Operation Mars

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Operation Mars
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
Operation mars schema.JPG
Date 25 November - 20 December 1942
Location Rzhev and Velikie Luki salients, Russian SFSR
Result German victory
Soviet operational failure
Belligerents
 Soviet Union  Germany
Commanders and leaders
Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov
Soviet Union I. S. Koniev
Soviet Union М. А. Purkayev
Nazi Germany Otto Moritz Walter Model,
Nazi Germany Günther von Kluge
Strength
702,923 personnel,
1,718 tanks[1]
3 combined corps (with 13 infantry divisions and 2 paratrooper divisions)
2 panzer corps (5 panzer divisions, 3 motorized divisions)
1,615 tanks[1]
Total forces:
~ 350,000 troops.
Casualties and losses
Isayev:
70,373 irrecoverable
145,301 sanitary[2]
Glantz:
100,000 killed[3]
235,000 wounded[3]
1,600 tanks[3]
Grossmann: 40,000 casualties[4]

Operation Mars was the codename for the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Operation (Russian: Вторая Ржевско-Сычёвская наступательная операция) launched by Soviet forces against German forces during World War II. It took place between 25 November and 20 December 1942 around the Rzhev salient in the vicinity of Moscow.

The offensive was a joint operation of the Soviet Western Front and Kalinin Front coordinated by Georgy Zhukov. The offensive was one in a series of particularly bloody engagements collectively known in Soviet and Russian histories as the Battles of Rzhev, which occurred near Rzhev, Sychevka and Vyazma between January 1942 and March 1943. The battles became known as the "Rzhev meat grinder" ("Ржевская мясорубка") for their huge losses, particularly on the Soviet side. For many years it was relegated to a footnote in Soviet military history.

Soviet plans[edit]

Soviet collective farmers hand over KV-1 tanks to their crews

In Operation Mars, planned to commence in late October, forces of the Kalinin and Western Fronts would encircle and destroy German Ninth Army in the Rzhev salient. The basic plan of the offensive was to launch multiple, coordinated thrusts from all sides of the salient. This would result in the destruction of the powerful German 9th Army.

Operation Mars was to be followed soon there after by a follow-up operation, Operation Jupiter. This second offensive was to commence two to three weeks later. The Western Front's powerful 5th and 33rd armies supported by 3rd Guards Tank Army, would attack along the Moscow-Vyazma highway axis, link up with the victorious Mars' force, and envelop and destroy all German forces east of Smolensk. Once resistance around Vyazma was neutralized, the 9th and 10th tank corps and the 3rd Tank Army would then penetrate deeper into the rear of Army Group Centre.

Offensive is launched[edit]

The offensive was launched in the early hours of 25 November 1942. It got off to a bad start, as fog and snowy weather grounded the planned air support. It also greatly reduced the effect of the massive artillery barrages preceding the main attacks, as it made it impossible for the forward artillery observers to adjust fire and observe the results. The northern thrust made little progress. The eastern attack across the frozen Vazuza river slowly ground forward. The two western thrusts made deeper penetrations, especially around the key town of Belyi. The progress was nowhere near what the Soviets expected.

The German defenders fought stubbornly, clinging to their strong-points, which were often centered around many of the small villages dotting the area. In some cases the German strong-points remained manned for a time after the Soviets advanced past them, creating more problems for the Red Army in their rear areas. Despite repeated, persistent Soviet attacks, small-arms fire and pre-planned artillery concentrations cut down the attacking infantry. Tanks were picked off by AT guns, the few German tanks, and in close combat with infantry.

The relative lack of initial success compounded the Soviet problems. The minor penetrations and the resulting small bridgeheads made it difficult to bring forward reinforcements and follow-up forces, especially artillery so critical for reducing the German strong-points. The Germans reacted by shifting units within the salient against the points of the Soviet advance and pinching off their spearheads. With limited reserves and reinforcement unlikely due to Soviet offensives elsewhere, the 9th Army was placed under great pressure.

