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Second Rome usually refers to:
- The Papal States as a geopolitical successor to the legacy of Ancient Rome, the first Rome. Since the middle ages, Popes ruled Rome. The Pontiff used to make the coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor. The papal states were annexed by Italy with the capture of Rome, an event that ended the temporal power of the Church. According to Mazzini, Italy is the Rome of the people (or third rome) being successor to the Rome of the emperors and to the Rome of the popes.
- Constantinople as a New Rome, meaning a new city of Rome. Costantinople served as capital of the Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Empire. Constantinople was famed for its massive defenses, It was taken for the first time only in 1204 by Venetian crusaders.
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