Second East Turkestan Republic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
East Turkestan Republic
شەرقىي تۈركىستان جۇمھۇرىيىتى
東突厥斯坦共和國
Satellite state of the Soviet Union[1][2][3][4]

1944–1949


Flag

Located in three contiguous prefectures in Xinjiang, or Northwest China. Contiguous, but with three Chinese enclaves.
The Ili, Tarbagatay, and Altay districts (red) in which the East Turkestan Republic was located.
Capital Ghulja[5]
Languages Uyghur
Kazakh
Russian
Government Communist Secular republic[2][6]
President Ali Khan Türe (1944–1946)
Ehmetjan Qasim (1946–1949)
History
 -  Established November 12, 1944
 -  Disestablished October 20, 1949
Currency Som

The Second East Turkestan Republic, usually known as the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), was a short-lived Soviet-backed Turkic Communist people's republic. The ETR existed in the 1940s (November 12, 1944 – October 20, 1949) in present day Xinjiang. It began as a revolution in three northern districts (Ili, Tarbaghatai, Altai) of Xinjiang province of the Republic of China, resulting in the Ili Rebellion. The rest of Xinjiang was under Kuomintang control. This region is now the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Background[edit]

From 1934 to 1941 Xinjiang was under the influence of the Soviet Union, similar to the Soviet Union's influence in Outer Mongolia. The local warlord Sheng Shicai was dependent on the Soviet Union for military support and trade. Soviet troops entered Xinjiang twice, in 1934 and 1937, for a limited periods of time to give direct military support to Sheng Shicai's regime. After suppressing the 36th Division General Ma Chung-yin in 1934 and the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1935, the USSR sent a commission to Xinjiang to draw up a plan for reconstruction of the province, led by Stalin's brother-in-law, Deputy Chief of Soviet State Bank, Alexander Svanidze, which resulted in a Soviet five-year loan of five million gold rubles to Sheng Shicai's regime. The draft was signed by Sheng Shicai on May 16, 1935, without consultation or approval by the Central Government of China. After Soviet intervention in 1937 and quelling of both Tungan and Uyghur rebels on the South of Xinjiang with liquidation of the 36th Tungan Division and 6th Uyghur Division, the Soviet Government did not withdraw all Soviet troops. A regiment of soldiers from the Ministry of Internal Affairs remained in Kumul beginning in October 1937, in order to prevent a possible offensive from the Imperial Japanese Army into Xinjiang through Inner Mongolia. In exchange, concessions were granted for oil wells, tin and tungsten mines, and trade terms highly favorable to the USSR.

In 1936, after Sheng Shicai expelled 20,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai, Hui led by General Ma Bufang massacred their fellow Muslim Kazakhs, until only 135 remained.[7][8]

On November 26, 1940, Sheng Shicai concluded an Agreement granting the USSR additional concessions in the province of Xinjiang for fifty years, including areas bordering India and Tibet. This placed Xinjiang under virtually full political and economic control of the USSR, making it part of China in name only. Sheng Shicai recalled in his memoir, "Red failure in Sinkiang," published by the University of Michigan in 1958, that Joseph Stalin pressured him to sign the secret Agreement of Concessions in 1940. The Agreement of Concessions, prepared by Stalin and seventeen articles long, would have resulted in Xinjiang sharing the same fate as Poland. Sheng Shicai was informed of this intended result by Soviet representatives in Urumchi Bakulin and Karpov.

The first article of Agreement stated that "The Government of Sinkiang agrees to extend to the Government of the USSR within the territory of Sinkiang exclusive rights to prospect for, investigate and exploit tin mines and its ancillary minerals." The USSR established a trust known as Sin-Tin as an independent juridical person subject only to legislative procedures of the USSR for implementation of the provisions of Agreement in accordance with Article 4 with right "to establish without hindrance branch offices, sub-branch offices and agencies within the whole territory of Sinkiang" with all supplies of needs of concessions, deliveries of equipment and materials and other imports from USSR and exports of minerals from Sinkiang free of custom duties and other imposts and taxes and payment of fixed price of five percent of the cost of mined minerals to the Xinjiang Government.[9]

Following this agreement, large-scale geological exploration expeditions were sent by the Soviets to Xinjiang in 1940 to 1941, and large deposits of diverse mineral resources, including uranium and beryllium, were found in the mountains near Kashgar and in the Altai region. Ores of both minerals continued to be delivered from Xinjiang Altai mines to the USSR until the end of 1949. Soviet geologists continued to work in Xinjiang until 1955, when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev refused Mao Zedong's demand to hand over to the technology to produce PRC nuclear weapons. A Chinese atomic project was initiated using facilities built by the Soviet Union in Chuguchak and Altai in Northern Xinjiang. These facilities were used by the Soviet Union for nuclear weapon design and the creation of the first Soviet atomic bomb, successfully tested in USSR on August 29, 1949. Thousands of Japanese POWs disappeared without traces during forcible participating in this project.

