|Secunderabad Clock Tower,|
|Founded by||Sikandar Jah|
|Named for||Sikandar Jah|
|Elevation||543 m (1,781 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Secunderabad or Sikandar-a-bad listen (help·info), popularly known as the twin city of Hyderabad is located in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Named after Sikandar Jah, the IIIrd Nizam of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, Secunderabad was founded in 1806 AD as a British cantonment. Although Hyderabad and Secunderabad are together referred to as the twin cities, they have both different histories and cultures, with Secunderabad having developed directly under British rule until 1948 and Hyderabad as the capital of the Nizams' princely state. Geographically divided from Hyderabad by the Hussain Sagar, Secunderabad is no longer a separate municipal unit and has become part of Hyderabad. Both cities are collectively known as Hyderabad and together form the sixth largest metropolis in India. Being one of the largest cantonments in India, Secunderabad has a large army and air force presence.
Secunderabad was founded as a British cantonment after the Hyderabad Nizam Asaf Jah II was defeated at the hands of the British East India Company and was forced to sign the Treaty of Subsidiary Alliance in the year 1798 AD. He had to sign the subsidiary alliance treaty in order to gain the support of the British troops parked in tents in the open areas of the maidan of the village Ulwul, north-east of Hussain Sagar, the lake that separates Secunderabad from its twin city Hyderabad. Later, in 1803, Nizam Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of Hyderabad, renamed Ulwul as Secunderabad after himself. The city was formed in 1806, after the order was signed by the Nizam alloting the land north of Hussain Sagar to set up the British Cantonment. The twin cities are separated by the man-made Hussain Sagar lake, which was built during the reign of the Qutb Shahi dynasty in the 16th century. Unlike Hyderabad, the official language of Secunderabad was English. Secunderabad was exempted from customs duty on imported good thus making trade very profitable. Various new markets such as Regimental Bazaar and General Bazaar were created. After the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the construction of a seven metre high wall was started at Trimulgherry and completed in 1867. Secunderabad Railway Station one of the largest in India which is also the zonal headquarters of South Central Railway was established in 1874. The King Edward Memorial Hospital, now known as Gandhi Hospital was established in 1851. A Civil Jail (now a heritage building known as Old Jail complex near Monda Market) was also established. Originally constructed in 1860 as the country house of the British Resident at Hyderabad, the Residency House is now known as the Rashtrapati Nilayam, the official retreat of the President of India.
Sir Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II, was posted in Secunderabad during the 1880s as a subaltern in the British Army. Sir Ronald Ross conducted his initial research on the cause of malaria in the city of Secunderabad. The original building is today called the Sir Ronald Ross Institute and is located on Minister Road.
Secunderabad Municipality was first formed in 1945. Later in 1950, along with Hyderabad Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad Corporation Act, 1950. In 1960 by the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act 1955, Secunderabad Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad Corporation to form a single Municipal Corporation. Today Secunderabad is part of the Hyderabad district. Secunderabad celebrated two hundred years of its formation in 2006.
Post-Independence, the Secunderabad Cantonment Board came under the jurisdiction of the Indian Armed forces. Consequently large military units were established. The popular neighbourhoods in Secunderabad are Paradise Circle, Trimulgherry, Marredpally, Sitaphalmandi, Kharkhana, Ranigunj,[New Bhoiguda, Secunderabad] etc. Begumpet Airport is close to Secunderabad and served the twin city until early 2008.
Secunderabad is located at  north of Hyderabad. Situated on the Deccan Plateau, Secunderabad has an average elevation of 543 metres (1781 ft). Most of the area has a rocky terrain and some areas are hilly. Secunderabad is connected to Hyderabad by Rastrapathi Road (formerly known as King's Way) and MG Road (commonly known as James' Street) via Tank Bund..
Secunderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate that borders on a semi-arid climate, with hot summers from late February to early June, the monsoon season from late June to early October and a pleasant winter from late October to early February. In the evenings and mornings, the climate is relatively cooler. Most of rains are concentrated in the monsoon months from June to September.
|Climate data for Secunderabad India (1951–1980)|
|Average high °C (°F)||28.6
|Average low °C (°F)||14.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||3.2
Secunderabad had a population of 204,182. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Secunderabad has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 68%. 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. The city has a sizable population of Anglo-Indians who mainly resided in the South Lallaguda area of Secunderabad which was popularly known as Little England. Many Anglo-Indians have emigrated to other countries in the Anglosphere over the last few decades.
Due to the presence of communities such as Parsis, Anglo-Indians alongside British and native inhabitants, Secunderabad was historically a cosmopolitan city. Though the cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad are twins, they are different in the layout of buildings, the style of life and the very atmosphere. Secunderabad used to be referred to by the locals as Lashkar meaning the army and the city's culture reflected the same. Secunderabad was a liberal city compared to Hyderabad due the presence of the British.
Plaza cinema was the only theatre in India where viewers could sip beer while watching a movie. Sangeet was a popular cinema theatre that screened only western movies.
Secunderabad has several restaurants and shopping centres. The popular Secunderabad Club was established in 1878 at a country house gifted by Salar Jung I. Secunderabad has a more laid-back atmosphere due to the fact that it is mainly a residential area with fewer government offices and corporate establishments. The army and railway institutions in the city add to its cultural identity.
Many outdoor events such as Republic Day parade and fairs are held in the gymkhana or parade grounds. Christmas is celebrated by the Christian residents. An annual festival known as the Bonalu Jatara is celebrated by the Telangana Hindus of the region. It is usually held during the Ashada jathara which is at the start of the monsoon season. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, is observed by the local Muslims. The culture of Secunderabad is distinctly different from that of Hyderabad's Nawabi culture.
Film director and screenwriter Shyam Benegal, test cricketer and TV commentator M. L. Jaisimha, 1997 Femina Miss India and 1997 Miss World 1997 winner Diana Hayden, film actress and model Padmapriya Janakiraman are some of the famous persons from Secunderabad.
ITC, Infosys, Mahindra Satyam and Coromandel International are some of the major private companies which have their offices in Secunderabad. Being the headquarters of South Central Railway, Secunderabad is a major centre for railway activity. Industrial areas such as Bolarum, Moula-Ali, Nacharam, Ghatkesar, Uppal etc. are in Secunderabad. Secunderabad Cantonment Board houses a large number of defence units. Units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) such as Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), ECIL etc. are close to Secunderabad.
The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC), established in 2007, is responsible for the administration and infrastructure of Secunderabad. Secunderabad Municipality was first formed in 1945. Later in 1950, along with Hyderabad Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad Corporation Act, 1950. In 1960 by the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act 1955, Secunderabad Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad Corporation to form a single Municipal Corporation. During Nizam's period Secunderabad Cantonment was given under the control of the British Raj—today those areas and most parts of Secunderabad, where defence installations are located is under the purview of Secunderabad Cantonment Board.
No major stadiums are located in Secunderabad. However some open grounds belonging to Railways and Defence are used for various activities. These are Gymkhana Ground, Parade Ground, Polo Ground, Bollarum Golf Course and Railway Golf Course.
The city is the head-quarters of the South Central Railway Zone of the Indian Railways. It is served by one of the oldest and largest railway station popularly known as the Secunderabad Railway Station in the twin cities. Secunderabad is also a major railway junction in the Wadi-Vijayawada railway route.
Secunderabad is also a major hub for the city bus transport run by the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) and is well connected to all corners of both Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Major bus stations are the Jubilee Bus Station and the Rathfile Bus station .
Tankbund road is a historical and an important road which connects the two cities. Abutting the Hussain sagar lake, the Tankbund road is an arterial road and the main thoroughfare connecting Secunderabad with Hyderabad.
Due to the prolonged presence of the British, Secunderabad has convent schools established by Christian missionaries.
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