Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo

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Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo
Kartosuwirjo 17 August 1950 KR.jpg
Imam of the Islamic State of Indonesia
In office
August 7, 1949 – June 4, 1962
Preceded by position created
Succeeded by position abolished
Personal details
Born January 7, 1905
Cepu, Central Java, Dutch East Indies
Died September 5, 1962 (age 57)
Kep. Seribu, Jakarta, Indonesia
Spouse(s) Dewi Siti Kalsum
Religion Islam

Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo (January 7, 1905 - September 5, 1962) was an Indonesian Islamic mystic who led the Darul Islam rebellion against the Indonesian government from 1949 to 1962, with the objective of overthrowing the secular Pancasila ideology and establishing Negara Islam Indonesia (Islamic State of Indonesia) based on sharia law.

Early life[edit]

Kartosuwirjo was born in Cepu, an oil-producing town in Central Java, son of minor government official. His education was mostly in secular and Dutch-medium schools. While attending NIAS (Nederlands-Indische Artsen School/ Netherlands Indies Medical College) in Surabaya, Kartosuwirjo boarded at the house of Islamist leader Tjokroaminoto and became actively involved in Tjokrominoto's PSII (Partai Sarekat Islam Indonesia/ Indonesian Islamic Union Party). Kartosuwirjo abandoned his medical studies to be fully immersed in politics.

While touring Malangbong, near Garut in West Java, Kartosuwirjo met and married daughter of a local PSII leader. He settled down in this area, where he established a madrasa. In 1937, he resigned from PSII to establish his own political movement advocating a future Islamic State of Indonesia based on Islamic law.

Leading the Darul Islam[edit]

During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia (1942–1945), Kartosuwirjo established armed militias in Garut area, one of many such groups supported and armed by the Japanese in order to help them resist any future Allied invasion. During the Indonesian National Revolution, his Darul Islam militia remained in amicable terms with the secular Republican forces until the latter withdrew from West Java according to the terms of Renville Agreement in 1948, while Kartosuwirjo continued the guerilla struggle against occupying Dutch forces. After the second Dutch offensive (Operatie Kraai) on December 1948, Republican guerillas slipping back into West Java was attacked by Kartosuwirjo's militia, resulting in a triangular war between the Republican forces, the Darul Islam, and the Dutch army.

On August 7, 1949, he declared establishment of Negara Islam Indonesia (Indonesian Islamic State) with himself as Imam. After the transfer of sovereignty from the Dutch, Kartosuwirjo refused to acknowledge returning Republican authority and continue attacking returning Republican forces, eventually culminating to a full-blown insurgency.

During the 1950s, weak central government and uncoordinated military response from the government allowed Darul Islam to flourish, controlling one-third of West Java and even launching raids as far as the outskirts of Jakarta. Islamic rebels in South Sulawesi and Aceh joined the Darul Islam and acknowledged Kartosuwirjo as their highest authority through in practice there was little coordination between the rebels in the different provinces. In 1957, agents sent by Kartosuwirjo unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Sukarno by grenade attack during a primary school function at Cikini, Central Jakarta.

Defeat and Death[edit]

Declaration of martial law in 1957 and establishment of Guided Democracy by Sukarno in 1959 proved to be a turning point for Darul Islam's fortunes. The military introduced effective "fence of legs" method to encircle the guerillas' mountain bases and cutting off their supply and escape route, forcing the rebels to surrender or face annihilation in face of superior firepower. Kartosuwirjo responded by declaring "total war" in 1961, in which Darul Islam guerillas increasingly used terror tactics and banditry against civilians, further alienating the population. He also sent agents to Jakarta, where on May 1962 they made another unsuccessful assassination attempt on Sukarno during the Eid al-Adha prayers.

On June 1962, Kartosuwirjo was eventually captured in his hideout at Mount Geber near Garut. In captivity, he issued order for his followers to surrender. The last Darul Islam band in West Java, operating at Mount Ciremai, surrendered on August 1962. Kartosuwirjo was brought to Jakarta, where he was tried by military court-martial. He was found guilty of rebellion and attempted assassination of the president, and was sentenced to death. He was executed by firing squad on September 5, 1962.

References[edit]

  • Dijk, C. van (Cornelis) Rebellion under the banner of Islam : the Darul Islam in Indonesia The Hague: M. Nijhoff,1981.ISBN 90-247-6172-7
  • Kilcullen, David "The political consequences of military operations in Indonesia 1945-99 : a fieldwork analysis of the political power-diffusion effects of guerilla conflict " PhD Thesis, University of New South Wales - Australian Defence Force Academy. School of Politics, 2000