Following Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, and the entry of the United States into World War II in December 1941, the Soviet Union became a far less attractive patron of Sheng than the Kuomintang. In 1942, Sheng Shicai switched his allegiance to the Kuomintang after major Soviet defeats at the hands of the Germans in World War II, all Soviet Red Army military forces and technicians residing in the province were expelled,[10] and the Republic of China National Revolutionary Army units and soldiers belonging to Ma Bufang moved into Xinjiang to take control of the province. Ma Bufang helped the Kuomintang build motor roadways linking Qinghai and Xinjiang, which helped both of them bring Xinjiang under their influence.[11] At the end of 1942, Sheng demanded that the Soviet Union withdraw all military forces and political officers from Xinjiang. Sheng was appointed the head of the Kuomintang branch in Xinjiang in 1943 and allowed Kuomintang cadres into the province. In the summer of 1944, following the German defeat on the Eastern Front, Sheng attempted to reassert control over Xinjiang and turned to the Soviet Union for support again. He arrested a number of Kuomintang cadres in Urumchi and sent a letter to Stalin with offer to "incorporate Xinjiang into USSR as its 18th Soviet Socialistic Republic."[12] Sheng Shicai asked Stalin for the post of a Ruler of the new Soviet Republic. Stalin refused to deal with Sheng and forwarded this confidential letter to Chiang Kai-shek. As a result, the Kuomintang removed him from the province in August 1944 and appointed him to a low-level post in the Ministry of Forestry in Chongqing.

In 1944, the Soviets took advantage of discontent among the Turkic peoples of the Ili region in northern Xinjiang to support a rebellion against Kuomintang rule in the province in order to reassert Soviet influence in the region.

Rebellion[edit]

Main article: Ili Rebellion

Many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, political, and economic ties with Russia and then the Soviet Union. Many of them were educated in the Soviet Union and a community of Russian settlers lived in the region. As a result, many of the Turkic rebels fled to the Soviet Union and obtained Soviet assistance in creating the Sinkiang Turkic People's Liberation Committee (STPNLC) in 1943 to revolt against Kuomintang rule during the Ili Rebellion.[13] The pro-Soviet Uyghur who later became leader of the revolt and the Second East Turkestan Republic, Ehmetjan Qasim, was Soviet educated and described as "Stalin's man" and as a "communist-minded progressive".[14] Qasim Russified his surname to "Kasimov" and became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Liu Bin-Di was a Hui Muslim Kuomintang (KMT) officer and was sent by officials in Urumqi to subdue the Hi area and crush the Turkic Muslims, who were prepared to overthrow Chinese rule. His mission failed because his troops arrived too late.[15] Several Turkic cavalry units armed by the Soviets crossed into China in the direction of Kuldja. In November 1944 Liu was killed by Turkic Uyghur and Kazakh rebels backed by the Soviet Union. This started the Ili Rebellion, with the Uyghur Ili rebel army fighting against Republic of China forces.

Following Sheng Shicai's departure from Xinjiang, the new Kuomintang administration had increasing trouble maintaining law and order. On September 16, 1944, troops that had been sent to Gongha county, a majority Kazak region, were unable to contain a group of rioters. By October 8, the rioters had captured Nilka, the county seat. During October, the Three Districts Rebellion broke out south of Ghulja in the Ili, Altay and Tarbagatay districts of northern Xinjiang. Aided by the Soviet Union, and supported by several Xinjiang exiles trained in the Soviet Union, the rebels quickly established control over the three districts, capturing Ghulja in November. The ethnic Chinese population of the region was reduced by massacre and expulsion. According to United States consular officials, the Islamic scholar Elihan Töre declared a "Turkistan Islam Government":

"The Turkestan Islam Government is organized: praise be to Allah for his manifold blessings! Allah be praised! The aid of Allah has given us the heroism to overthrow the government of the oppressor Chinese. But even if we have set ourselves free, can it be pleasing in the sight of our God if we only stand and watch while you, our brethren in religion ... still bear the bloody grievance of subjection to the black politics of the oppressor Government of the savage Chinese? Certainly our God would not be satisfied. We will not throw down our arms until we have made you free from the five bloody fingers of the Chinese oppressors' power, nor until the very roots of the Chinese oppressors' government have dried and died away from the face of the earth of East Turkestan, which we have inherited as our native land from our fathers and our grandfathers."

Liu Bin-Di was a Hui Muslim Kuomintang (KMT) officer and was sent by officials in Urumqi to subdue the Hi area and crush the Turkic Muslims, who were prepared to overthrow Chinese rule. His mission failed because his troops arrived too late.[15] Several Turkic cavalry units armed by the Soviets crossed into China in the direction of Kuldja. In November 1944 Liu was killed by Turkic Uyghur and Kazakh rebels backed by the Soviet Union. This started the Ili Rebellion, with the Uyghur Ili rebel army fighting against Republic of China forces.