Eventually the shifting of German forces coupled with Soviet losses and supply difficulties allowed the German forces to gain the upper hand. Their lines held, and much of the lost ground was retaken. The counterattacks against the Belyi (western) and the Vazuza (eastern) thrusts resulted in several thousand soldiers being trapped behind German lines. A few of these would manage to break through to Soviet lines, some after fighting in the German rear for weeks. Almost all vehicles and heavy weapons had to be left behind. Though the Germans were not able to remove Soviet forces from the Luchesa valley in the northwest of the salient, this was of little significance since the Soviets there were unable to press their attack through the difficult terrain.

Outcome[edit]

Operation Mars was a military failure. The Soviets were unable to accomplish any of their objectives. However, in the aftermath of Operation Mars General Von Kluge recommended the salient be abandoned to economize on manpower and to assume more defensible positions. Hitler refused. His denial of a major withdrawal in the winter of 1941-42 had ultimately stabilized the army when it was on the edge of a collapse. Subsequently he was less willing to heed the advice of his commanders. In addition he was unwilling to give up any ground he had won, and saw usefulness in retaining the jump off point for a future thrust upon Moscow. However in the Spring of 1943 his desire to move back onto the offensive made him more receptive to withdrawing forces from the salient to free up manpower. A staged withdrawal was begun at the beginning of March 1943. By the 23rd of that month the withdrawal was complete.

Historian A. V. Isayev has pointed out that together with influences on other sectors during the winter of 1942, Operation Mars had an affect upon the strategic situation in 1943. In the plan for the large offensive at Kursk in July 1943, the German Ninth Army was located in the southern area of the Orel salient. It delivered the assault upon the Kursk salient from the north. However losses suffered at Rzhev during Operation Mars resulted in the Ninth Army to be short of forces, particularly infantry formations, and it could not muster enough force to fulfill its task.[3]

Assessment[edit]

In the final assessment Operation Mars was a failure for the Soviet forces.[5] However, the unintentional result of the battle was losses to the reserves of Army Group Center which reduced the forces which could be redirected against the more successful Soviet operations against Army Group South. About this matter, German Colonel-General Kurt von Tippelskirch commented:

In order to confine the German forces in every sector of the front and prevent the large reinforcement to the critical sectors, and in order to strengthen their (Soviet) position in the places which were suitable for future offensives in the following winter, the Russians renewed their offensives in the central sector. Their main efforts focused on Rzhev and Velikye Luky. Therefore, our three panzer divisions and several infantry divisions - which were planned to be used in the southern sectors - had to be kept here to close gaps in the front and to retake lost territories. This was the only method for us to stop the enemy breakthrough.

—Kurt von Tippelskirch.[6]

An area of controversy is whether the operation was intended as a major offensive, or was it really intended to simply divert German attention and resources from the Stalingrad pocket to prevent the relief of their Sixth Army at Stalingrad? The forces concentrated for Operation Mars were much larger than the ones used in Operation Uranus.[7] Military historian David M. Glantz believes that Operation Mars was the main Soviet offensive, and that the narrative that it was intended as a "diversion attack" was a propaganda effort on the part of the Soviet government. He termed Operation Mars as the "greatest defeat of Marshal Zhukov."

In the unlikely event that Zhukov was correct and Mars was really a diversion, there has never been one so ambitious, so large, so clumsily executed, or so costly.

—David M. Glantz

British historian Antony Beevor disagrees with Glantz, citing that Zhukov spent less time planning Mars than Uranus, and that the artillery shell allocation was much smaller for Mars than for Uranus.[8] In addition, the Russian historian M. A. Gareyev used many Stavka orders to make the case that the goal of Operation Mars was to tie down German forces in the Rzhev sector, preventing them from reinforcing Stalingrad. Thus, it ensured the success of Uranus and the Soviet offensives in the south.[9]

