Selective mutism

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Selective Mutism (AQ)
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F94.0
ICD-9 309.83 313.23
MedlinePlus 001546
eMedicine ped/2660
MeSH D009155

Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech does not speak in specific situations or to specific people. Selective mutism usually co-exists with shyness or social anxiety.[1] Children with selective mutism stay silent even when the consequences of their silence include shame, social ostracism or even punishment.[2]

Description[edit]

Children and adults with selective mutism are fully capable of speech and understanding language but fail to speak in certain situations, though speech is expected of them.[3] The behaviour may be perceived as shyness or rudeness by others. A child with selective mutism may be completely silent at school for years but speak quite freely or even excessively at home. There is a hierarchical variation among people with this disorder: some people participate fully in activities and appear social but do not speak, others will speak only to peers but not to adults, others will speak to adults when asked questions requiring short answers but never to peers, and still others speak to no one and participate in few, if any, activities presented to them. In a severe form known as "progressive mutism", the disorder progresses until the person with this condition no longer speaks to anyone in any situation, even close family members.

Selective mutism is by definition characterized by the following:

  • Consistent failure to speak in specific social situations (in which there is an expectation for speaking, e.g., at school) despite speaking in other situations.
  • The disturbance interferes with educational or occupational achievement or with social communication.
  • The duration of the disturbance is at least 1 month (not limited to the first month of school).
  • The failure to speak is not due to a lack of knowledge of, or comfort with, the spoken language required in the social situation.
  • The disturbance is not better accounted for by a communication disorder (e.g., stuttering) and does not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder.

Selective mutism is strongly associated with anxiety disorders, particularly social anxiety disorder. In fact, the majority of children diagnosed with selective mutism also have social anxiety disorder (100% of participants in two studies and 97% in another).[4][5][6] Some researchers therefore speculate that selective mutism may be an avoidance strategy used by a subgroup of children with social anxiety disorder to reduce their distress in social situations.[7][8]

Particularly in young children, SM can sometimes be confused with an autism spectrum disorder, especially if the child acts particularly withdrawn around their diagnostician, which can lead to incorrect treatment. Although autistic people may also be selectively mute, they display other behaviors—hand flapping, repetitive behaviors, social isolation even among family members (not always answering to name, for example)—that set them apart from a child with selective mutism. Some autistic people may be selectively mute due to anxiety in social situations that they do not fully understand. If mutism is entirely due to autism spectrum disorder, it cannot be diagnosed as selective mutism as stated in the last item on the list above.[citation needed]

Selective mutism may co-exist with or cause the child to appear to have attention deficit disorder. Many people with the inattentive form of ADHD show little or no interest in other people. People with inattentive ADHD may appear to be "space cadets" or "out in their own world", and may be slower to respond to social stimuli. Children with selective mutism, especially when they have severe social anxiety, may also display this behavior. In addition, many children with selective mutism are highly sensitive, and they may be distracted from the task at hand by sensory input or their anxiety.[citation needed]

The former name elective mutism indicates a widespread misconception among psychologists that selective mute people choose to be silent in certain situations, while the truth is that they often wish to speak but cannot. To reflect the involuntary nature of this disorder, the name was changed to selective mutism in 1994.

The incidence of selective mutism is not certain. Due to the poor understanding of this condition by the general public, many cases are likely undiagnosed. Based on the number of reported cases, the figure is commonly estimated to be 1 in 1000, 0.1%.[9] However, a 2002 study in The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry estimated the incidence to be 0.71%.[10]

Other symptoms[edit]

Besides lack of speech, other common behaviors and characteristics displayed by selectively mute people include:[11][12]

  • Shyness, social anxiety, fear of social embarrassment, and/or social isolation and withdrawal
  • Difficulty maintaining eye contact
  • Blank expression and reluctance to smile
  • Stiff and awkward movements
  • Difficulty expressing feelings, even to family members
  • Tendency to worry more than most people of the same age
  • Desire for routine and dislike of changes
  • Sensitivity to noise and crowds

On the positive side, many people with this condition have:

  • Above-average intelligence, perception, or inquisitiveness
  • Creativity and a love for art or music
  • Empathy and sensitivity to others' thoughts and feelings
  • A strong sense of right and wrong[12]

Causes[edit]

Selective mutism is an umbrella term for the condition of otherwise well-developed children who cannot speak or communicate under certain settings. The exact causes that affect each child may be different and yet unknown. There have been attempts to categorize, but there are no definitive answers yet due to the under-diagnosis and small/biased sample sizes. Many people are not diagnosed until late in childhood only because they do not speak at school and therefore fail to accomplish assignments requiring public speaking. Their involuntary silence makes the condition harder to understand or test. Parents often are unaware of the condition since the children may be functioning well at home. Teachers and pediatricians also sometimes mistake it for severe shyness or common stage fright.

