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A seismogram is a graph output by a seismograph. It is a record of the ground motion at a measuring station as a function of time. Seismograms typically record motions in three cartesian axes (x, y, and z), with the z axis perpendicular to the Earth's surface and the x- and y- axes parallel to the surface. The energy measured in a seismogram may result from an earthquake or from some other source, such as an explosion. Seismograms can record lots of things, and record many little waves, called microseisms.. These tiny microseisms can be caused by heavy traffic near the seismograph, waves hitting a beach, the wind, and any number of other ordinary things that cause some shaking of the seismograph.

A set of seismograms for an earthquake from the USGS (click to see large version)

Historically, seismograms were recorded on paper attached to rotating drums. Some used pens on ordinary paper, while others used light beams to expose photosensitive paper. Today, practically all seismograms are recorded digitally to make analysis by computer easier.[1] Some drum seismometers are still found, though, especially when used for public display. Seismograms are essential for finding the location and magnitude of earthquakes.

Reading seismograms[edit]

Seismograms are read from left to right.

Time marks show when the earthquake occurred. Time is shown by half-hour (thirty minute) units. Each rotation of the seismograph drum is thirty minutes. Therefore, on seismograms, each line measures thirty minutes. This is a more efficient way to read a seismogram. Secondly, there are the minute-marks. A minute mark looks like a hyphen "-" between each minute. Minute marks count minutes on seismograms. From left to right, each mark stands for a minute.

Each seismic wave looks different. The P-wave is the first wave that is bigger than the other waves (the microseisms). Because P waves are the fastest seismic waves, they will usually be the first ones that the seismograph records. The next set of seismic waves on the seismogram will be the S-waves. These are usually bigger than the P waves, and have higher frequency. Look for a dramatic change in frequency for a different type of wave.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bolt, Bruce (August 2005), Earthquakes: 2006 Centennial Update — The 1906 Big One (Fifth ed.), W. H. Freeman and Company, p. 110, ISBN 978-0716775485 

External links[edit]