Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1780, gained momentum by 1800, and after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the 1840s. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood.
It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ.
People at the time talked about the Awakening; historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and '40s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s.
- 1 Spread of revivals
- 2 Subgroups
- 3 Culture and society
- 4 Slaves and free Africans
- 5 Jewish Men
- 6 Prominent figures
- 7 Political implications
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
Spread of revivals
The second Great Awakening occurred in several episodes and over different denominations, however the revivals were very similar. As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries, and the movement quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee and southern Ohio. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as circuit riders, who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert.
Postmillennialism theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "millennium", which could entail either a literal 1000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out." During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. By the 1840s, however, the great day had receded to the distant future, and postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress.
In the early nineteenth century, upstate New York was called the "burned-over district" because of the numerous revivals that crisscrossed the region. Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term.
West and Tidewater South
On the American Frontier, evangelical denominations sent missionary preachers and exhorters out to the people in the backcountry, which supported the growth of membership among Methodists and Baptists. Revivalists' techniques were based on the camp meeting, with its Scottish Presbyterian roots. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains.
These denominations were based on an interpretation of man's spiritual equality before God, which led them to recruit members and preachers from a wide range of classes and all races. Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater in the South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted.
In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings. These often provided the first encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and they were important as social venues. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with multiple preachers. Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. The revivals followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis of the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, restored by a sense of personal salvation. Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly.
One of the early camp meetings took place in July 1800 at Gasper River Church in southwestern Kentucky. A much larger gathering was held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky in 1801, attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people. Numerous Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist ministers participated in the services. Thanks to such leaders as Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival became a major mode of church expansion for the Methodists and Baptists.
The Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky. Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement. This was made up of non-denominational churches committed to what they saw as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. They were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Christian churches and churches of Christ.
Church membership soars
The Methodist circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains; to a lesser extent the Presbyterians gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. Among the new denominations that grew from the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (nicknamed the Mormons), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. The converts during the Second Great Awakening were predominantly female. A 1932 source estimated at least three female converts to every two male converts between 1798 to 1826. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert.
The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.
The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution.:89–94 This desire to restore a purer form of Christianity without an elaborate hierarchy contributed to the development of many groups during the Second Great Awakening, including the Mormons, Baptists and Shakers.:89 Several factors made the restoration sentiment particularly appealing during this time period::90–94
- To immigrants in the early 19th century, the land in the United States seemed pristine, edenic and undefiled – "the perfect place to recover pure, uncorrupted and original Christianity" – and the tradition-bound European churches seemed out of place in this new setting.:90
- A primitive faith based on the Bible alone promised a way to sidestep the competing claims of the many denominations available and for congregations to find assurance of being right without the security of an established national church.:93
The Restoration Movement began during, and was greatly influenced by, the Second Great Awakening.:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. Stone.:368 The Southern phase of the Awakening "was an important matrix of Barton Stone's reform movement" and shaped the evangelistic techniques used by both Stone and the Campbells.:368
Culture and society
Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just to repent personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19th century reform movements.
Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the northern tier. Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. The Second Great Awakening served as an "organizing process" that created "a religious and educational infrastructure" across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges.:368 Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. Women made up a large part of these voluntary societies. The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women’s organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.
There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. They did not stem entirely from the Second Great Awakening, but the revivalist doctrine and the expectation that one's conversion would lead to personal action accelerated the role of women’s social benevolence work. Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors.
Slaves and free Africans
Baptists and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. "Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister. His sermon at Thomas Chapel in Chapeltown, Delaware, in 1784 was the first to be delivered by a black directly to a white congregation.
Despite being called the greatest orator in America by Benjamin Rush and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke, Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference that formally established American Methodism. Richard Allen, the other black attendee, was ordained by the Methodists in 1799, but his congregation of free African Americans in Philadelphia left the church there because of its discrimination. They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. After first submitting to oversight by the established Methodist bishops, several AME congregations finally left to form the first independent African-American denomination in the United States in 1816. Soon after, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) was founded as another denomination in New York City.
Early Baptist congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. By the early 19th century, independent African American congregations numbered in the several hundred in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia. With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states.
The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. In 1800, out of African American revival meetings in Virginia, a plan for slave rebellion was devised by Gabriel Prosser, although the rebellion was discovered and crushed before it started. Despite white attempts to control independent African American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner Uprising of 1831, a number of African American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist associations. State legislatures passed laws requiring them always to have a white man present at their worship meetings.
