Denis Sefton Delmer (born 24 May 1904, Berlin, Germany – died 4 September 1979, Lamarsh, Essex) was a British journalist and propagandist for the British government. Fluent in German, he became friendly with Ernst Röhm who arranged for him to interview Adolf Hitler in the 1930s. During the Second World War he led a black propaganda campaign against Hitler by radio from England and he was named in the Nazis' Black Book for immediate arrest after their invasion of England.
Denis Sefton Delmer, known familiarly as "Tom", was born in Berlin, Germany, but was registered as a British citizen with the British Consulate. His parents were from Australia. His father, Frederick Sefton Delmer, born in Hobart, Tasmania, was Professor of English Literature at Berlin University and author of a standard textbook for German schools. On the outbreak of the First World War his father was interned in Ruhleben internment camp as an enemy alien. In 1917, in a prisoner exchange between the British and German governments, the Delmer family was repatriated to England.
Delmer was educated at Friedrichwerdersches Gymnasium, Berlin, St Paul's School, London and Lincoln College, Oxford, where he obtained a second class degree in modern languages. He was brought up to speak only German until the age of five and as late as 1939 spoke English with a slight accent.
After leaving university, Delmer worked as a freelance journalist until he was recruited by the Daily Express to become head of its new Berlin Bureau. Whilst in Germany, he became friendly with Ernst Röhm, who arranged for him to become the first British journalist to interview Adolf Hitler.
In the 1932 German general election, Delmer travelled with Hitler aboard his private aircraft. He was also present when Hitler inspected the aftermath of the Reichstag fire. During this period, Delmer was criticised for being a Nazi sympathiser and, for a time, the British government thought he was in the pay of the Nazis. Perversely, Nazi leaders were convinced Delmer was a member of MI6; his denials of any involvement only served to strengthen their belief that he was not only a member, but also an important one.
In 1933, Delmer was sent to France as head of the Daily Express Paris Bureau. In 1935, Delmer married Isabel Nichols. Delmer covered important stories in Europe including the Spanish Civil War and the invasion of Poland by the Wehrmacht in 1939. He also reported on the German western offensive in 1940.
Delmer returned to Britain and worked for a time as an announcer for the German service of the BBC. After Hitler broadcast a speech from the Reichstag offering peace terms, Delmer responded immediately, stating the British cast the terms in "your lying, stinking teeth." Delmer's instant — and unauthorized — rejection produced a great impact on Germany, where Goebbels concluded it had to come from the government. This gave it an impact any authorization would have prevented, and produced consternation in Whitehall: though the effect was desirable, it was unclear whether such a spokesman would again happen to say what the government wanted.
In September 1940, Delmer was recruited by the Political Warfare Executive (PWE), to organize black propaganda broadcasts to Nazi Germany as part of a psychological warfare campaign. Leonard Ingrams gained clearance for Delmer to work for the Political Intelligence Department of the Foreign Office. The operation was based at Wavendon Towers in what is now Milton Keynes new town. Delmer's creations would join a number of other "Research Units" operating propaganda broadcasts.
The concept was that the radio station would undermine Hitler by pretending to be a fervent Hitler-Nazi supporter.
Delmer's first, most notable success was a shortwave station: Gustav Siegfried Eins (Gustav Siegfried One), G3 in the Research units. It would be “run” by the character "Der Chef”, an unrepentant Nazi, who disparaged both Winston Churchill ("that flatfooted son of a drunken Jew") and the "Parteikommune", the "Party Communists" who betrayed the Nazi revolution. The station name, "Gustav Siegfried Eins" (abbreviated "GS1", left a question in listeners' minds – did it mean Geheimsender 1: (Secret Transmitter 1) or Generalstab 1 (General Staff 1)? The station was broadcast from nearby Gawcott.
GS1 went on the air on the evening of 23 May 1941. Der Chef, played by Peter Secklemann, a former Berlin journalist, was (then) the only member of the team to have arrived at the discreet house known as "The Rookery" in Aspley Guise, Bedfordshire. Another journalist, Johannes Reinholz, played an adjutant to Der Chef.
When Stafford Cripps discovered what Delmer was involved with (through the intervention of Richard Crossman)[clarification needed] Cripps wrote to Anthony Eden, then Foreign Secretary: "If this is the sort of thing that is needed to win the war, why, I'd rather lose it." Delmer was defended by Robert Bruce Lockhart, who pointed out the need to reach the sadist in the German nature. GS1 ran for 700 broadcasts before Delmer killed it off in late 1943 with gunfire heard over the radio intimating the authorities had caught up with Der Chef. The dramatic ending may have been deliberately based on the Gleiwitz incident, when the Nazis staged the capture of a German radio station by Polish forces, an operation which Hitler used to justify the invasion of Poland and the start of the second World war.