The rebels assaulted Kulja on 7 November 1944 and rapidly took over parts of the city, massacring KMT troops, however, the rebels encountered fierce resistance from KMT forces holed up in the power and central police stations and did not take them until the 13th. The creation of the "East Turkestan Republic" (ETR) was declared on the 15th[16] The Soviet Army assisted the Ili Uyghur army in capturing several towns and airbases. Non-communists Russians like White Russians and Russian settlers who had lived in Xinjiang since the 19th century also helped the Soviet Red Army and the Ili Army rebels. They suffered heavy losses.[17] Many leaders of the East Turkestan Republic were Soviet agents or affiliated with the Soviet Union, like Abdulkerim Abbas, Ishaq Beg, Saifuddin Azizi and the White Russians F. Leskin, A. Polinov., and Glimkin.[18] When the rebels ran into trouble taking the vital Airambek airfield from the Chinese, Soviet military forces directly intervened to help mortar the Airambek and reduce the Chinese stronghold.[19]

The rebels engaged in massacres of Han Chinese civilians, especially targeting people affiliated with the KMT and Sheng Shicai.[20] In the "Kulja Declaration" issued on 5 January 1945, the East Turkestan Republic proclaimed that it would "sweep away the Han Chinese", threatening to extract a "blood debt" from the Han. The Declaration also declared that the Republic would seek to especially establish cordial ties with the Soviets.[21] The ETR later deemphasized the anti-Han tone in their official proclamations after they were done massacring most of the Han civilians in their area.[22] The massacres against the Han occurred mostly during 1944-45, with the KMT responding in kind by torturing, killing, and mutilating ETR prisoners.[19] In territory controlled by the ETR like Kulja, various repressive measures were carried out, like barring Han from owning weapons, operating a Soviet style secret police, and only making Russian and Turkic languages official and not Chinese.[23] While the non-Muslim Tungusic peoples like the Xibe played a large role in helping the rebels by supplying them with crops, the local Muslim Tungan (Hui) in Ili gave either an insignificant and negligible contribution to the rebels or did not assist them at all.[22]

The demands of the rebels included termination of Chinese rule, equality for all nationalities, recognised use of native languages, friendly relations with the Soviet Union, and opposition to Chinese immigration into Xinjiang. The military forces available to the rebellion were the newly formed Ili National Army (INA) and later renamed the East Turkestan National Army, which included mostly Uighur, Kazakh and White Russian soldiers (around 60,000 troops, armed and trained by the Soviet Union, strengthened with regular Red Army units, that included up to 500 officers and 2,000 soldiers), and a group of Kazak Karai tribesmen under the command of Osman Batur (around 20,000 horsemen). The Kazaks expanded to the north, while the INA expanded to the south. By September 1945, the Kuomintang Army and the INA occupied positions on either side of the Manasi River near Ürümqi. By this time the ETR held Zungaria and Kashgaria, while the Kuomintang held the Ürümqi (Tihuwa) area.

The "Ili National Army" (INA) which was established on 8 April 1945 as the military arm of the ETR, was led by the Kirghiz Ishaq Beg and the White Russians Polinov and Leskin, and all three were pro Soviet and had a history of military service with Soviet associated forces.[24] The Soviets supplied the INA with ammunition and Russian style uniforms, and Soviet troops directly helped the INA troops fight against the Chinese forces.[25] The INA uniforms and flags all had insignia with the Russian acronym for "East Turkestan Republic", VTR in Cyrillic (Vostochnaya Turkestanskaya Respublika). The Soviets admitted their support of the rebels decades later when they transmitted a radio broadcast in Uyghur from Radio Tashkent into Xinjiang on 14 May 1967, boasting of the fact that the Soviets had trained and armed the East Turkestan Republic forces against China.[26] Thousands of Soviet troops assisted Turkic rebels in fighting the Chinese army.[27] In October 1945 suspected Soviet planes attacked Chinese positions.[28]

As the Soviet Red Army and Turkic Uyghur Ili Army advanced with Soviet air support against poorly prepared Chinese forces, they almost succeeded in reaching Ürümqi; however, the Chinese military threw up rings of defences around the area, sending Chinese Muslim cavalry to halt the advance of the Turkic Muslim rebels. Thousands of Chinese Muslim troops under General Ma Bufang and his nephew General Ma Chengxiang poured into Xinjiang from Qinghai to combat the Soviet and Turkic Uyghur forces.

Much of the Ili army and equipment originated from the Soviet Union. The Ili rebel army pushed the Chinese army across the plains, and reached Kashgar, Kaghlik, and Yarkand. However, the Uyghurs in the oases gave no support to the Soviet backed rebels and, as a result, the Chinese army was able to expel the rebels. The Ili rebels then butchered livestock belonging to Kirghiz and Tajiks of Xinjiang.[29] The Soviet backed insurgents destroyed Tajik and Kirghiz crops and moved aggressively against the Tajiks and Kirghiz of China.[30]

The Chinese Muslim Ma Clique warlord of Qinghai, Ma Bufang was sent with his Muslim Cavalry to Urumqi by the Kuomintang in 1945 to protect it from the Uyghur rebels from Ili.[28][31][32][33][34] In 1945, the Tungan (Hui) 5th and 42nd Cavalry were sent from Qinghai to Xinjiang where they reinforced the KMT 2nd Army, made out of 4 divisions. Their combined forces made for 100,000 Hui and Han troops serving under KMT command in 1945.[35] It was reported the Soviets was eager to "liquidate" Ma Bufang.[36] General Ma Chengxiang, another Hui Ma Clique officer and nephew of Ma Bufang, commanded the First Cavalry Division in Xinjiang under the KMT, which was formerly the Gansu Fifth Cavalry Army.[37][38][39]

A cease-fire was declared in 1946, with the Second East Turkestan Republic in control of Ili and the Chinese in control of the rest of Xinjiang, including Ürümqi.

