Second officer (aeronautics)
A second officer usually refers to the third in the line of command for a flight crew on a commercial or non-military aircraft. Usually the second officer is a flight engineer who is also a licensed pilot. A second officer on some airlines is part of a relief crew. Rarely, such relief pilots are called third officer. The title derives from the nautical title indicating a third in command officer.
In some airlines, the second officer is a junior officer, acting as first officer but still undergoing training and supervision from a training captain (Swiss, Lufthansa, among others use this denomination).
- Harris, Tom. How Airline Crews Work, HowStuffWorks.com website, June 14, 2001. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
- Smith, Patrick. Patrick Smith's Ask The Pilot: When a Pilot Dies in Flight, AskThePilot.com website, 2013, which in turn cites:
- Smith, Patrick. Cockpit Confidential: Everything You Need to Know About Air Travel: Questions, Answers, and Reflections, Sourcebooks, 2013, ISBN 1402280912, ISBN 978-1402280917.
- Flying the World in Clipper Ships at flightjournal.com, 2007.
-  Lufthansa website on cockpit careers.
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