An autonomous car, also known as a driverless car, self-driving car, or robotic car is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the transportation capabilities of a traditional car. As an autonomous vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Robotic cars exist mainly as prototypes and demonstration systems. As of 2014[update], the only self-driving vehicles that are commercially available are open-air shuttles for pedestrian zones that operate at 12.5 miles per hour (20.1 km/h).
Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar, lidar, GPS, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. By definition, autonomous vehicles are capable of updating their maps based on sensory input, allowing the vehicles to keep track of their position even when conditions change or when they enter uncharted environments.
Some demonstrative systems, precursory to autonomous cars, date back to the 1920s and 30s. The first self-sufficient and truly autonomous cars appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University's Navlab and ALV projects in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Bundeswehr University Munich's EUREKA Prometheus Project  in 1987. Since then, numerous major companies and research organizations have developed working prototype autonomous vehicles, including Mercedes-Benz, General Motors, Continental Automotive Systems, Autoliv Inc., Bosch, Nissan, Toyota, Audi, Volvo, Vislab from University of Parma, Oxford University and Google. In July 2013, Vislab demonstrated BRAiVE, a vehicle that moved autonomously on a mixed traffic route open to public traffic. As of 2013, four U.S. states have passed laws permitting autonomous cars: Nevada, Florida, California, and Michigan. In Europe, cities in Belgium, France, Italy and the UK are planning to operate transport systems for driverless cars, and Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain have allowed testing robotic cars in traffic.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Potential advantages
- 3 Potential obstacles
- 4 History
- 5 Official predictions
- 6 Legislation
- 7 Vehicular communication systems
- 8 Forecasts
- 9 Public opinion surveys
- 10 Notable projects
- 11 In fiction
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Autonomous means having the power for self-government. Many historical projects related to vehicle autonomy have in fact only been automated (made to be automatic) due to a heavy reliance on artificial hints in their environment, such as magnetic strips. Autonomous control implies good performance under significant uncertainties in the environment for extended periods of time and the ability to compensate for system failures without external intervention. As can be seen from many projects mentioned, it is often suggested to extend the capabilities of an autonomous car by implementing communication networks both in the immediate vicinity (for collision avoidance) and far away (for congestion management). By bringing in these outside influences in the decision process, some would no longer regard the car's behaviour or capabilities as autonomous; for example Wood et al. (2012) writes "This Article generally uses the term “autonomous,” instead of the term “automated.” We have chosen to use the term “autonomous” because it is the term that is currently in more widespread use (and thus is more familiar to the general public). However, the latter term is arguably more accurate. “Automated” connotes control or operation by a machine, while “autonomous” connotes acting alone or independently. Most of the vehicle concepts (that we are currently aware of) have a person in the driver’s seat, utilize a communication connection to the Cloud or other vehicles, and do not independently select either destinations or routes for reaching them. Thus, the term “automated” would more accurately describe these vehicle concepts".
- Level 0: The driver completely controls the vehicle at all times.
- Level 1: Individual vehicle controls are automated, such as electronic stability control or automatic braking.
- Level 2: At least two controls can be automated in unison, such as adaptive cruise control in combination with lane keeping.
- Level 3: The driver can fully cede control of all safety-critical functions in certain conditions. The car senses when conditions require the driver to retake control and provides a "sufficiently comfortable transition time" for the driver to do so.
- Level 4: The vehicle performs all safety-critical functions for the entire trip, with the driver not expected to control the vehicle at any time. As this vehicle would control all functions from start to stop, including all parking functions, it could include unoccupied cars.
An increase in the use of autonomous cars would make possible such benefits as:
- Fewer traffic collisions, due to an autonomous system's increased reliability and faster reaction time compared to human drivers.
- Increased roadway capacity and reduced traffic congestion due to reduced need for safety gaps and the ability to better manage traffic flow.
- Relief of vehicle occupants from driving and navigation chores.
- Higher speed limit for autonomous cars.
- Removal of constraints on occupants' state – in an autonomous car, it would not matter if the occupants were under age, over age, blind, distracted, intoxicated, or otherwise impaired.
- Alleviation of parking scarcity, as cars could drop off passengers, park far away where space is not scarce, and return as needed to pick up passengers.
