Secondary hypertension

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Secondary hypertension
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 I15
ICD-9 405

Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying secondary cause. It is much less common than the other type, called essential hypertension, affecting only 5% of hypertensive patients. It has many different causes including endocrine diseases, kidney diseases, and tumors. It also can be a side effect of many medications.

Types[edit]

Renovascular hypertension (I15.0)[edit]

It has two main causes: fibromuscular dysplasia and atheromatous stenosis.

Hypertension secondary to other renal disorders (I15.1)[edit]

Hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders (I15.2)[edit]

Other secondary hypertension (I15.8)[edit]

Adrenal[edit]

A variety of adrenal cortical abnormalities can cause hypertension, In primary aldosteronism there is a clear relationship between the aldosterone-induced sodium retention and the hypertension.[5] Another related disorder that causes hypertension is apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome which is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in the gene encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that normally inactivates circulating cortisol to the less-active metabolite cortisone.[6] At high concentrations cortisol can cross-react and activate the mineralocorticoid receptor, leading to aldosterone-like effects in the kidney, causing hypertension.[7] This effect can also be produced by prolonged ingestion of liquorice (which can be of potent strength in liquorice candy), by causing inhibition of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme and likewise leading to secondary apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome.[8][9][10] Frequently, if liquorice is the cause of the high blood pressure, a low blood level of potassium will also be present.[9] Yet another related disorder causing hypertension is glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism, which is an autosomal dominant disorder in which the increase in aldosterone secretion produced by ACTH is no longer transient, causing of primary hyperaldosteronism, the Gene mutated will result in an aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive, which is normally not.[11][12][13][14][15] GRA appears to be the most common monogenic form of human hypertension.[16] Compare these effects to those seen in Conn's disease, an adrenocortical tumor which causes excess release of aldosterone,[17] that leads to hypertension.[18][19][20]

Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glands. Cushing's syndrome can be caused by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or by tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).[21] More than 80% of patients with Cushing's syndrome develop hypertension.,[22] which is accompanied by distinct symptoms of the syndrome, such as central obesity, lipodystrophy, moon face, sweating, hirsutism and anxiety.[23]

Kidney[edit]

Other well known causes include diseases of the kidney. This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease which is a cystic genetic disorder of the kidneys, PKD is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts (hence, "polycystic") in both kidneys, can also damage the liver, pancreas, and rarely, the heart and brain.[24][25][26][27] It can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive, with the autosomal dominant form being more common and characterized by progressive cyst development and bilaterally enlarged kidneys with multiple cysts, with concurrent development of hypertension, renal insufficiency and renal pain.[28] Or chronic glomerulonephritis which is a disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys.[29][30][31] Hypertension can also be produced by diseases of the renal arteries supplying the kidney. This is known as renovascular hypertension; it is thought that decreased perfusion of renal tissue due to stenosis of a main or branch renal artery activates the renin-angiotensin system.[32][33][34] also some renal tumors can cause hypertension. The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with hypertension includes Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, Wilms' tumor, and renal cell carcinoma, all of which may produce renin.[35]

Neuroendocrine tumors are also a well known cause of secondary hypertension. Pheochromocytoma[36] (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, causing excessive stimulation of adrenergic receptors, which results in peripheral vasoconstriction and cardiac stimulation. This diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating increased urinary excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine and/or their metabolites (vanillylmandelic acid).

Medication side effects[edit]

Certain medications, including NSAIDs (Motrin/Ibuprofen) and steroids can cause hypertension.[37][38][39][40][41] Other medications include extrogens (such as those found in oral contraceptives with high estrogenic activity), certain antidepressants (such as venlafaxine), buspirone, carbamazepine, bromocriptine, clozapine, and cyclosporine.[3] High blood pressure that is associated with the sudden withdrawal of various antihypertensive medications is called rebound hypertension.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48] The increases in blood pressure may result in blood pressures greater than when the medication was initiated. Depending on the severity of the increase in blood pressure, rebound hypertension may result in a hypertensive emergency. Rebound hypertension is avoided by gradually reducing the dose (also known as "dose tapering"), thereby giving the body enough time to adjust to reduction in dose. Medications commonly associated with rebound hypertension include centrally-acting antihypertensive agents, such as clonidine[49] and methyl-dopa.[48]

Other herbal or "natural products" which have been associated with hypertension include: Ma Huang, St. John's Wart, and licorice.[3]

Pregnancy[edit]

Few women of childbearing age have high blood pressure, up to 11% develop hypertension of pregnancy.[50] While generally benign, it may herald three complications of pregnancy: pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and eclampsia. Follow-up and control with medication is therefore often necessary.[51][52]

Sleep disturbances[edit]

Another common and under-recognized sign of hypertension is sleep apnea,[53][54] which is often best treated with nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but other approaches include the Mandibular advancement splint (MAS), UPPP, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, septoplasty, or weight loss. Another cause is an exceptionally rare neurological disease called Binswanger's disease, causing dementia; it is a rare form of multi-infarct dementia, and is one of the neurological syndromes associated with hypertension.[55]

Arsenic exposure[edit]

Because of the ubiquity of arsenic in ground water supplies and its effect on cardiovascular health, low dose arsenic poisoning should be inferred as a part of the pathogenesis of idiopathic hypertension. Idiopathic and essential are both somewhat synonymous with primary hypertension. Arsenic exposure has also many of the same signs of primary hypertension such as headache, somnolence, [56] confusion, proteinuria [57] visual disturbances, and nausea and vomiting [58]

Potassium deficiency[edit]

Due to the role of intracellular potassium in regulation of cellular pressures related to sodium, establishing potassium balance has been shown to reverse hypertension. [59]

Diagnosis[edit]

The ABCDE mnemonic can be used to help determine a secondary cause of hypertension

  • A: Accuracy, Apnea, Aldosteronism
  • B: Bruits, Bad Kidney
  • C: Catecholamines, Coarctation of the Aorta, Cushing's Syndrome
  • D: Drugs, Diet
  • E: Erythropoietin, Endocrine Disorders [60]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]