Selective mutism occurs in all racial and ethnic groups. The majority of reported cases are of white and interracial children. However this could be due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting in other ethnic groups.

Most children with selective mutism are hypothesized to have an inherited predisposition to anxiety. They often have inhibited temperaments, which is hypothesized to be the result of over-excitability of the area of the brain called the amygdala.[13] This area receives indications of possible threats and sets off the fight-or-flight response. Given the very high overlap between social anxiety disorder and selective mutism (as high as 100% in some studies[14][15][16]), it is possible that social anxiety disorder causes selective mutism.

Some children with selective mutism may have trouble processing sensory information. This would cause anxiety and a sense of being overwhelmed in unfamiliar situations, which may cause the child to "shut down" and not be able to speak (something that some autistic people also experience). Many children with Selective Mutism have some auditory processing difficulties.

About 20–30% of children with SM have speech or language disorders that add stress to situations in which the child is expected to speak.[17]

Despite the change of name from "elective" to "selective", a common misconception remains that a selectively mute child is defiant or stubborn. In fact, children with SM have a lower rate of oppositional behavior than their peers in a school setting.[18] Some previous studies on the subject of selective mutism have been dismissed as containing serious flaws in their design. According to a more recent systematic study it is believed that children who have selective mutism are not more likely than other children to have a history of early trauma or stressful life events.[19] Another recent study by Dummit et al., in 1997 did not find any evidence of trauma in their sample of children. Recent evidence has shown that trauma doesn't explain why most children with selective mutism develop the condition.[20] Many children who have Selective Mutism almost always speak confidently in some situations. Children who have experienced trauma however are known to suddenly stop speaking.

History[edit]

In 1877, German physician Adolph Kussmaul described children who were able to speak normally but often refused to as having a disorder he named aphasia voluntaria.[21] Although this is now an obsolete term, it was part of an early effort to describe the concept now called selective mutism.

In 1980, a study by Torey Hayden identified what she called four "subtypes" of elective mutism, although this set of subtypes is not in current diagnostic use.[22] First, and most common, she described "symbiotic mutism" characterized by a vocal and dominating mother and absent father and the use of mutism as controlling behavior around other adults. Second, the least common, was the "speech phobic mutism" subtype, in which the child showed distinct fear at hearing a recording of their voice. This subtype also involved ritualistic behaviors and was thought to be caused by having been told to keep a family secret.

Hayden's third subtype was "reactive mutism," thought to be caused by trauma or abuse, though not all children put in this category were known to have been abused. These children all showed symptoms of depression and were notably withdrawn, usually showing no facial expressions. In her fourth and last subtype, Hayden described "passive-aggressive mutism" in which silence is used as a display of hostility, connected to antisocial behavior. Some of the children in this group had not been mute until age 9–12. These subtypes are no longer recognized, though "speech phobia" is sometimes used to describe a selectively mute person who appears not to have any symptoms of social anxiety.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), first published in 1952, first included elective mutism in its third edition, published in 1980. Elective mutism was described as "a continuous refusal to speak in almost all social situations" despite normal ability to speak. While "excessive shyness" and other anxiety-related traits were listed as associated features, predisposing factors included "maternal overprotection", mental retardation, and trauma. Elective mutism in the third edition revised (DSM III-R) is described similarly to the third edition except for specifying that the disorder is not related to social phobia.

In 1994, Sue Newman, co-founder of the Selective Mutism Foundation, requested that the fourth edition of the DSM reflect the name change from elective mutism to selective mutism and describe the disorder as a failure to speak. The relation to anxiety disorders was emphasized, particularly in the revised version (DSM IV-TR). As part of the reorganization of the DSM categories, the DSM-5 moved selective mutism from the section "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence" to the section for anxiety disorders.[23]

Treatment[edit]

Contrary to popular belief, people with selective mutism do not necessarily improve with age.[24] Effective treatment is necessary for a child to develop properly. Without treatment, selective mutism can contribute to chronic depression, further anxiety, and other social and emotional problems.[25][26]

Consequently, treatment at an early age is important. If not addressed, selective mutism tends to be self-reinforcing. Others may eventually expect an afflicted child to not speak and therefore stop attempting to initiate verbal contact. Alternatively, they may pressure the child to talk, increasing their anxiety levels in situations where speech is expected. Due to these problems, a change of environment may be a viable consideration. However, changing school is worth considering only if the alternative environment is highly supportive, otherwise a whole new environment could also be a social shock for the individual and/or deprive them of any friends or support they have currently. Regardless of the cause, increasing awareness and ensuring an accommodating, supportive environment are the first steps towards effective treatment. Most often afflicted children don't have to change schools or classes and have no difficulty keeping up except on the communication and social front. Treatment in teenage or adult years can be more difficult because the afflicted individual has become accustomed to being mute.