Negotiations and coalition government in Ürümchi[edit]

In August 1945, China signed a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance granting the Soviet Union a range of concessions that the United States promised at the Yalta conference. This ended overt Soviet support for the East Turkistan Republic. The Kuomintang reached a negotiated settlement with the leaders of the ETR in July 1946. In effect, little changed. The ETR remained a de facto separate pro-Soviet state with its own currency and military forces. Political activity in the Republic was limited to the Union for the Defense of Peace and Democracy, a party on the Leninist one-party model. Kuomintang officials were prohibited from the Three Districts, and in return the Kuomintang actively supported opposition politicians. By this time, these opposition politicians included Elihan Töre, who disappeared visiting the Soviet Union, and the Kazak leader Osman Batur, who broke with the other rebels when their pro-Soviet orientation became clear. The Kuomintang appointed several important Uyghurs as advisors to the Xinjiang administration and made Ehmetjan Qasim, the leader of the ETR, the Provincial Vice Chairman.

Bai Chongxi, a Muslim and the Defence Minister of China, was considered for appointment as the Governor of Xinjiang. The position was then given to Masud Sabri, a pro-Kuomintang Uyghur who was an anti-Soviet politician.[40]

Anti ETR Uyghurs[edit]

The KMT CC Clique employed countermeasures in Xinjiang to prevent the conservative, traditionalist religious Uyghurs in the oases in Southern Xinjiang from defecting to the pro-Soviet, pro-Russian ETR Uyghurs in Ili in Northern Xinjiang. The KMT allowed three anti-Soviet, Pan-Turkic nationalist Uyghurs, Masud Sabri, Muhammad Amin Bughra and Isa Yusuf Alptekin to write and publish pan-Turkic nationalist propaganda in order to incite the Turkic peoples against the Soviets, and the Soviets were severely angered by this.[41][42] American telegrams then reported that Uyghur mobs in the oases were calling for White Russians to be expelled from Xinjiang after the Han Chinese were expelled from the area. They said, "We freed ourselves from the yellow men, now we must destroy the white."[40]

Many Ining Muslim leaders planned to move to Tihwa (Urumchi and escape to Inner China to escape Soviet pressure. They feared that they were going to be murdered by the Soviet army.

Ehmetjan Qasim demanded Masud Sabri to be removed as Governor and all prisoners to be released from Kuomintang jails.

Uyghur linguist Ibrahim Muti'i opposed the Second East Turkestan Republic and was against the Ili Rebellion because it was backed by the Soviets and Stalin. The former ETR leader Saifuddin Azizi later apologized to Ibrahim and admitted that his oppostion to the East Turkestan Republic was the correct thing to do.

Kazakh Defection[edit]

Osman Batur, the Kazakh leader, defected to the Kuomintang, and started fighting against the Soviet Union and the Mongolian army during the Pei-ta-shan Incident. The Tungan (Chinese Muslim or Hui) 14th Cavalry Regiment, which worked for the Kuomintang, was sent by the Chinese government to attack Soviet and Mongol Army at Peitashan on the Xinjiang-Mongolia border.

Pei-ta-shan Incident[edit]

The Pei-ta-shan Incident was a border conflict between the Republic of China and the Mongolian People's Republic. The Chinese Muslim Hui cavalry regiment was sent by the Chinese government to attack Mongol and Soviet positions, resulting in the conflict.[43]

A Xinjiang police station manned by a Chinese police force with Chinese sentry posts existed in Xinjiang both before and after 1945.[44]

Chinese Muslim and Turkic Kazakh forces working for the Chinese Kuomintang, battled Soviet Russian and Mongol troops. In June 1947, the Mongols and the Soviets launched an attack against the Kazakhs, driving them back to the Chinese side of the border. Fighting continued for another year, with thirteen clashes taking place between June 5, 1947, and July 1948.[45]

Mongolia invaded Xinjiang to assist Li Rihan, the pro-Russian Special Commissioner, gain control of Xinjiang from Special Commissioner Us Man (Osman), who supported the Republic of China.[clarification needed] The Chinese defence ministry spokesman announced that Outer Mongolian soldiers were captured at Peitashan, and stated that troops[clarification needed] were resisting near Peitashan.[46]

Elite Qinghai Hui cavalry were sent by the Chinese Kuomintang to destroy the Mongols and the Russians in 1947.[47][48]

The Chinese troops recaptured Peitashan and continued to fight against Soviet and Mongolian bomber planes. China's Legislative Yuan demanded a firmer policy against Russia.[49]

The Chinese General Ma Xizhen and the Kazakh Osman Batur fought against the Mongol troops and airplanes throughout June, 1947.[50] The MPR used a battalion size force and had Soviet air support on June 1947.[51] The Mongolians repeatedly probed the Chinese lines.[52][53]

