The Seediq (sometimes Sediq, or Seejiq, pronounced: [ˈsəədʑɪq] ; Chinese: 賽德克族) are a Taiwanese Austronesian people who live primarily in Nantou County and Hualien County. Their language is also known as Seediq.
The Seediq were officially recognized as Taiwan’s 14th indigenous group on 23 April 2008. Though recognized relatively late, there are records of the Seediq from the Qing dynasty. During the Japanese rule of Taiwan, anthropologists found that the Seediq and Taiya people share cultural similarities; in particular, the importance of face tattoos and the “chucao” tradition of headhunting. The more heads collected, the more recognized power in the tribe.
Although their languages are not similar, the Seediq are also closely related to the Truku (Atayal) people. Both tribes have the same origin and culture, but separated early on due to different lifestyles.
During the Japanese rule of Taiwan, the anthropologist Kanori INOU (伊能 嘉矩) recognized all the indigenous tribes around Puli (埔里) as Taiya people, including the Seediq. This is because he was unable to visit all the tribes in Puli mountain area and was not able to observe the differences between the Taiya and Seediq. Even though Seediq people were not initially recognized, later anthropologists believe that the Seediq are different enough from the Taiya to be classified as a separate indigenous group.
Seediq people were made up of three groups: the Tgdaya (德克塔雅群) (德克達雅群) (德固達雅群), Toda (都達群) (道澤群), and Truku (德路固群). The Truku (Taroko) who split apart from the Seediq call themselves (太魯閣群).
The Truku people demanded a separate status for themselves in a "name rectification" campaign. The Atayal and Seediq slammed the Truku for their their name rectification. Aboriginals have criticized politicians for abusing the "indigenization" movement for political gains, such as aboriginal opposition to the DPP's "rectification" by recognizing the Taroko for political reasons, with the majority of mountain townships voting for Ma Ying-jeou.
During the Wushe Incident Seediq Tkdaya under Mona Rudao revolted against the Japanese while the Truku and Toda did not. The rivalry between the Seediq Tkdaya vs the Toda and Truku (Taroko) was aggravated by Wushe Incident, since the Japanese had long played them off against each other and the Japanese used Toda and Truku (Taroko) collaborators to massacre the Tkdaya. Tkdaya land was given to the Truku (Taroko) and Toda by the Japanese after the incident. The Truku had resisted and fought the Japanese before in the 1914 Truku war 太魯閣戰爭 but had since been pacified and collaborated with the Japanese in the 1930 Wushe against the Tkdaya.
Wushe events (霧社事件)
Starting from 1897, the Japanese began a road building program that brought them into the indigenous people's territory. This was seen as invasive. Contacts and conflicts escalated and some indigenous people were killed. In 1901, in a battle with the Japanese, indigenous people defeated 670 Japanese soldiers. As a result of this, in 1902, the Japanese isolated Wushe.
Between 1914 and 1917, Japanese forces carried out an aggressive 'pacification' program killing many resisting people. At this time, the leader of 馬赫坡社, Mona Rudao, tried to resist rule by Japan, but he failed twice because his plans were divulged. At his third attempt, he organized seven out of twelve groups to fight against the Japanese forces.
Shin Cheng events (新城事件)
Truku war (太魯閣之役)
The Japanese wanted to take over the Truku group. After eight years of investing the area, they attacked. Two thousand of the indigenous people resisted. The Japanese used 200 machine guns and 10,000 soldiers against the Aboriginals, but grievous wounds were inflicted upon the Japanese Governor-General Sakuma Samata during the war and caused his eventual death.
Renzhiguan events (人止關事件) 1902
Zimeiyuan incident 姊妹原事件 1903
In the media
The Seediq people were featured prominently in the 2011 Taiwanese historical drama Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale which depicted the 1930 Wushe Incident along the the earlier 1902 人止關 and 1903 姊妹原. The Wushe Incident was depicted three times in movies including in 1957 in the film 青山碧血 Qing Shan bi xue, It was also depicted in the 2003 TV Drama Dana Sakura w:zh:風中緋櫻.
- ed. Vinding 2004, p. 220.
- Simon 2011, p. 28.
- 新城事件 - 臺灣原住民歷史語言文化大辭典網路版
- 新城天主堂 - 花蓮觀光資訊網> 太魯閣地區> 熱門景點
- 花蓮縣文化局> 文化資產
- 文化視野：太魯閣事件的開端：新城事件- 台灣立報
- 太魯閣族抗日戰役史- 和平國小台灣母語日暨原住民資源網
- 臺灣原住民族文化知識網 歷史事件
- 被遺忘的戰役＿太魯閣戰役.mpg - YouTube
- 太魯閣戰役(電影粉絲團) - 【影片】百年血淚！被 ...
- 太魯閣事件 - 臺灣原住民歷史語言文化大辭典網路版
- 太魯閣戰爭 - 臺灣原住民歷史語言文化大辭典網路版
- 太魯閣 - 臺灣原住民數位博物館
- 2014年「太魯閣族抗日戰爭紀念系列活動」官方網站- 本站消息
- 2014年「太魯閣族抗日戰爭紀念系列活動」官方網站- Dxgal o ...
- Tsai 2005, p. 12.
- Tsai 2009, p. 134.
- 國立自然科學博物館-> 賽德克-巴萊特展-> 事件-> 人止關
- 人止關事件 - 臺灣原住民歷史語言文化大辭典網路版
- 國立自然科學博物館-> 賽德克-巴萊特展-> 事件-> 姊妹原事件
- 姐妹原事件 - 臺灣原住民歷史語言文化大辭典網路版
- 姊妹原事件 - VCenter - 您的影音中心- 數位典藏國家型計畫
- 真相．巴萊: 《賽德克・巴萊》的歷史真相與隨拍札記 (Seediq Bale 5)
- darryl (January 4, 2012). "Subjective, objective and indigenous history: Seediq Bale’s take on the Wushe Incident". Savage Minds.
- Lee 2012, p. 395.