Second Republic of Venezuela
|Second Republic of Venezuela|
|Segunda República de Venezuela|
The Second Republic of Venezuela
|Historical era||Spanish American wars of independence|
|-||Conquest||16 July 1814|
The Second Republic of Venezuela (Segunda República de Venezuela in Spanish) is the term used by historians for the reestablished Venezuelan Republic declared by Simón Bolívar on 7 August 1813. This declaration followed the defeat of Domingo Monteverde by Bolívar during the Admirable Campaign in the west and Santiago Mariño in his campaign in the east. The republic came to an end in the following year, after a series of defeats at the hands of José Tomás Boves.
Use of the term in Venezuelan history
It is during this period that the term "Republic of Venezuela" is officially used by Simón Bolívar's government. During the First Republic, upon which Bolívar rested the legitimacy of his actions, the government referred to the Venezuelan state as either the "American Confederation of Venezuela" or the "United Provinces of Venezuela" in the Declaration of Independence (both terms are used interchangeably), or as the "United States of Venezuela" (a term used interchangeably with "the Confederation") in the Constitution of 1811.
Third Republic of Venezuela
Historians use the term Third Republic of Venezuela to refer to the period from about 1817 to 1819, when a rump government, organized by Bolívar began functioning in the Venezuelan Llanos. The year before, various Venezuelan guerilla forces managed to permanently establish themselves in the Llanos and captured the city of Angostura, which became their headquarters. This period culminated with the formation of the Congress of Angostura, which wrote a new constitution for Venezuela, replacing the one from 1811, which in theory, was still valid, although suspended since the collapse of the First Republic in 1812. At the end of 1819 the Congress of Angostura decreed the union of Venezuela with New Granada in a new Republic, known as Gran Colombia, bringing an end to the Third Republic.
After the dissolution of Gran Colombia, Venezuela became once again the Republic of Venezuela, and although undergoing various changes in constitutions and forms of government, Venezuela permanently maintained its independence from this moment on. This period is seen as a stable Fourth Republic of Venezuela.
- Captaincy General of Venezuela
- Venezuelan War of Independence
- First Republic of Venezuela
- Third Republic of Venezuela
- Gran Colombia
- Venezuela (the "Fourth Republic")