Osman continued to fight against the Uyghur forces of the Yili regime in north Ashan after being defeated by Soviet forces.[54]

Absorption by the People's Republic of China[edit]

In July 1949, the advancing People's Liberation Army crossed the Yangtze River and cut off the Kuomintang administration in southern Xinjiang. By the end of 1949 some Kuomintang officials fled to Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan, but most surrendered to the Communist Party of China. On August 17 1949, the Communist Party of China sent Deng Liqun to negotiate with the ETR's leadership in Ghulja (Yining in Chinese). Mao Zedong invited the leaders of the ETR to take part in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference later that year. The leaders of the ETR traveled to the Soviet Union on August 22 by auto cars through Horgos, accompanied by Soviet vice-consul at Ghulja Vasiliy Borisov, where they were told to cooperate with the Communist Party of China. Negotiations between ETR and Soviet representatives in Alma-Ata continued 3 days and were tough because of unwillingness of leader of ETR Ehmetjan Qasimi ( who was opposed in his decision by at least 2 members of ETR-Abdulkerim Abbas and Luo Zhi) to agree to incorporate the three districts into future Chinese communist state, supposedly in 1951 ( People's Republic of China was proclaimed 2 years earlier, on October 1 1949, mostly due to successful testing of atomic weapon by USSR on August 29 1949, thus stripping the monopoly of USA for this weapon of mass destruction, after this testing Stalin pressed Mao to accelerate term of Proclamation of PRC). He regarded the current situation as a real chance for centuries for Uyghurs and other people of all Xinjiang to gain freedom and independence, that shouldn't be loosed. So, delegation was offered to continue negotiations in Moscow directly with Soviet leadership before departure to Beijing. On August 24, Ehmetjan Qasimi, Abdulkerim Abbas, Ishaq Beg, Luo Zhi, Dalelkhan Sugirbayev and accompanied officers of ETR, total 14 men, boarded a plane in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, headed officially for Beijing, but flight was diverted for Moscow. On September 3, the Soviet Union informed the Chinese government that the plane had crashed near lake of Baikal en route to Beijing, killing all on board.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, some former KGB generals and high officers ( among them Pavel Sudoplatov) revealed that five top ETR leaders were killed on Stalin's orders in Moscow on August 27 1949, after a three-day imprisonment in former Tsar's stables, being arrested just upon arrival to Moscow by the Head of MGB Colonel General Viktor Abakumov, who personally interrogated ETR leaders, then ordered execution. This was allegedly done in accordance with a deal between Stalin and China's communist leader Mao Zedong[55][56][better source needed], but this allegation has never been confirmed. The remaining important figures of the ETR, including Saifuddin Azizi (who lead the Second delegation of ETR, which participated in Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in September in Beijing, that proclaimed People's Republic of China on October 01 1949), agreed to incorporate the three districts into the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and accept important positions within the administration. However, some Kazakhs led by Osman Batur continued their resistance until 1954.[57][58] Saifuddin then became the first chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, which replaced Xinjiang Province in 1955. First People's Liberation Army units arrived in Urumchi airport on October 20 1949 on Soviet airplanes, provided by Stalin, and quickly established control in Northern Xinjiang, then together with units of National Army of ETR entered Southern Xinjiang, thus establishing control over all 10 districts of Xinjiang Province. Earlier, on September 26 1949, 100,000 Kuomintang Army troops in the province in one day switched their allegiance from Kuomintang to Communist Party of China together with the Chairman of Xinjang Provincial Government Burhan Shahidi, who was among a few persons, who knew what really happened with the First delegation of ETR in August in the USSR. On December 20 1949 National Army joined PLA as its 5th Army Corps, with final political solution in the province solving in 1955, reorganizing it into autonomous region for 13 nationalities of Xinjiang.

National army[edit]

The National Army of the Second East Turkestan Republic was formed on April 8, 1945, and originally consisted of six regiments:

  1. Suidun infantry regiment
  2. Ghulja regiment
  3. Kensai regiment
  4. Ghulja reserve regiment
  5. Kazakh cavalry regiment
  6. Tungan regiment
  7. Sibo battalion
  8. Mongol battalion

General conscription of all races, except the Chinese, into National Army was enforced in the Ili zone.[40]

Later, Sibo and Mongol battalions were upgraded to regiments. When Kazakh irregulars under Osman Batur defected to the Kuomintang in 1947, the Kazakh cavalry regiment of National Army also defected to Osman Batur. The motorized part of Army consisted of an Artillery Division, which included twelve cannons, two armoured vehicles, and two tanks. National aviation forces included forty two airplanes, captured on Kuomintang air base in Ghulja on January 31, 1945, all of them were damaged during battle for air base. Some of these aircraft were repaired and put into service by Soviet military personnel in ETR. These airplanes participated in the battle between Ili rebels and the Kuomintang for Shihezi and Jinghe in September 1945.