- Elimination of redundant passengers – the robotic car could drive unoccupied to wherever it is required, such as to pick up passengers or to go in for maintenance. This would be especially relevant to trucks, taxis and car-sharing services.
- Reduction of space required for vehicle parking.
- Reduction in the need for traffic police and vehicle insurance.
- Reduction of physical road signage – autonomous cars could receive necessary communication electronically (although physical signs may still be required for any human drivers).
- Smoother ride.
- Reduction in car theft, due to the vehicle's self-awareness.
In spite of the various benefits to increased vehicle automation, some foreseeable challenges persist:
- Liability for damage.
- Resistance by individuals to forfeit control of their cars.
- Software reliability.
- A car's computer could potentially be compromised, as could a communication system between cars.
- Implementation of legal framework and establishment of government regulations for self-driving cars.
- Drivers being inexperienced if situations arose requiring manual driving.
- Loss of driving-related jobs.
- Loss of privacy.
- Competition for the radio spectrum desired for the car's communication.
- Self-driving cars could potentially be loaded with explosives and used as bombs.
- Ethical problems analogous to the trolley problem arise in situations where an autonomous car's software is forced during an unavoidable crash to choose between multiple harmful courses of action.
- Susceptibility of the cars navigation system to severe weather.
|This section requires expansion. (December 2014)|
Major automobile manufacturers and technology companies have made numerous predictions for the development of autonomous car technology in the near future.
- In late 2014, Volvo will feature Adaptive Cruise Control with steer assist which will automatically follow the vehicle ahead in queues. Mercedes already has it on some markets.
- In late 2014, The National Telecommunications and Information Administration is expected to set recommendations for setting aside broadband spectrum for autonomous cars.
- By 2015, Tesla says its cars will "probably" be capable of autopilot for 90 percent of miles driven, and definitely so for highway miles. This feature combines automatic lane change, adaptive cruise control, and sign recognition to regulate speed and location.
- By 2015, California will allow the testing of vehicles without wheels or pedals such as Google's on public roads. This will follow a 120-day grace period after a rule to be introduced in late 2014.
- By the mid-2010s, Toyota plans to roll out near-autonomous vehicles dubbed Automated Highway Driving Assist with Lane Trace Control and Cooperative-adaptive Cruise Control.
- By 2016, Audi plans to market vehicles that can autonomously steer, accelerate and brake at lower speeds, such as in traffic jams.
- By 2016, Mercedes plans to introduce "Autobahn Pilot" aka Highway Pilot, the system allow hands-free highway driving with autonomous overtaking of other vehicles.
- By 2016, Mobileye expects to release hands-free driving technology for highways.
- In 2016 (2017 model year), GM plans to offer a "super cruise" feature on select Cadillac models, with autonomous lane keeping, speed control, and brake control, so that parts of trips can be made without touching the wheel or pedals.
- By early 2017, the US Department of Transportation hopes to publish a rule mandating vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication by an as-yet unspecified deadline. GM says that by the 2017 model year, the Cadillac CTS will be V2V equipped.
- Between 2017 to 2020, Google believes its Level 4 self-driving cars will be available to the public.
- By 2018, Mobileye expects autonomous capabilities for country roads and city traffic.
- By 2018, Nissan anticipates to have a feature that can allow the vehicle manoeuver its way on multi-lane highways.
- By 2019 or 2020, Tesla expects that "true autonomous driving" where passengers can "get in the car, go to sleep and wake up at your destination" will be achieved.
- By 2020, Volvo envisages having cars in which passengers would be immune from injuries. Volvo also claim vehicles will effectively be "crash free." 
- By 2020, GM, Mercedes-Benz, Audi, Nissan, BMW and Renault all expect to sell vehicles that can drive themselves at least part of the time.
- By 2024, Jaguar expects to release an autonomous car.
- By 2025, Daimler and Ford expect autonomous vehicles on the market.
- By 2025, most new GM vehicles will have automated driving functions as well as vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology.
- By 2035, IHS Automotive report says will be the year most self-driving vehicles will be operated completely independent from a human occupant’s control.
In the United States, state vehicle codes generally do not envisage — but do not necessarily prohibit — highly automated vehicles. To clarify the legal status of and otherwise regulate such vehicles, several states have enacted or are considering specific laws. As of the end of 2013, four U.S. states, (Nevada, Florida, California, and Michigan), along with the District of Columbia, have successfully enacted laws addressing autonomous vehicles.
