Selenium yeast

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Selenium yeast, produced by fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a selenium-rich media, is a recognized source of organic food-form selenium.[1] In this process, virtually all of the selenium structurally substitutes for sulfur in the amino acid methionine thus forming selenomethionine via the same pathways and enzymes that are used to form sulfur-containing methionine. Owing to its similarity to S-containing methionine, selenomethionine is taken up nonspecifically and becomes part of yeast protein. It is this metabolic route that makes selenium yeast valuable in animal and human nutrition, since it offers the same organic form of selenium produced by food-chain autotrophs (i.e., most plants and certain blue-green algae).[1][2]

Human health applications[edit]

Selenium is physiologically essential and may also offer a protective effect against several degenerative diseases.[3] The organic form of selenium provided by selenium yeast has been shown to differ in bioavailability and metabolism compared with inorganic (e.g., selenate, selenite) forms of dietary selenium.[4] Dietary supplementation using selenium yeast has been associated with increased ability to counteract oxidative stress.[5] Furthermore, selenium yeast has been used in a wide range of studies aimed at examining the importance of selenium status in the incidence and progression of a variety of infectious and degenerative diseases.[6]

  • Cancer. Although selenium is promoted for its claimed anti-cancer effect, there is no good evidence of it being helpful in treating or preventing cancer, or with helping alleviate the side-effects of cancer treatment.[7][8] Dietary supplementation with selenium yeast has been used to study the effects of selenium status and the risk of developing cancers or precancerous lesions.[9]
  • Viral infection. Findings of increased viral virulence in selenium-deficient hosts support the need for further investigation into the interaction between host nutrition and viral evolutionary processes.[10][11][12] Certain viral diseases have been shown to mutate more rapidly in selenium-deficient hosts producing more virulent viruses. This etiology has been demonstrated for both the Coxsackie B virus (associated with a Se-deficiency-related cardiomyopathy known as Keshan disease)[13] and the influenza virus.[14] High selenium yeast supplementation (200 μg/d) was evaluated in a 9-month double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in HIV-positive adult men and women. Daily supplementation was found to suppress progression of HIV-1 viral burden and provide indirect improvement to CD4 cell counts.[15] (Selenium status diminishes with HIV disease progression; low selenium status has been shown to be a predictor of HIV-related mortality.[16][17] Selenium deficiency has also been linked with increased infectiousness of people with HIV-1.[18] )

Animal feed and food-animal product applications[edit]

Selenium supplementation in yeast form has been shown to have beneficial effects in many species, especially on animal immune status,[19] growth[20] and reproduction[21][22][23][24][25] The consequent improvements in productivity can be of economic benefit to livestock producers for many reasons, including greater overall efficiency of feedstuff use.

Selenium yeast supplementation of food-animal diets has an added nutritional benefit to human consumers of food-animal products. Dietary selenomethionine-containing plant or yeast protein can be also stored nonspecifically in animal protein, which can result in nutritionally useful selenium content in meat, milk, and eggs. Consequently, strategies to supplement animal feed with selenium yeast have led to the development of selenium-rich functional foods, including selenium-enriched eggs and meats for human consumption.[26][27][28][29]

Safety[edit]

Since 2000, selenium yeast (S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3060) has been reviewed and received the following approvals for use in animal and human diets:

  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use as a supplement to feed for chickens, turkeys, swine, goats, sheep, horses, dogs, bison, and beef and dairy.[30]
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approval for use as a feed supplement for all animal species and categories.[31]
  • Organic Materials Review Institute approval for use as a feed supplement for all animal species.[32]
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approval for human health claims linking dietary intake of selenium yeast to “protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, normal function of the immune system, normal thyroid function and normal spermatogenesis."[33]

A review of the scientific literature concluded that selenium yeast from reputable manufacturers is adequately characterised, of reproducible quality, and shows no evidence of toxicity in long-term supplementation studies at doses as high as 400 and 800 micrograms per day (exceeding the EC tolerable upper intake level of 300 micrograms per day).[34]

Analytical chemistry[edit]