This battle resulted in capturing of both KMT bases and oil fields in Dushanzi. During the battle one more Kuomintang air plane was captured, detachments of National Army reached Manasi River north of Urumchi, which caused panic in the city. Government offices were evacuated to Kumul. An offensive on Xinjiang's capital was cancelled due to direct pressure from Moscow on Ili rebels' leadership, which agreed to follow orders from Moscow to begin peace talks with Kuomintang. Moscow ordered the National Army to cease fire on all frontiers. First peace talks between Ili rebels and Kuomintang followed Chiang Kai Shek's speech on China State Radio, offering "to peacefully resolve Xinjiang crisis" with the rebels. These peace talks were mediated by the Soviet Union and started in Urumchi on October 14, 1945.

The National Army enlisted 25,000 to 30,000 troops. In accordance with the peace agreement with Chiang Kai-Shek signed on June 6, 1946, this number was reduced to 11,000 to 12,000 troops and restricted to stations in only three districts (Ili, Tarbaghatai and Altai) of Northern Xinjiang. The detachments of National Army were also withdrawn from Southern Xinjiang, leaving the strategic Old City of Aksu and opening the road from Urumchi to Kashgar Region. This gave the Kuomintang the opportunity to send 70,000 troops from 1946 to 1947 and quell Rebellion in Pamir Mountains.

This rebellion was broken on August 19, 1945, in the Sariqol area of Taghdumbash Pamir. Rebels under leadership of Uyghur Sadiq Khan Khoja from Kargilik and Sariqoli Tajik Karavan Shah captured all boundary posts near the Afghanistan, Soviet and Indian frontiers (Su-Bashi, Daftar, Mintaka Qarawul, Bulunqul), and a Tashkurgan fortress, killing Kuomintang troops. The revels took Kuomintang troops by surprise as they celebrated the capitulation of Japanese Army in Manchuria. Few Kuomintang forces in Sariqol survived and fled to India during the rebel attack. The original base of the rebellion was situated on the mountainous Pamir village of Tagarma, close to the Soviet border. On September 15, 1945, Tashkurgan rebels took Igiz-Yar on the road to Yangihissar, while another group of rebels simultaneously took Oitagh, Bostan-Terek, and Tashmalik on the road to Kashgar.

By the end of 1945, Tashkurgan rebels launched an offensive on Kashgar and Yarkand districts. On January 2, 1946, while the Preliminary Peace Agreement was signed in Urumchi between Ili rebels and Kuomintang representatives under Soviet mediation, rebels took Guma, Kargilik, and Poskam, important towns controlling communications between Xinjiang, Tibet, and India. On January 11, 1946, the Kuomintang Army launched a counter-attack in the Yarkand military zone, bringing reinforcements from Aksu Region. The counter-attackers repelled Tashkurgan rebels from outskirts of Yarkand, recaptured towns Poskam, Kargilik, Guma and brought the Tashkurgan Region back under Chinese control by the summer of 1946.

Only a few hundred of the 7000 rebel forces survived. The survivors retreated to the mountainous Pamir base in Qosrap (village in present day Akto County of XUAR). The National Army was inactive from 1946 to 1949 until the arrival of People's Liberation Army (PLA) units to Xinjiang.

Deng Li-Chun, a special envoy of Mao Zedong, arrived at Ghulja on August 17, 1949, to perform negotiations with ETR leadership about future of the ETR. Deng sent a secret telegram to Mao about ETR forces following day. He listed these forces as including about 14,000 troops, armed mostly by German weapons, heavy artillery weaponry, 120 military trucks and artillery towing vehicles, and around 6,000 cavalry horses. Soviet military personnel were present in the Army and serviced fourteen airplanes, which were used as air bombers. On December 20, 1949, the National Army was incorporated into the PLA as its Xinjiang 5th Army Corps.

Press[edit]

The newspaper of East Turkestan was Azat Sherkiy Turkistan (Free Eastern Turkestan), first published on November 17, 1944, in Ghulja five days after establishing of Second ETR Government. The newspaper was later renamed as Inqlawiy Sherkiy Turkistan (Revolutionary Eastern Turkestan).

Related events and people[edit]

Main articles: Xinjiang conflict and Rebiya Kadeer

According to her autobiography, Dragon Fighter: One Woman's Epic Struggle for Peace with China, Rebiya Kadeer's father served with pro-Soviet Uyghur rebels under the Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion (Three Province Rebellion) in 1944-1946, using Soviet assistance and aid to fight the Republic of China government under Chiang Kai-shek.[59] Kadeer and her family were close friends with White Russian exiles living in Xinjiang and Kadeer recalled that many Uyghurs thought Russian culture was "more advanced" than that of the Uyghurs and they "respected" the Russians a lot.[60]