Delmer created several stations and was successful through a careful use of intelligence using gossip intercepted in German mail to neutral countries to create credible stories. Delmer's credit within the intelligence agencies was such that the Admiralty sought him out to target German submarine crews with demoralizing news bulletins. For this, Delmer had access to Aspidistra, a 500 kW radio transmitter sourced from RCA in the US (their largest off-the shelf-model), which Section VIII bought for £165,000. Use of Aspidistra, which began in 1942, was split between PWE, the BBC, and the RAF. Delmer's creation was Deutsche Kurzwellensender Atlantik (or popularly Atlantiksender). This station used US jazz (banned within Germany as decadent) and up-to-date dance music from Germany (extracted via Sweden and RAF courier) as well as an in-house German dance band. Important details on naval procedures came from anti-Nazis identified in POW camps and mail[clarification needed] were sifted to create personalized announcements. Agnes Bernelle "played" the seductive "Vicki" and announced news bulletins.
Christ the King (G.8) broadcast an attack on the conscience of religious Germans, telling of the horrors of the labour and concentration camps, through a German priest.
Soldatensender Calais ("Calais Armed Forces Radio Station") was another clandestine radio station directed at the German armed forces by Delmer. Based in Milton Bryan and transmitting from Crowborough, Soldatensender Calais broadcast a combination of popular music, "cover" support of the war, and "dirt" - items inserted to demoralize German forces. Delmer's propaganda stories included spreading rumours that foreign workers were sleeping with the wives of German soldiers serving overseas. The station, broadcast by Aspidistra, was popular on the German home front also. Delmer oversaw the production of a daily "grey" German-language newspaper titled Nachrichten für die Truppe ("News for the Troops"), which first appeared in May 1944, much of its text being based on the Soldatensender Calais broadcasts. Nachrichten für die Truppe was written by a team provided to Delmer by SHAEF and was disseminated over Germany, Belgium, and France each morning by the Special Leaflet Squadron of the U.S. Eighth Air Force.
As the fighting progressed into Germany itself, black propaganda was used to create an impression of an anti-Nazi resistance movement. Delmer criticised this later as the "black boomerang", with Nazis claiming they had been allied to this fictitious movement. With the end of the war in Europe, Delmer advised his colleagues to say nothing of the work they had been in lest, as the Nazis did after the First World War, the Germans could claim they had not been beaten militarily but by underhanded means.
Later career and retirement
After the Second World War, Delmer became chief foreign affairs reporter for the Daily Express. Over the next fifteen years Delmer covered nearly every major foreign news story for the newspaper. Lord Beaverbrook sacked Delmer in 1959 over an expenses issue, and he retired to Lamarsh in Essex, near to Little Sampford where his ex-wife Isabel lived with her third husband. He wrote two volumes of autobiography, Trail Sinister (1961), Black Boomerang (1962) and several other books including Weimar Germany (1972) and The Counterfeit Spy (1971). David Hare based his play Licking Hitler on Black Boomerang, and his plot included the faked, on-air discovery and shooting of the broadcaster, in the same way as Delmer had finished the career of "Der Chef".
- Frederick Sefton Delmer (1913; reprinted July 2001). English Literature from Beowulf to Bernard Shaw. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-0-543-90834-6. Check date values in:
- Sefton Delmer, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Delmer, Sefton: Trail Sinister Secker & Warburg 1961 p.19
- This incident was described in both Black Boomerang and in William Shirer's book, Berlin Diary.
- Balfour, Michael. 'Propaganda in War 1939-1945: Organisation, Policies and Publics in Britain and Germany, Routledge & Kegan Paul pp.195-6.
- Balfour, p.195.
- Twigge, Stephen & Edward Hampshire, & Graham Macklin. British Intelligence, (National Archives, 2008), pp.72-73.
- The Rookery, Aspley Guise - Bedfordshire Record Office, accessed 26 July 2010 For Delmer at The Rookery, see also Willi Frischauer, The Man Who Came Back: The Story of Otto John (1958, ebook 2013). Unmaterial Books. ISBN 978-1-78301-282-4
- Sir Stafford Cripps and the German Admiral's Orgy by Lee Richards, PsyWar.Org, 2007.
- Rankin, Churchill's Wizards
- See Chapter Two of Tail of a Tale by Sefton DelmerThe hiring and firing by Beaverbrook.
- Hare, David (1984). The history plays. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 11–15; 124–125. ISBN 0-571-13132-8.
- The Sefton Delmer Archive: The online archive of all Sefton Delmer's book including his autobiography Black Boomerang.
- Gray and Black Radio Propaganda against Nazi Germany Extensively illustrated paper describing the Allied effort in World War II to undermine Germany through unidentified or misidentified radio broadcasts.
- Yours Faithfully, Adolf Hitler Correspondence between Delmer and Hitler in 1931.