The exact treatment depends on the person's age, any comorbid mental illnesses, and a number of other factors. For instance, stimulus fading is typically used with younger children because older children and teenagers recognize the situation as an attempt to make them speak, and older people with this condition and people with depression are more likely to need medication.[27]

Like other disabilities, adequate accommodations are needed for an afflicted child to succeed both at school and in the home. Under the U.S. federal law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), children with the disorder qualify for services based upon the fact that they have an impairment that hinders their ability to speak, thus disrupting their education. This assistance is typically documented in the form of an Individual Educational Plan (IEP). Post-secondary accommodations are also available for people with disabilities.

Under another law, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, public school districts are required to provide a free, appropriate public education to every "qualified handicapped person" residing within their jurisdiction. If the child is found to have impairments that substantially limit a major life activity (in this case, learning), the education agency has to decide what related aids or services are required to provide equal access to the learning environment.

Self-modeling[edit]

An afflicted child is brought into the classroom or the environment where they will not speak and is videotaped. First, their teacher or another adult prompts the child with questions that likely will not be answered. A parent, or someone the child feels comfortable speaking to, then replaces the prompter and asks the child the same questions, this time eliciting a verbal response. The two videos of the conversations are then edited together to make it seem that the child is directly answering the questions posed by the teacher. This video is then shown to the child over a series of several weeks. The child is asked to view the tape and every time they see themselves answering the teacher verbally, the tape is stopped and the child is given a positive reinforcement.

The video can also be shown to the child’s class to set an expectation in the classroom by their peers that they speak. The classmates now know the sound of the child’s voice and believe they have seen the child conversing with the teacher.[28][29]

Mystery motivators[edit]

Mystery motivation is often seen paired with the self-modeling technique. An envelope is placed in the child’s classroom in a visible place. On the envelope, the child’s name is written along with a question mark. Inside is a prize determined with the child’s parent for it to be something the child would want to have. The child is told that when they ask for the envelope appropriately and loudly enough for the teacher and their peers to hear, they may then receive the mystery motivator. The class is also told in this case about the expectation that the child ask for the envelope loudly enough that the class can hear.[28][29][30]

Stimulus fading[edit]

The subject is brought into a controlled environment with someone with whom they are at ease and can communicate. Gradually, another person is introduced into the situation. One example of stimulus fading is the sliding-in technique, where a new person is slowly brought into the talking group. This can take a long time for the first one or two faded-in people but may become faster as the patient gets more comfortable with the technique.

An example of this would be a child playing a board game with a family member in their classroom at school. Gradually, the teacher is brought in to play as well. When the child adjusts to his/her presence, then a peer is brought in to be a part of the game. Each person is only brought in if the child continues to engage verbally and positively.[28][29][30]

Desensitization[edit]

The subject communicates indirectly with a person they are afraid to speak to through such means as email, instant messaging (text, audio, and/or video), online chat, voice or video recordings, and speaking or whispering to an intermediary in the presence of the target person. This can make the subject more comfortable with the idea of communicating with this person.

Shaping[edit]

The subject is slowly encouraged to speak. They are reinforced first for interacting nonverbally, then for saying certain sounds (such as the sound that each letter of the alphabet makes) rather than words, then for whispering, and finally saying a word or more.[31]

Spacing[edit]

Spacing is important to integrate, especially with self-modeling. Repeated and spaced out use of interventions is shown to be the most helpful long-term for learning. Viewing videotapes of self-modeling should be shown over a spaced out period of time of approximately 6 weeks.[28][29][30]

Drug treatments[edit]

Many practitioners believe that there is evidence indicating that antidepressants such as SSRIs may be helpful in treating children and adults with selective mutism and even that medicine is essential to effective treatment.[citation needed] The medication is used to decrease anxiety levels to speed the process of therapy. Use of medication may end after nine to twelve months, once the person has learned skills to cope with anxiety and has become more comfortable in social situations.[32] Medication is more often used for older children, teenagers, and adults whose anxiety has led to depression and other problems.