In the Xinjiang conflict, the Soviet Union again backed Uyghur separatists against China starting in the 1960s. The Soviet Union incited separatist activities in Xinjiang through propaganda, encouraging Kazakhs to flee to the Soviet Union and attacking China. China responded by reinforcing the Xinjiang-Soviet border area specifically with Han Bingtuan militia and farmers.[61] The Soviets massively intensified their broadcasts inciting Uyghurs to revolt against the Chinese via Radio Tashkent since 1967 and directly harbored and supported separatist guerilla fighters to attack the Chinese border, in 1966 the amount of Soviet sponsored separatist attacks on China numbered 5,000.[62] The Soviets transmitted a radio broadcast from Radio Tashkent into Xinjiang on 14 May 1967, boasting of the fact that the Soviets had supported the Second East Turkestan Republic against China.[63] In addition to Radio Tashkent, other Soviet media outlets aimed at disseminating propaganda towards Uyghurs urging that they proclaim independence and revolt against China included Radio Alma-Ata and the Alma-Ata published Sherki Türkistan Evazi ("The Voice of Eastern Turkestan") newspaper.[64] After the Sino-Soviet split in 1962, over 60,000 Uyghurs and Kazakhs defected from Xinjiang to the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, in response to Soviet propaganda which promised Xinjiang independence. Uyghur exiles later threatened China with rumors of a Uyghur "liberation army" in the thousands that were supposedly recruited from Sovietized emigres.[65]

The Soviet Union was involved in funding and support to the East Turkestan People's Revolutionary Party (ETPRP), the largest militant Uyghur separatist organization in its time, to start a violent uprising against China in 1968.[66][67][68][69][70] In the 1970s, the Soviets also supported the United Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (URFET) to fight against the Chinese.[71]

"Bloody incidents" in 1966-67 flared up as Chinese and Soviet forces clashed along the border as the Soviets trained anti-Chinese guerillas and urged Uyghurs to revolt against China, hailing their "national liberation struggle".[72] In 1969, Chinese and Soviet forces directly fought each other along the Xinjiang-Soviet border.[73][74][75][76]

The Soviet Union supported Uyghur nationalist propaganda and Uyghur separatist movements against China. The Soviet historians claimed that the Uyghur native land was Xinjiang and Uyghur nationalism was promoted by Soviet versions of history on turcology.[77] Soviet turcologists like D.I. Tikhonov wrote pro-independence works on Uyghur history and the Soviet supported Uyghur historian Tursun Rakhimov wrote more historical works supporting Uyghur independence and attacking the Chinese government, claiming that Xinjiang was an entity created by China made out of the different parts of East Turkestan and Zungharia.[78] These Soviet Uyghur historians were waging an "ideological war" against China, emphasizing the "national liberation movement" of Uyghurs throughout history.[79] The Soviet Communist Party supported the publication of works which glorified the Second East Turkestan Republic and the Ili Rebellion against China in its anti-China propaganda war.[80] Soviet propaganda writers wrote works claiming that Uyghurs lived better lives and were able to practice their culture only in Soviet Central Asia and not in Xinjiang.[81] In 1979 Soviet KGB agent Victor Louis wrote a thesis claiming that the Soviets should support a "war of liberation" against the "imperial" China to support Uighur, Tibetan, Mongol, and Manchu independence.[82][83] The Soviet KGB itself supported Uyghur separatists against China.[84]

Uyghur nationalist historian Turghun Almas and his book Uyghurlar (The Uyghurs) and Uyghur nationalist accounts of history were galvanized by Soviet stances on history, "firmly grounded" in Soviet Turcological works, and both heavily influenced and partially created by Soviet historians and Soviet works on Turkic peoples.[85] Soviet historiography spawned the rendering of Uyghur history found in Uyghurlar.[86] Almas claimed that Central Asia was "the motherland of the Uyghurs" and also the "ancient golden cradle of world culture".[87]

