.
- Menzel, Wolfgang. Germany from the Earliest Period. Mrs. George Horrocks, trans. 4th German edition, volume 3, London: Bohn, 1849.
- (French) Naulet, Frédéric. Wagram, 5–6 juillet 1809, Une victoire chèrement acquise, Collections Grandes Batailles, Napoléon Ier Éditions, 2009.
- (German) Perkow, Ursula, "Der Schlacht bei Handshuhsheim". KuK Militärgeschichte. Lars-Holger Thümmler, editor. 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Petre, F Loraine. Napoleons̓ last campaign in Germany, 1813. London: John Lane Co., 1912.
- Pivka, Otto von. Armies of the Napoleonic Era. New York: Taplinger Publishing, 1979. ISBN 0-8008-5471-3
- Phipps, Ramsay Weston. The Armies of the First French Republic, volume 5: The armies of the Rhine in Switzerland, Holland, Italy, Egypt and the coup d'état of Brumaire, 1797–1799, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1939.
- Rothenberg, Gunther E. Napoleon’s Great Adversary: Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army 1792–1814. Spellmount: Stroud, (Gloucester), 2007. ISBN 978-1-86227-383-2.
- Sked, Alan. "Historians, the Nationality Question, and the Downfall of the Habsburg Empire." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, Vol. 31, (1981), pp. 175–193.
- Smith, Digby. The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9
- _____. Klenau. "Mesko". "Quosdanovich". Leopold Kudrna and Digby Smith (compilers). A biographical dictionary of all Austrian Generals in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815. The Napoleon Series, Robert Burnham, editor in chief. April 2008 version. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- _____. Charge! Great cavalry charges of the Napoleonic Wars. London: Greenhill, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85367-722-9
- _____. 1813: Leipzig Napoleon and the Battle of Nations. PA: Stackpole Books, 2001, ISBN 1-85367-435-4.
- Vann, James Allen. "Habsburg Policy and the Austrian War of 1809." Central European History, Vol. 7, No. 4 (December 1974), pp. 291–310, pp. 297–298.
- (German) Völkerschlacht-Gedenksteine an vielen Stellen in und um Leipzig, "Das Kolmberg-Denkmal bei Liebertwolkwitz". Farbfotos: www-itoja-de, Nov.2007. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Young, John D.D. A History of the Commencement, Progress, and Termination of the Late War between Great Britain and France which continued from the first day of February 1793 to the first of October 1801, in two volumes. Edinburg: Turnbull, 1802, vol. 2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to War of the Second Coalition.|