Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War
|Second Goryeo–Khitan War|
|Part of Goryeo-Khitan Wars|
|Commanders and leaders|
Dae Do-su (POW)
The Second Goryeo-Khitan War was an 11th-century conflict between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. It was the second of the Goryeo-Khitan Wars, with the First Goryeo-Khitan War occurring in 993, the second in 1010, and the third in 1018.
In 1009, King Mokjong of Goryeo (r. 997-1009) was assassinated by the forces of the general Gang Jo. Using it as a pretext, the Khitan attacked Goryeo in the next year. They occupied the Goryeo capital Kaesong and burnt it. The Khitan withdrew after Goryeo reaffirmed its tributary relationship with the Khitan.
- Simons 1995, p. 93: "a second Liao incursion resulted in heavy losses, the sacking of Kaesong, and the imposition of Liao suzerainty over the Koryo state."
- Hyun 2013, p. 191.
- Simons 1995, p. 95: "a prelude to more invasions during the reign of King Hyonjong (1010-1031) and the occupation of Kaesong, the Koryo capital."
- Hatada, Smith Jr & Hazard 1969, p. 52: "in the reign of King Hyŏnjong (1010-1031) there were numerous Khitan invasions, and even the capital Kaesŏng was occupied."
- Ebrey & Walthall 2014, , p. 171, at Google Books: "In 1010, on the pretext that the rightful king had been deposed without the approval of the Liao court, the Khitan emperor personally led an attack that culminated in the burning of the Goryeo capital."
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne (2014), Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History to 1800, Third Edition, Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, ISBN 978-1-133-60651-2.
- Hatada, Takashi; Smith Jr, Warren W.; Hazard, Benjamin H. (1969), A History of Korea, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, ISBN 0-87436-064-1.
- Hyun, Jeongwon (2013), Gift Exchange among States in East Asia during the Eleventh Century (Thesis (Ph.D.)), University of Washington.
- Simons, Geoff (1995), Korea: The Search for Sovereignty, New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-12531-3.