Xinjiang's importance to China increased after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, leading to China's perception of being encircled by the Soviets.[88] The China supported the Afghan mujahideen during the Soviet invasion, and broadcast reports of Soviet atrocities on Afghan Muslims to Uyghurs in order to counter Soviet propaganda broadcasts into Xinjiang, which boasted that Soviet minorities lived better and incited Muslims to revolt.[89] Chinese radio beamed anti-Soviet broadcasts to Central Asian ethnic minorities like the Kazakhs.[73] The Soviets feared disloyalty among the non-Russian Kazakh, Uzbek, and Kyrgyz in the event of Chinese troops attacking the Soviet Union and entering Central Asia. Russians were goaded with the taunt "Just wait till the Chinese get here, they'll show you what's what!" by Central Asians when they had altercations.[90] The Chinese authorities viewed the Han migrants in Xinjiang as vital to defending the area against the Soviet Union.[91] China opened up camps to train the Afghan Mujahideen near Kashgar and Khotan and supplied them with hundreds of millions of dollars worth of small arms, rockets, mines, and anti-tank weapons.[92][93]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David D. Wang. Under the Soviet Shadow: The Yining Incident; Ethnic Conflicts and International Rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944–1949. pg. 406
  2. ^ a b http://www.oxuscom.com/sovinxj.htm
  3. ^ David Wang. The Xinjiang question of the 1940s: the story behind the Sino-Soviet treaty of August 1945
  4. ^ Into Tibet: Thomas Laird. The CIA's First Atomic Spy and His Secret Expedition to Lhasa pg. 25
  5. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 176. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-09-20. 
  6. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 376. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-09-20. 
  7. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volumes 276-278. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. ^ Agreement of Concessions, Article 7.
  10. ^ Lin 2007, p. 130.
  11. ^ Lin 2002.
  12. ^ Besides of original 15 Soviet Republics of the Soviet Union, Sheng Shicai considered Mongolia as 16th Soviet Republic and Tuva, whose incorporation into USSR was under way, as 17th Soviet Republic.
  13. ^ Forbes 1986, pp.172-173.
  14. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 174
  15. ^ a b Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 1982, p. 299.
  16. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 176
  17. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 178
  18. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 180
  19. ^ a b Forbes 1986, p. 181
  20. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 179
  21. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 183
  22. ^ a b Forbes 1986, p. 184
  23. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 217
  24. ^ Forbes 1986, pp. 185-6
  25. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 187
  26. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 188
  27. ^ Potter 1945, "Red Troops Reported Aiding Sinkiang Rebels Fight China" p. 2
  28. ^ a b Wireless to THE NEW YORK TIMES 1945, "Sinkiang Truce Follows Bombings Of Chinese in 'Far West' Revolt; Chungking General Negotiates With Moslem Kazakhs--Red-Star Planes Are Traced to Earlier Soviet Supply in Area" p. 2
  29. ^ Shipton & Perrin 1997, p. 488.
  30. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 204
  31. ^ Preston & Partridge & Best 2000, p. 63[1] [2][3]
  32. ^ Jarman 2001, p. 217.[4]
  33. ^ Preston & Partridge & Best 2003, p. 25
  34. ^ [5]
  35. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 168.
  36. ^ 1949, "The Sydney Morning Herald " p. 4
  37. ^ Wang 1999, p. 373.
  38. ^ Ammentorp 2000–2009, "Generals from China Ma Chengxiang"
  39. ^ Brown & Pickowicz 2007, p. 191.
  40. ^ a b c Unsuccessful attempts to resolve political problems in Sinkiang; Extent of Soviet aid and encouragement to rebel groups in Sinkiang; Border incident at Peitashan
  41. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 217.
  42. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 191.
  43. ^ Li, Chang. "THE SOVIET GRIP ON SINKIANG". JSTOR 20031047. 
  44. ^ Taylor & Francis. China and the Soviet Union. p. 233. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  45. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 215. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  46. ^ "Political Implications in Mongolian Invasion of N. China Province". The Canberra Times. 13 June 1947. 
  47. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 214. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  48. ^ Dickens, Mark. "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911–1949". Oxus Communications. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  49. ^ "CHINESE TROOPS RECAPTURE PEITASHAN". The Canberra Times. 13 June 1947. 
  50. ^ David D. Wang (1999). Clouds over Tianshan: essays on social disturbance in Xinjiang in the 1940s. NIAS Press. p. 87. ISBN 87-87062-62-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  51. ^ Xiaoyuan Liu (2006). Reins of liberation: an entangled history of Mongolian independence, Chinese territoriality, and great power hegemony, 1911–1950. Stanford University Press. p. 380. ISBN 0-8047-5426-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  52. ^ "CHINA: Encirclement". TIME magazine. 6 October 1947. 
  53. ^ "A Letter From The Publisher, Oct. 20, 1947". TIME magazine. 20 October 1947. 
  54. ^ David D. Wang (1999). Under the Soviet shadow: the Yining Incident : ethnic conflicts and international rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944–1949. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. p. 577. ISBN 962-201-831-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  55. ^ A brief introduction of Uyghur history Birkbeck, University of London
  56. ^ The quest for an eighth Turkic nation Taipei Times
  57. ^ Xinjiang by S. Frederick Starr
  58. ^ Sinkiang and Sino-Soviet Relations
  59. ^ Kadeer 2009, p. 9.
  60. ^ Kadeer 2009, p. 13.
  61. ^ Starr 2004, p. 138.
  62. ^ Starr 2004, p. 139.
  63. ^ Forbes 1986, p. 188.
  64. ^ Dickens, 1990.
  65. ^ Bovingdon 2010, pp. 141–142
  66. ^ Dillon 2003, p. 57.
  67. ^ Clarke 2011, p. 69.
  68. ^ Dillon 2008, p. 147.
  69. ^ Nathan 2008,.
  70. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=etRkjLv8AosC&pg=PT278&dq=soviet+turkestan+people's+party&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dpQcU9iPN-fN0wHUrYCYAQ&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=soviet%20turkestan%20people's%20party&f=false
  71. ^ Reed 2010, p. 37.
  72. ^ Ryan 1969, p. 3.
  73. ^ a b Tinibai 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek p. 1
  74. ^ Tinibai 2010, gazeta.kz.
  75. ^ Tinibai 2010, Transitions Online.
  76. ^ Burns, 1983.
  77. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 37.
  78. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 38.
  79. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 39.
  80. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 40.
  81. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 41.
  82. ^ Wong 2002, p. 172.
  83. ^ Liew 2004, p. 175.
  84. ^ Wang 2008, p. 240.
  85. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 42.
  86. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 33.
  87. ^ Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 4.
  88. ^ Clarke 2011, p. 76.
  89. ^ Radio war aims at China Moslems 1981, p. 11.
  90. ^ Meehan 1980.
  91. ^ Clarke 2011, p. 78.
  92. ^ Starr 2004, p. 149.
  93. ^ Starr 2004, p. 158.

Sources[edit]