In June 2011, the Nevada Legislature passed a law to authorize the use of autonomous cars. Nevada thus became the first jurisdiction in the world where autonomous vehicles might be legally operated on public roads. The bill was signed into law by Nevada's Governor on 16 June 2011. According to the law, the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles (NDMV) is responsible for setting safety and performance standards and the agency is responsible for designating areas where autonomous cars may be tested. The law went into effect on 1 March 2012. This legislation was supported by Google in an effort to legally conduct further testing of its Google driverless car.
The Nevada law defines an autonomous vehicle to be "a motor vehicle that uses artificial intelligence, sensors and global positioning system coordinates to drive itself without the active intervention of a human operator." The law also acknowledges that the operator will not need to pay attention while the car is operating itself. Google had further lobbied for an exemption from a ban on distracted driving to permit occupants to send text messages while sitting behind the wheel, but this did not become law. Furthermore, Nevada's regulations require a person behind the wheel and one in the passenger’s seat during tests.
In May 2012, the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) issued the first license for a self-driven car to a Toyota Prius modified with Google's experimental driverless technology. Google's autonomous system permits a human driver to take control of the vehicle at any time by stepping on the brake or turning the wheel. License plates issued in Nevada for autonomous cars will have a red background and feature an infinity symbol (∞) on the left side, which, according to the DMV Director, "was the best way to represent the 'car of the future'."
On 1 July 2012, Florida became the second state to recognize the legality of autonomous vehicles. Florida's law clarifies that, "the State does not prohibit or specifically regulate the testing or operation of autonomous … vehicles on public roads."
On 25 September 2012, California Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill allowing the legalization of driverless cars in the state of California which also requires the California Department of Motor Vehicles to draft regulations by 2015. In California, proposed legislation would require that "the driver would still need to sit behind the wheel in case the robotic functions of the car suddenly fail and a real driver is needed", thus limiting the benefits that autonomous cars could provide to unlicensed drivers.
In the 2013–2014 legislative session, Colorado and Michigan introduced legislation addressing the regulation of autonomous vehicles. Governor Rick Snyder signed legislation allowing the testing of automated or self-driving vehicles on Michigan’s roads in December 2013, but requires a human in the driver seat at all time while the vehicle is in use. Colorado's proposed bill was rejected in committee in February 2013.
In 2013, the government of the United Kingdom permitted the testing of autonomous cars on public roads. Prior to this, all testing of robotic vehicles in the UK had been conducted on private property.
In 2014, the Land Transport Authority of Singapore will start testing driverless cars.
Vehicular communication systems
Individual vehicles may benefit from information obtained from other vehicles in the vicinity, especially information relating to traffic congestion and safety hazards. Vehicular communication systems use vehicles and roadside units as the communicating nodes in a peer-to-peer network, providing each other with information. As a cooperative approach, vehicular communication systems can allow all cooperating vehicles to be more effective. According to a 2010 study by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, vehicular communication systems could help avoid up to 81 percent of all traffic accidents.
In 2012, computer scientists at the University of Texas in Austin began developing smart intersections designed for autonomous cars. The intersections will have no traffic lights and no stop signs, instead using computer programs that will communicate directly with each car on the road.
Through the implementation of Global Positioning System (GPS), navigation of the autonomous vehicles is simplified. The location of the vehicle can also be acquired by the longitude and latitude obtained by the GPS.
- Expert members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have estimated that up to 75% of all vehicles will be autonomous by 2040.
- Navigant Research forecasts that autonomous vehicles will gradually gain traction in the market over the coming two decades and by 2035, sales of autonomous vehicles will reach 95.4 million annually, representing 75% of all light-duty vehicle sales.
- ABI Research forecasts that truly self-driving cars would become a reality by 2020 and that 10 million such new cars would be rolling out on to United States' public highways every year by 2032.
- Columbia University's The Earth Institute forecasts the reduction of United States' fleet of vehicles by a factor of 10.
- PricewaterhouseCoopers forecasts a reduction of traffic accidents by a factor of 10 and it concludes that the fleet of vehicles in the United States may collapse from 245 million to just 2.4 million.
- KPMG LLP and the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) foresee improvements in productivity and energy efficiency as well as new business models.
