Second grade (called Grade 2 in metric system countries) is a year of primary education in many nations. Second grade is the second school year after first grade. Students are traditionally 7–8 years old, depending on when their birthday occurs.

In mathematics, students are taught place value to hundreds or thousands, and renaming with addition and subtraction. Measurement is extended to the meter, foot, yard, kilogram, pound, and pint. Measurement of time and temperature in Fahrenheit and Celsius is also emphasized as well. Usually multiplication and division is introduced towards the end of the school year but not emphasized. Positive and negative numbers are introduced, but not added and subtracted. These values are generally introduced in temperature. Addition and subtraction facts are practiced throughout the year. Students also learn about plane and solid shapes in geometry and explore how they are apparent in our everyday lives. Some second grade topics in math can be explored at the following website.[1]

In reading, students read to perform a task using fictional and non-fictional texts, and learn about story elements, text features, and character traits. In many counties and districts, schools have reading benchmarks that students need to meet by the end of each quarter and/or school year. At the end of the year, students begin their first novels. Decoding strategies usually end in second grade and reading more for comprehension.

Students in second grade also learn the basics of grammar in writing, including subject, verbs, and adjectives. They also write to inform, to express personal ideas, and to persuade. In the U.S. it is also common for second graders to be introduced to cursive. Cursive writing is also focused in third grade.

Second grade science usually involves basic earth and space sciences. Students are introduced to the planets and the weather system. Dinosaurs and some health science are also covered.

In social studies, a general understanding of the government and current events are discussed. Students are expected to know who the president and vice president, and some basic presidents such as Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. The concept of the law is taught in second grade. Second grade students may also get a basic understanding of history, and what life was like in times before they were born. Field trips to historical and science museums are common. Some basic sociological institutions are taught such as race and gender, and the exploration of different cultural groups such as Black, Latin, and Asian.

Although the U.S. does not formally have national grade standards, there are groups selected by the Department of Education to develop standards which are generally used by each State to set their own standards. For mathematics, it is the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. There is an English guide to the second grade math standards and expectations.[2] This description was built by using the major states as a norm.

## Brazil equivalent

In Brazil now, the time for elementary school were recently raised from 8 to 9 years, and the minimum age required to the second grade was changed from 6 to 7 years old.

## France equivalent

In France, it would correspond to CE1 (Cours Elémentaire 1) which is the second year of elementary school. This course used to be known as 10eme.

## India equivalent

In India children enter Class 2 or 3 at ages 7 to 8.[3]

## Italy equivalent

In Italy, it corresponds to second class of primary school (seconda classe della scuola primaria)

## Germany equivalent

In Germany this would be comparable to second class (2.Klasse)

## Greece equivalent

In Greece it is the Second grade of Primary (Deftera Dimotikou).

## New Zealand equivalent

In New Zealand, this level of class is called Year 3. Children generally start this level between the ages of seven and eight.

## Peru equivalent

In Peru, this is also known as second grade (Segundo Grado), and pupils are between 7–8 years old.

## Portugal equivalent

In Portugal, the second grade (segundo ano, 2º ano) is the second of the four-year 1º Ciclo do Ensino Básico that also includes the first grade, the third grade and the fourth grade.[4]

## Republic of Ireland equivalent

In The Republic of Ireland, the equivalent is known as Second Class or Rang a dó (usually for 7-8 year olds) which is year 4 of Primary School. It is traditionally the year that is dedicated to preparing for the child's "First Holy Communion", however, as Ireland becomes increasingly multicultural, more and more schools are opting to prepare for the sacrement outside of school hours - at weekends or after school.

## United Kingdom equivalents

The British education system differs slightly between the four individual countries of the United Kingdom.

In England, the second year of school is called year 1, and the pupils are 5 to 6 years old. So second grade is the equivalent to year 3 in England[5]

At the same age, Scottish and Welsh pupils are in their third year of compulsory education and in their fourth year in Northern Ireland.