Total selenium in selenium yeast can be reliably determined using open acid digestion to extract selenium from the yeast matrix followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.[35] Determination of the selenium species selenomethionine can be achieved via proteolytic digestion of selenium yeast followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).[36][37][38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Schrauzer G. Selenium yeast: composition, quality, analysis, and safety. Pure Appl Chem 2006;78:105-109.
  2. ^ Schrauzer GN. The nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicology of selenomethionine. Adv Food Nutr Res 2003;47:73-112.
  3. ^ Navaro-Alarcon M, Lopez-Martinez M. Essentiality of selenium in the human body: relationship with different diseases. Sci Tot Environ 2000;249:347-371.
  4. ^ Schrauzer G. Selenomethionine: A review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity. J Nutr 2000;130:1653-1656.
  5. ^ Ravn-Haren G, Bugel S, Krath B, et al. A short-term intervention trial with selenate, selenium-enriched yeast and selenium-enriched milk: effects on oxidative defence regulation. Br J Nutr 2008;99:883-892.
  6. ^ Lovell M, Xiong S, Lyubartseva G, Markesbery W. (Sel-Plex diet) decreases amyloid burden and RNA and DNA oxidative damage in APP/PS1 mice. Free Rad Biol Med 2009;46:1527-1533.
  7. ^ "Selenium". American Cancer Society. 7 March 2011. Retrieved June 2014. 
  8. ^ Dennert G, Zwahlen M, Brinkman M, Vinceti M, Zeegers MP, Horneber M (2011). "Selenium for preventing cancer". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (5): CD005195. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005195.pub2. PMC 3692366. PMID 21563143. 
  9. ^ Combs GJ, Lu J. Selenium as a cancer preventive agent. In: Hatfield D, Berry M, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2006: 249-264.
  10. ^ Beck M. Selenium and viral infections. In: Hatfield D, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2006: 287-298.
  11. ^ Beck M. Antioxidants and viral infections: Host immune response and viral pathogenicity. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:384S-388S.
  12. ^ Beck M, Matthews C. Micronutrients and host resistance to viral infection. Proc Nutr Soc 2000;59:581-585.
  13. ^ Levander O, Beck M. Selenium and viral virulence. Br Med Bull 1999;55:528-533.
  14. ^ Beck M, Nelson H, Shi Q, et al. Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection. FASEB J 2001;15:1481-1483.
  15. ^ Hurwitz B, Klaus J, Llabre M, et al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:146-154.
  16. ^ Baum M, Shor-Posner G, Lai S, et al. High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. JAIDS 1997;15:370-374.
  17. ^ Baum M, Camps A. Role of selenium in HIV/AIDS. In: Hatfield D, Berry MJ, Gladyshev V, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2006: 299-310.
  18. ^ Baeten J, Mostad S, Hughes M, et al. Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1-infected cells in the female genital tract. JAIDS 2001;26:360-364.
  19. ^ Sarkuniene C, Oberauskas V, Baranauskiene D, et al. The impact of forage additive Sel-Plex containing organic selenium (Se) on morphological and biochemical blood parameters and activity enzymes GPx and δ-ALRD in fattening pigs. Vet Med Zoot 2010;50:88-92.
  20. ^ Pappas A, Acamovic T, Surai PF, McDevitt R. Maternal organo-selenium compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids affect progeny performance and levels of selenium and docosahexaenoic acid in the chick tissues. Poult Sci 2006;85:1610-1620.
  21. ^ Dimitrov S, Atanasov V, Surai PF, Denev S. Effect of organic selenium on turkey semen quality during liquid storage. Anim Reprod Sci 2007;100:311-317.
  22. ^ Slowinska M, Jankowski J, Dietrich G, et al. Effect of organic and inorganic forms of selenium in diets on turkey semen quality. Poult Sci 2011;90:181-190.
  23. ^ Ebeid T. Organic selenium enhances the antioxidative status and quality of cockerel semen under high ambient temperature. Br Poult Sci 2009;50:641-647.
  24. ^ Zhao L, Xu S, Zhao R, Peng Z, Pan X. Effects of selenium and methionine supplementation of breeder hen diets on selenium concentration and oxidative stability of lipids in the thigh muscles of progeny. J Food Sci 2009;74:C569-AC574.
  25. ^ Thatcher W, Santos J, Silvestre F, Kim I, Staples C. Perspective on physiological⁄endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows. Reprod Dom Anim 2010;45:2-14.
  26. ^ Surai PF, Karadas F, Pappas A, Sparks N. Effect of organic selenium in quail diet on its accumulation in tissues and transfer to the progeny. Br Poult Sci 2006;47:65-72.
  27. ^ Navas-Carretero S, Cuervo M, Abete I, Zulet M, Martinez J. Frequent consumption of selenium-enriched chicken meat by adults causes weight loss and maintains their antioxidant status. Biol Trace Elem Res 2010;[Epub ahead of print].
  28. ^ Fisinin V, Papazyan T, Surai PF. Producing selenium-enriched eggs and meat to improve the selenium status of the general population. Crit Rev Biotech 2009;29:18-28.
  29. ^ Mahan D. Organic selenium fed to swine - its potential impact on human health issues. In: Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference. Indianapolis, IN, 2005.
  30. ^ Sel-Plex receives authorisation [online]. Available at: http://www.allaboutfeed.net/news/sel-plex-receives-authorisation-id98.html. Accessed January 21.
  31. ^ Commission of the European Communities. Commission regulation (EC) No 1750/2006 of 27 November 2006 concerning the authorisation of selenomethionine as a feed additive [online]. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:330:0009:0011:EN:PDF. Accessed January 21.
  32. ^ Organic Materials Review Institute. Sel-Plex [online]. Available at: http://www.omri.org/simple-opl-search/results/sel-plex. Accessed January 21.
  33. ^ European Food Safety Authority. Opinion of the scientific panel on additives and products or substances used in animal feed on the safety and efficacy of the product Sel-Plex®2000 as a feed additive according to regulation (EC) No 1831/2003. EFSA Journal 2006;348:1-40.
  34. ^ Rayman M, Infante H, Sargent M. 2008. Food-chain selenium and human health: spotlight on speciation. Br J Nutr 100:238-253.
  35. ^ Connolly C, Power R, Hynes M. Validation of method for total selenium determination in yeast by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Biol Trace Elem Res 2004;100:87-94.
  36. ^ European Food Safety Authority. Selenium-enriched yeast as source for selenium added for nutritional purposes in foods for particular nutritional uses and foods (including food supplements) for the general population: Scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food. EFSA Journal 2008;766:1-42.
  37. ^ B'Hymer C, Caruso J. Selenium speciation analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. J Chrom A 2006;1114:1-20.
  38. ^ Lobinski R, Edmonds J, Suzuki K, Uden P. Species-selective determination of selenium compounds in biological materials. Pure Appl Chem 2000;72:447-461.