- Morgan Stanley estimates that autonomous cars could save the United States $1.3 trillion annually by lowering fuel consumption ($169 billion), reducing crash costs ($488 billion) and boosting productivity ($645 billion).
Public opinion surveys
In a 2011 online survey of 2,006 US and UK consumers by Accenture, 49% said they would be comfortable using a "driverless car".
A 2012 survey of 17,400 vehicle owners by J.D. Power and Associates found 37% initially said they would be interested in purchasing a fully autonomous car. However, that figure dropped to 20% if told the technology would cost $3,000 more.
In a 2012 survey of about 1,000 German drivers by automotive researcher Puls, 22% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards these cars, 10% were undecided, 44% were skeptical and 24% were hostile.
A 2013 survey of 1,500 consumers across 10 countries by Cisco Systems found a full 57% "stated they would be likely to ride in a car controlled entirely by technology that does not require a human driver", with Brazil, India and China the most willing to trust autonomous technology.
In a 2014 US telephone survey by Insurance.com, over three-quarters of licensed drivers said they would at least consider buying a self-driving car, rising to 86% if car insurance were cheaper. 31.7% said they would not continue to drive once an autonomous car was available instead.
- The DARPA Grand Challenge was held in 2004, 2005 and 2007 as an autonomous driving competition with millions of dollars in prize money.
- In November 2010, Hyundai Kia Automotive Group held the Korean Autonomous Vehicle Competition (AVC), with a top prize of $100,000. The Hanyang University A1 team won the prize.
- In 2011, Google autonomous car has finished a total of 140,000 miles including highways and city streets without a single accident.
- In September 2012, Hyundai Kia Automotive Group held the 2nd Korean Autonomous Vehicle Competition (AVC), with a top prize of $100,000. The Hanyang University A1 team won the prize.
- In October 2014, Hyundai Kia Automotive Group held the 3rd Korean Autonomous Vehicle Competition (AVC), with a top prize of $100,000. The Hanyang University A1 team won the prize.
- In October 2013, KSAE and KATECH held the Korean Autonomous Vehicle Competition (AVC), with a top prize of $100,000. The Hanyang University A1 team won the prize.
- The Google driverless car project maintains a test fleet of autonomous vehicles that has driven 300,000 miles (480,000 km) with no machine-caused accidents as of August 2012. By April 2014 700,000 autonomous miles (1,100,000 km) were logged.
- The €800 million EC EUREKA Prometheus Project conducted research on autonomous vehicles from 1987 to 1995. Among its culmination points were the twin robot vehicles VITA-2 and VaMP of Daimler-Benz and Ernst Dickmanns, driving long distances in heavy traffic.
- The $90 million Automated Highway System program demonstrated vehicle automation to thousands at Demo '97 in San Diego, California.
- The 2010 VIAC Challenge saw four autonomous vehicles drive from Italy to China on a 100-day 9,900-mile (15,900 km) trip with only limited human intervention, such as in traffic jams and when passing toll stations. At the time, this was the longest-ever journey conducted by an unmanned vehicle.
- The ARGO vehicle (see History above) is the predecessor of the BRAiVE vehicle, both from the University of Parma's VisLab. Argo was developed in 1996 and demonstrated to the world in 1998; BRAiVE was developed in 2008 and demonstrated in 2009 at the IEEE IV conference in Xi'an, China.
- In 2012, Stanford's Dynamic Design Lab, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Electronics Research Lab, produced Shelley, an Audi TTS designed for high speed (greater than 100 miles per hour (160 km/h)) on a racetrack course.
- Oxford University's 2011 WildCat Project created a modified Bowler Wildcat which is capable of autonomous operation using a flexible and diverse sensor suite.
- The Volkswagen Golf GTI 53+1 is a modified Volkswagen Golf GTI capable of autonomous driving. In his 2010 book, Democracy and the Common Wealth, Michael E. Arth claims that autonomous cars could become universally adopted if almost all private cars requiring drivers, which are not in use and parked 90% of the time, were traded for public self-driving taxis, which would be in near-constant use.
- AutoNOMOS – part of the Artificial Intelligence Group of the Freie Universität Berlin
- Toyota has developed prototype cars with autonomous capabilities for demonstration at the 2013 Consumer Electronics Show.