According to P. A. Sudoplatov, Soviet intelligence intentionally leaked the plan of operation Mars to the Germans, this was part of a series of deception "radio games" named "Monastery" (Монастырь). One of the "Monastery" operations was intended to lure the German attention to the Rzhev sector. During this intelligence operation, the Soviet double agent Aleksandr Petrovich Demyanov (code name "Heine") sent information about a large-scaled Soviet offensive at Rzhev area in order to make the Germans believe that the next main blow of the Red Army would occur in the central sector. Aside from the Soviet intelligence agency, only I. V. Stalin knew about this "Monastery" operation.[10][11][12][13]

Casualties[edit]

  • Soviet:
    • Isayev:
      70,373 irrecoverable
      145,301 sanitary[14]
    • Glantz:
      100,000 killed[3]
      235,000 wounded[3]
      1,600 tanks[3]
  • German: 40,000 casualties [15]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Исаев, Алексей Валерьевич. Когда внезапности уже не было. История ВОВ, которую мы не знали. — М.: Яуза, Эксмо, 2006. (Alexey Valeryevich Isayev. When the sudden element was lost - History of World War II, the facts that we do not know. Yauza & Penguin Books. Moskva. 2006. Part II: 1942 Autumn-Winter Offensive. Sector 2: Operation Mars)
  2. ^ Гриф секретности снят: Потери Вооруженных Сил СССР в войнах, боевых действиях и военных конфликтах: Стат. исслед./ Г. Ф. Кривошеев, В. М. Андроников, П. Д. Буриков. — М.: Воениздат, 1993.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g David Glantz: Zhukov's greatest defeat page 308
  4. ^ Гроссманн Хорст. Ржев — краеугольный камень Восточного фронта. — Ржев: «Ржевская правда», 1996. German name: Grossmann H. Rzhew: Eckpfeiler der Ostfront. — Friedberg : Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1980.
  5. ^ О провале операции пишут А. Исаев, В. Бешанов, Д. Гланц.
  6. ^ Типпельскирх К. История Второй мировой войны. СПб.:Полигон; М.:АСТ,1999 /(Tippelskirch K., Geschichte des Zweiten Weltkrieges. — Bonn, 1954, Chapter VII (Russian)
  7. ^ Георгий Глебович Колыванов. «Марс», оказавшийся в тени «Урана» (Georgy Glebovich Kolyvanov. "Mars" in the shadow of "Uranus". Article published in the "Independent" 2 December, 2005)
  8. ^ Beevor, Antony (2012). The Second World War. London: W&N. ISBN 0297844970. 
  9. ^ M. A. Гареев. Операция «Марс» и современные «марсиане» // Военно-исторический журнал № 10, 2003.]
  10. ^ Судоплатов, Павел Анатольевич. Спецоперации. Лубянка и Кремль 1930–1950 годы. — М.: ОЛМА-ПРЕСС, 1997. (Russian)
  11. ^ Lyutmila Obchinikova. Secret activities at center of Moskva. at official website of FSB. 18-1-2002 (Russian)
  12. ^ Andrey Tyurin, Vladimir Makarov et al. The fight between Lyublyanka and Abwehr - The "Monastery" radio game. Newspaper "Independence". 22-4-2005. (Russian)
  13. ^ Eduard Prokopyevich Sharapov. Eltigen incidcent and the punishment blade of Stalin - The person of special goal. Neva Publisher. Sainkt Petersburg. 2003. (Russian)
  14. ^ Гриф секретности снят: Потери Вооруженных Сил СССР в войнах, боевых действиях и военных конфликтах: Стат. исслед./ Г. Ф. Кривошеев, В. М. Андроников, П. Д. Буриков. — М.: Воениздат, 1993.
  15. ^ Гроссманн Хорст. Ржев — краеугольный камень Восточного фронта. — Ржев: «Ржевская правда», 1996. German name: Grossmann H. Rzhew: Eckpfeiler der Ostfront. — Friedberg : Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1980.

References[edit]

  • Glantz, David M. (1999). Zhukov's Greatest Defeat: The Red Army's Epic Disaster in Operation Mars, 1942. ISBN 0-7006-0944-X.
  • Krivosheev, G. F. et al. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. Stackpole. ISBN 9781853672804

External links[edit]