Medication, when used, should never be considered the entire treatment for a person with selective mutism. While on medication, the person should be in therapy to help them learn how to handle anxiety and prepare them for life without medication.[33]

Anti-depressants have been used in addition to self-modeling and mystery motivation to aid in the learning process.[28][29]

In popular culture[edit]

Possibly the most well-known instance of selective (as opposed to total) mutism in popular culture was depicted by the character of Rajesh Koothrappali (played by Kunal Nayyar) in the television sitcom The Big Bang Theory. Due to social anxiety, he was unable to speak to women who were not family members, due to fear of rejection. Drinking alcohol suppressed his anxiety, allowing him to speak; however, it negatively affected his personality, making him arrogant, obnoxious, whiny, and perverted. In the episode "The Terminator Decoupling", however, he unknowingly drank alcohol-free beer and due to the placebo effect, was able to hold a normal conversation with actress Summer Glau, who found him interesting and charming. He was later cured in the season six finale "The Bon Voyage Reaction" after his severely socially anxious girlfriend Lucy (played by Kate Micucci) broke up with him.

Children's books with a selectively mute protagonist include The Secret Voice of Gina Zhang by Dori Jones Yang and Alvin Ho: Allergic to Girls, School, and Other Scary Things by Lenore Look. Both of these books are set in elementary school and specifically mention selective mutism. In addition, several children's picture books have been written with the specific purpose of educating readers about selective mutism, such as Understanding Katie by selective mutism expert Elisa Shipon-Blum. Adoption Detective by Judith Land mentions selective mutism, extreme shyness, and other social anxiety disorders as evidence of trauma frequently associated with adoption. She explains that adoptees with selective mutism have difficulty verbalizing personal thoughts that are excessively revealing and painful or of a subconscious nature; selective mutism can be highly functional for a child by reducing anxiety and protecting the child from perceived challenges of social interaction.

In young adult literature and films, there are several instances of protagonists who do not speak despite having the ability to do so. They usually are mute in all situations, and trauma is a common cause for the mutism, though some make the choice to stop speaking. One well-known book, Cut by Patricia McCormick, features a main character who is entirely silent after facing problems at home and being sent to a mental hospital.

There are various lesser-known books in both young adult and adult fiction, as well as films that follow the same idea. For example, the 2004 made-for-TV movie Samantha: An American Girl Holiday, where one of the three orphans that the protagonist befriended, never said a word for the majority of the story, likely out of emotional trauma due to the death of their parents. In the children's film Jumanji, after the death of their parents the character Peter speaks only to his sister, and only when they are alone.

In the Saturday Night Live Digital Shorts, "Rihanna and Shy Ronnie", and "Ronnie and Clyde", the character "Shy Ronnie" (portrayed by Andy Samberg) cannot rap in front of Rihanna, but starts as soon as she leaves the room, and stops again when she re-enters.

The film Little Voice centers upon a selectively mute singer.

The novel "The Lock Artist" by Steve Hamilton features a teenager Mike (who narrates the story) suffering from selective mutism after experiencing a traumatic incident in his childhood.