- In February 2013, Oxford University unveiled the RobotCar UK project, an inexpensive autonomous car capable of quickly switching from manual driving to autopilot on learned routes.
- Israel has significant research efforts to develop a fully autonomous border-patrol vehicle. This originated with its success with Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, and following the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier. Two projects, by Elbit Systems and Israel Aircraft Industries, are based on the locally produced Armored "Tomcar" and have the specific purpose of patrolling barrier fences against intrusions.
- The Oshkosh Corporation developed an autonomous military vehicle called TerraMax and is integrating its systems into some future vehicles.
In film and television
- KITT, the autonomous Pontiac Trans Am in the 1982 TV series Knight Rider, was sentient and autonomous.
- The 1983 film Christine features a sentient, autonomous car as the title character.
- In the 1988 film Who Framed Roger Rabbit, starring Bob Hoskins, the character Benny the Cab, a sentient taxicab, drives on his own.
- In the 1989 film Batman, starring Michael Keaton, the Batmobile is shown to be able to drive to Batman's current location with some navigation commands from Batman and possibly some autonomy.
- The 1990 film Total Recall, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, features taxis called Johnny Cabs controlled by artificial intelligence in the car or the android occupants.
- The 1993 film Demolition Man, starring Sylvester Stallone and set in 2032, features vehicles that can be self-driven or commanded to "Auto Mode" where a voice-controlled computer operates the vehicle.
- The 1993 film Jurassic Park features two SUVs that can be self-driven to any dinosaur attraction in the park.
- The 1994 film Timecop, starring Jean-Claude Van Damme, set in 2004 and 1994, has cars that can either be self-driven or commanded to drive to specific locations such as "home".
- Another Arnold Schwarzenegger movie, The 6th Day from 2000, features an autonomous car commanded by Michael Rapaport.
- The 2002 film Minority Report, set in Washington, D.C. in 2054, features an extended chase sequence involving autonomous cars. The vehicle of protagonist John Anderton is transporting him when its systems are overridden by police in an attempt to bring him into custody.
- The 2004 film I, Robot features autonomous vehicles driving on highways, allowing the car to travel safer at higher speeds than if manually controlled. The option to manually operate the vehicles is available.
- "Driven", series 4 episode 11 of the 2006 TV series NCIS features a robotic vehicle named "Otto," part of a high-level project of the Department of Defense, which causes the death of a Navy Lieutenant, and then later almost kills Abby.
- The éX-Driver anime series features autonomous electric-powered vehicles driven by Artificial Intelligences (AIs). These sometimes malfunction or are taken over by malicious users, requiring interception and intervention by éX-Drivers operating manually controlled gas-powered vehicles.
- Intelligent or self-driving cars are a common theme in science fiction novels, including Peter F. Hamilton's Commonwealth Saga and Alastair Reynolds' Revelation Space series.
- In "Sally" (first published May–June 1953), a short story by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov, autonomous cars have "positronic brains" and communicate via honking horns and slamming doors, and save their human caretaker.
- Automated guideway transit
- Automated platooning (Car train)
- Automatic train operation
- Autonomous cruise control system
- Automatic parking
- Driverless tractor
- Google driverless car
- Intelligent transportation system
- Lane Keep Assist
- Open Automotive Alliance
- Unmanned ground vehicle
- Unmanned aerial vehicle / Drone
- Vehicle infrastructure integration
- Vehicular automation
- Gehrig, Stefan K.; Stein, Fridtjof J. (1999). "Dead reckoning and cartography using stereo vision for an autonomous car". IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 3. Kyongju. pp. 1507–1512. doi:10.1109/IROS.1999.811692. ISBN 0-7803-5184-3.
- "What Is a Driverless Car?". WiseGeek. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Kelly, Heather (30 October 2012). "Self-driving cars now legal in California". CNN. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Thrun, Sebastian (2010). "Toward Robotic Cars". Communications of the ACM 53 (4): 99–106.
- Lassa, Todd (January 2013). "The Beginning of the End of Driving". Motor Trend. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- O'Toole (2009) pp. 189-192
- "Carnegie Mellon". Navlab: The Carnegie Mellon University Navigation Laboratory. The Robotics Institute. Retrieved 2014-12-20.
