The 2nd millennium was the thousand-year period that commenced on January 1, 1001 and ended on December 31, 2000. It encompassed the High Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Early Modern Age, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World Wars and nuclear bombs) were offset by growing peace movements from the United Nations, the Peace Corps, religious campaigns warning against violence, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.
Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the Internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to educate, entertain, and alert billions of people by the end of the 20th century.
From the 16th century, humans migrated from Europe, Africa and Asia to, what was to them, the New World, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.
The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium, (from 310 million in AD 1000 to 600 million in AD 1700), and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding to 6 billion in AD 2000.
The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. So the end date is always calculated according to the Gregorian calendar, but the beginning date is usually according to the Julian calendar (or occasionally the Proleptic Gregorian calendar).
The second millennium is perhaps more popularly (albeit inaccurately) thought of as beginning and ending a year earlier, thus starting at the beginning of 1000 and finishing at the end of 1999. Many public celebrations for the end of the millennium were held on December 31, 1999–January 1, 2000—with few on the actual date a year later. The inaccuracy stems from the assumption that there is a year zero, however this is not the case for this calendar.
The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
1400 Tongans build ceremonial centre at Mu'a
|16th century||1555 Rise of the Mughal Empire in South Asia;||
1550 Maoris of New Zealand build fortified enclosures
The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
- Lists of people by nationality
- Category:People by century
- Category:People by nationality and period
- Gottlieb, Agnes Hooper; Henry Gottlieb, Barbar Bowers, Brent Bowers (1998). 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium. Kodansha International. ISBN 1-56836-253-6.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
|Communication and Technology||Math and Science||Manufacturing||Transportation and
Centuries and decades
- 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium
- "Millennium FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions". When does the Millennium start?. Greenwich2000.ltd.uk. 2008-08-12. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
- "Africa AD 600–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- Toast, Scott (2002-02-19). "Top 100 Events of the Millennium". adapted from LIFE Magazine. Scott Toast. Retrieved 2008-11-14.
- "Americas AD 1000–1492". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Asia AD 1200–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- [Robbie]. "Timeline of events in New Zealand history". New Zealand in History. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Oceania AD 1000–1520". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Africa AD 1500–1850". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "Oceania AD 1520–1770". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Americas 1492–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Asia AD 1500–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "European discovery of New Zealand". Encyclopedia of New Zealand
- Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
- Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-86940-002-X.
- "Africa AD 1950–2000". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act". Retrieved 25 November 2008.
- Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. pp. 556 pages. ISBN 0-8065-1350-0.
- "Greatest Inventions of All Time". i-dinnout.com. 2002-01-30. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Keeley, Larry (2007-02-16). "The Greatest Innovations of All Time". BusinessWeek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- "The Big 100: the Science Channels 100 Greatest Discoveries". Discovery Communications, LLC. 2008. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.