The novel Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel features a chapter in which the main character, Tita, refuses to speak after being abused by her mother.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Viana, A. G.; Beidel, D. C.; Rabian, B. (2009). "Selective mutism: A review and integration of the last 15 years". Clinical Psychology Review 29 (1): 57–67. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.09.009. PMID 18986742.  edit
  2. ^ "The Child Who Would Not Speak a Word"
  3. ^ Adelman, L. (2007). Don't Call me Shy, LangMarc Publishing
  4. ^ Dummit, E. S.; Klein, R. G.; Tancer, N. K.; Asche, B.; Martin, J.; Fairbanks, J. A. (1997). "Systematic Assessment of 50 Children with Selective Mutism". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (5): 653–660. doi:10.1097/00004583-199705000-00016. PMID 9136500.  edit
  5. ^ Vecchio, J. L.; Kearney, C. A. (2005). "Selective Mutism in Children: Comparison to Youths with and Without Anxiety Disorders". Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 27: 31. doi:10.1007/s10862-005-3263-1.  edit
  6. ^ Black, B.; Uhde, T. W. (1995). "Psychiatric Characteristics of Children with Selective Mutism: A Pilot Study". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 34 (7): 847–856. doi:10.1097/00004583-199507000-00007. PMID 7649954.  edit
  7. ^ Yeganeh, R.; Beidel, D. C.; Turner, S. M. (2006). "Selective mutism: More than social anxiety?". Depression and Anxiety 23 (3): 117–123. doi:10.1002/da.20139. PMID 16421889.  edit
  8. ^ Sharp, W. G.; Sherman, C.; Gross, A. M. (2007). "Selective mutism and anxiety: A review of the current conceptualization of the disorder". Journal of Anxiety Disorders 21 (4): 568–579. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.07.002. PMID 16949249.  edit http://www.selectivemutism.org/resources/library/SM%20General%20Information/Current%20Conceptualization%20of%20SM.pdf
  9. ^ Chvira, Denise A., Elisa Shipon-Blum, Carla Hitchcock, Sharon Cohan, and Murray B. Stein. "Selective Mutism and Social Anxiety Disorder: All in the Family?" Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 46.11 (2007): 1464-472. Google Scholar. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
  10. ^ RL Bergman, J Piacentini, JT McCracken. Prevalence and description of selective mutism in a school-based sample.
  11. ^ "Selective Mutism Symptoms". Theselectivemutism.info. Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  12. ^ a b Online Parent Support (2005-05-26). "Selective Mutism". Myoutofcontrolteen.com. Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  13. ^ SMart Center: What is Selective Mutism?
  14. ^ Dummit, E. S.; Klein, R. G.; Tancer, N. K.; Asche, B.; Martin, J.; Fairbanks, J. A. (1997). "Systematic Assessment of 50 Children with Selective Mutism". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (5): 653–660. doi:10.1097/00004583-199705000-00016. PMID 9136500.  edit
  15. ^ Vecchio, J. L.; Kearney, C. A. (2005). "Selective Mutism in Children: Comparison to Youths with and Without Anxiety Disorders". Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 27: 31. doi:10.1007/s10862-005-3263-1.  edit
  16. ^ Black, B.; Uhde, T. W. (1995). "Psychiatric Characteristics of Children with Selective Mutism: A Pilot Study". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 34 (7): 847–856. doi:10.1097/00004583-199507000-00007. PMID 7649954.  edit
  17. ^ Cohan, Sharon L. Refining the Classification of Children with Selective Mutism: A Latent Profile Analysis
  18. ^ Sharp, William G. Selective Mutism and Anxiety: A Review of the Current Conceptualization of the Disorder
  19. ^ Steinhausen and Juzi, 1996.
  20. ^ Cunningham, Mcholm, Vanier, 2005.
  21. ^ Bright Tots: Selective Mutism
  22. ^ Torey Hayden. Classification of Elective Mutism
  23. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8. 
  24. ^ Johnson, Maggie; Alison Wintjens (2001-06-21). The Selective Mutism Resource Manual. Speechmark Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-86388-280-3. 
  25. ^ Selective Mutism Group: Ask the Doc archives http://www.selectivemutism.org/faq/faqs/when-do-i-need-to-seek-professional-help-for-my-child http://www.selectivemutism.org/faq/faqs/what-about-adults-what-are-the-long-term-effects-of-sm
  26. ^ Virginia Tech University mass killer Cho Seung Hui diagnosed with Selective Mutism
  27. ^ Ricki Blau. "The Older Child or Teen with Selective Mutism"
  28. ^ a b c d e Kehle, Thomas J., Madaus, Melissa R., Baratta, Victoria S. Bray, Melissa A. (1998) Augmented Self-Modeling as a Treatment for Children with Selective Mutism. Journal of School Psychology, 36 (3) 247-260.
  29. ^ a b c d e Shriver, Mark D., Segool, Natasha, Gortmaker, Valerie (2011). Behavior Observationas for Linking Assessment to Treatment for Selective Mutism. Education and Treatment of Children. 34 (3) 389-411.
  30. ^ a b c Anstendig, Karin (1998). Selective Mutism: A Review of the Treatment Literature by Modality from 1980-1996. Psychotherapy. 35, 381-391.
  31. ^ Excerpt of and article by Gail Kervatt
  32. ^ Selective Mutsim Group: Ask the Doc archives
  33. ^ Selective Mutism Group: Ask the Doc archives

References[edit]

  • Cunningham, Charles E. McHolm, A. Vanier, Melanie A. (2005). "Helping Your Child With Selective Mutism". New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
  • Dummit et al.(1997). "Systematic assessment of fifty children with Selective Mutism". Journal of the American Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, pp. 653–660.
  • Steinhausen, H. Juzi, C. (1996) "Elective Mutism: An analysis of 100 Cases". Journal of the American Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 35. pp. 606–614.

External links[edit]