Jewish men, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. It is not clear why these men converted in larger numbers than women. Various scholarly theories attribute the discrepancy to a reaction to the perceived sinfulness of youthful frivolity, an inherent greater sense of religiosity in Jewish men, a communal reaction to economic insecurity, or an assertion of the self in the face of patriarchal rule. Wives, especially in the South, sometimes disapproved of their husband's conversion, forcing men to choose between submission to God or their spouses. Church membership and religious activity gave women peer support and place for meaningful activity outside the home, providing many women with communal identity and shared experiences. 
Despite the predominance of women in the movement, they were not formally indoctrinated or given leading ministerial positions. However, women took other public roles; for example, relaying testimonials about their conversion experience, or assisting sinners (both male and female) through the conversion process. Leaders such as Charles Finney saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion. Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. During the period of revival, mothers were seen as the moral and spiritual foundation of the family, and were thus tasked with instructing children in matters of religion and ethics.
The greatest change in women’s roles stemmed from participation in newly formalized missionary and reform societies. Women’s prayer groups were an early and socially acceptable form of women’s organization. Through their positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere.
Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine. In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, ministers stressed Christ's humility and forgiveness, in what the historian Barbara Welter calls a "feminization" of Christianity.
- Richard Allen, founder, African Methodist Episcopal Church
- Francis Asbury, Methodist, circuit rider and founder of American Methodism
- Henry Ward Beecher, Presbyterian
- Lyman Beecher, Presbyterian, his father
- Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Congregationalist & later Unitarian, the first ordained female minister in the United States
- Alexander Campbell, Presbyterian, and early leader of the Restoration Movement
- Thomas Campbell Presbyterian, then early leader of the Restoration Movement
- Peter Cartwright, Methodist
- Lorenzo Dow, Methodist
- Timothy Dwight IV, Congregationalist
- Charles Finney, Presbyterian & anti-Calvinist
- "Black Harry" Hosier, Methodist, the first African American to preach to a white congregation
- Jarena Lee, Methodist, a female AME circuit rider
- Robert Matthews, cult following as Matthias the Prophet
- William Miller, Millerism, forerunner of Adventism
- Asahel Nettleton, Reformed
- Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)
- Barton Stone, Presbyterian non-Calvinist, then early leader of the Restoration Movement
- Nathaniel William Taylor, heterodox Calvinist
- Ellen G. White, Seventh-day Adventist Church
Revivals and perfectionist hopes of improving individuals and society continued to increase from 1840 to 1865 across all major denominations, especially in urban areas. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements. The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon included reforms in temperance, women's rights, abolitionism, and a multitude of other questions faced by society.
The religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening was echoed by the new political enthusiasm of the Second Party System. More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. The spirit of evangelical humanitarian reforms was carried on in the antebellum Whig party.
Historians stress the understanding common among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. As a result, local churches saw their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, and through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. While Protestant religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening strengthened the role it would play.
- Advent Christian Church
- Seventh-day Adventist Church
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- Christian revival
- Christianity in the 19th century
- Day-Year principle
- First Great Awakening
- Restoration Movement
- Third Great Awakening
- Fourth Great Awakening
- Nancy Cott, “Young Women in the Great Awakening in New England,” Feminist Studies 3, no. 1/2 (Autumn 1975): 15.
- Timothy L. Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War (1957)
- Based on James A. Henretta et al. (2010). America's History, Combined Volume. p. 259. Unknown parameter
- Nancy Cott, “Young Women in the Great Awakening in New England,” Feminist Studies (1975) 3#1 p 15
- Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America (Westminster John Knox Press, 1996): 59
- Fredrickson, George M. (1998). "The Coming of the Lord: The Northern Protestant Clergy and the Civil War Crisis". In Miller, Randall M.; Stout, Harry S.; Wilson, Charles Reagan. Religion and the American Civil War. Oxford University Press. pp. 110–30. ISBN 9780198028345.
- Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800-1850 (1951)
- Judith Wellman, Grassroots Reform in the Burned-over District of Upstate New York: Religion, Abolitionism, and Democracy (2000) excerpt and text search
- On Scottish influences see Long (2002) and Elizabeth Semancik, "Backcountry Religious Ways" at 
- Dickson D. Bruce, Jr., And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845, (1974)
- Douglas Foster, et al., The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement (2005)
- Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (2004)
- Melton, Encyclopedia of American Religions (2009)
- Nancy Cott, “Young Women in the Great Awakening in New England,” (1975): 15-16.
- Gary Land, Adventism in America: A History (1998)
- C. Leonard Allen and Richard T. Hughes, Discovering Our Roots: The Ancestry of the Churches of Christ, Abilene Christian University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-89112-006-8
- Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8, 854 pages, entry on Great Awakenings
- Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790-1865, (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13-14
- Barbara Welter, “The Feminization of American Religion: 1800-1860,” in Clio’s Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 139
- Mary Ryan, “A Woman’s Awakening: Evangelical Religion and the Families of Utica, New York, 1800 to 1840,” American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (Winter 1978): 616-19
- Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996): 65
- Morgan, Philip. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry, p. 655. UNC Press (Chapel Hill), 1998. Accessed 17 October 2013.
- Smith, Jessie C. Black Firsts: 4,000 Ground-Breaking and Pioneering Historical Events (3rd ed.), pp. 1820–1821. "Methodists: 1781". Visible Ink Press (Canton), 2013. Accessed 17 October 2013.
- Webb, Stephen H. "Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake". Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. XCVIII (March 2002). Trustees of Indiana University. Accessed 17 October 2013.
- Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The 'Invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 137, accessed 27 Dec 2008
- Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation, p 168
- Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Jewish men and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996): 59-61.
- Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996): 61-62.
- Mary Ryan, “A Woman’s Awakening: Evangelical Religion and the Families of Utica, New York, 1800 to 1840,” American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (Winter 1978): 614
- Mary Ryan, “A Woman’s Awakening: Evangelical Religion and the Families of Utica, New York, 1800 to 1840,” American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (Winter 1978): 619.
- Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996): 62-63.
- Barbara Welter, “The Feminization of American Religion: 1800-1860,” in Clio’s Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 141
- Barbara Leslie Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1981.
- Alice Felt Tyler, Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War (1944)
- Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System," History of Political Economy, Winter 2008 Supplement, Vol. 40, pp 265-298
- Daniel Walker Howe, “The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System,” The Journal of American History 77, no. 4 (March 1991): 1218 and 1237
- Abzug, Robert H. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination (1994) (ISBN 0-195-04568-8)
- Ahlstrom, Sydney. A Religious History of the American People (1972) (ISBN 0-385-11164-9)
- Billington, Ray A. The Protestant Crusade. New York: The MacMillian Company, 1938.
- Birdsall Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order", Church History 39 (1970): 345–364. in JSTOR
- Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Journal of the Early Republic (2004) 24(1): 65–106. ISSN 0275–1275 Fulltext: in Ebsco.
- Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground; a Study on the American Camp Meeting. Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992.
- Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground, Too, the Camp Meeting Family Tree. Hazleton: Holiness Archives, (1997).
- Bruce, Dickson D., Jr. And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845 (1974)
- Butler Jon. "Enthusiasm Described and Decried: The Great Awakening as Interpretative Fiction", Journal of American History 69 (1982): 305–325. in JSTOR, highly influential essay
- Butler Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. 1990.
- Carwardine, Richard J. Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America. Yale University Press, 1993.
- Carwardine, Richard J. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures'", Journal of American History 59 (1972): 327–340. in JSTOR
- Conforti; Joseph A. Jonathan Edwards, Religious Tradition and American Culture, (1995).
- Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening in New England," Feminist Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1/2 (Autumn, 1975), pp. 15–29 in JSTOR
- Cross, Whitney, R. The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850, (1950).
- Foster, Charles I. An Errand of Mercy: The Evangelical United Front, 1790–1837, University of North Carolina Press, 1960.
- Griffin, Clifford S. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815–1860", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 3. (Dec., 1957), pp. 423–444. in JSTOR
- Hambrick-Stowe, Charles. Charles G. Finney and the Spirit of American Evangelicalism. (1996).
- Hankins, Barry. The Second Great Awakening and the Transcendentalists. Greenwood, 2004.
- Hatch Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity (1989).
- Johnson, Charles A. "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 37, No. 1. (Jun., 1950), pp. 91–110. in JSTOR
- Kyle III, I. Francis. An Uncommon Christian: James Brainerd Taylor, Forgotten Evangelist in America's Second Great Awakening (2008). See Uncommon Christian Ministries
- Long, Kimberly Bracken. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Journal of Presbyterian History, 2002 80(1): 3–16. Issn: 0022-3883
- Loveland Anne C. Southern Evangelicals and the Social Order, 1800–1860, (1980)
- Marsden George M. The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience: A Case Study of Thought and Theology in Nineteenth-Century America (1970).
- Matzko, John A. "The Encounter of the Young Joseph Smith with Presbyterianism," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 40/3, 2007.
- McLoughlin William G. Modern Revivalism, 1959.
- McLoughlin William G. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607–1977, 1978.
- Noll; Mark A. ed. God and Mammon: Protestants, Money, and the Market, 1790–1860 (2002).
- Posey, Walter Brownlow. The Baptist Church in the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1776–1845 (1957)
- Raboteau, Albert. Slave Religion: The "invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, (1979)
- Roth Randolph A. The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791–1850, (1987)
- Shiels Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation", Church History 49 (1980): 401–415. in JSTOR
- Smith, Timothy L. Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War (1957)