- Kanade, Takeo (2-1986). "Autonomous land vehicle project at CMU". CSC '86 Proceedings of the 1986 ACM fourteenth annual conference on Computer science. doi:10.1145/324634.325197. Check date values in:
- Wallace, Richard (1985). "First results in robot road-following". JCAI'85 Proceedings of the 9th international joint conference on Artificial intelligence.
- Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2009). "Prof. Schmidhuber's highlights of robot car history". Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Video Friday: Bosch and Cars, ROVs and Whales, and Kuka Arms and Chainsaws". IEEE Spectrum. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Audi of America > news > Pool > Reaffirmed Mission for Autonomous Audi TTS Pikes Peak". AudiUSA.com. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "Nissan car drives and parks itself at Ceatec". BBC. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "Toyota sneak previews self-drive car ahead of tech show". BBC. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "Doing the school run just got easier! Nissan unveils new car that can drive itself on short journeys". Daily Mail (London). 14 February 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- "Google's Self-Driving Cars: 300,000 Miles Logged, Not a Single Accident Under Computer Control". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Vislab, University of Parma, Italy - 8000 miles driverless test begins". Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge: Inaugural Ceremony – Milan, Italy". Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Vislab, University of Parma, Italy - Public Road Urban Driverless-Car Test 2013 - World premiere of BRAiVE".
- Muller, Joann. "With Driverless Cars, Once Again It Is California Leading The Way". Forbes. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Nevada enacts law authorizing autonomous (driverless) vehicles". Green Car Congress. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- Alex Knapp (22 June 2011). "Nevada Passes Law Authorizing Driverless Cars". Forbes. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- John Markoff (10 May 2011). "Google Lobbies Nevada To Allow Self-Driving Cars". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Autonomous Vehicles". State of Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Driverless cars take to the road". E.U.CORDIS Research Program CitynetMobil. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Snyder OKs self-driving vehicles on Michigan's roads". Detroit News. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S.J. (1991). "An Introduction to Autonomous Control Systems". IEEE Control Systems 11 (4): 5–13.
- Wood, S. P.; Chang, J.; Healy, T.; Wood, J. "The potential regulatory challenges of increasingly autonomous motor vehicles.". 52nd Santa Clara Law Review 4 (9): 1423–1502.
- "U.S. Department of Transportation Releases Policy on Automated Vehicle Development". National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Cowen, Tyler (28 May 2011). "Can I See Your License, Registration and C.P.U.?". The New York Times.
- O'Toole (2009) p. 192
- "Future Car Focus: Robot Cars". MSN Autos. 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Get ready for automated cars". Houston Chronicle. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "Changes to older driver licensing".
- Arth, Michael E. (2010). Democracy and the Common Wealth: Breaking the Stranglehold of the Special Interests. Golden Apples Media. pp. 363–368. ISBN 978-0-912467-12-2. Arth claims that this would be possible if almost all private cars requiring drivers, which are not in use and parked 90% of the time, would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near-constant use.
- 254. "Koushik Dutta - Google+ - The Unintended Effects of Driverless Cars Google has been..". Plus.google.com. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "BMW Remote Controlled Parking".
- Light, Donald (8 May 2012). A Scenario" The End of Auto Insurance (Technical report). Celent.
- Tsz-Chiu Au, Michael Quinlan, and Peter Stone. Setpoint Scheduling for Autonomous Vehicle Controllers. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "AIM: Autonomous Intersection Management - Project Home Page". Cs.utexas.edu. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "Autonomous Intersection Management - FCFS policy with 6 lanes in all directions". YouTube. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Simonite, Tom (October 25, 2013). "Data Shows Google’s Robot Cars Are Smoother, Safer Drivers Than You or I". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- Miller, Owen. "Robotic Cars and Their New Crime Paradigms". Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Gurney, Jeffrey K. "Sue My Car Not Me: Products Liability and Accidents Involving Autonomous Vehicles", 2013 U. Ill. J. L. Tech. & Pol'y, Fall 2013.
- "New Allstate Survey Shows Americans Think They Are Great Drivers - Habits Tell a Different Story". PR Newswire. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- David Shepardson (31 December 2013). "Study: Self-driving cars to jolt market by 2035". The Detroit News. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Hackers find ways to hijack car computers and take control". 3 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Philip E. Ross (11 April 2014). "A Cloud-Connected Car Is a Hackable Car, Worries Microsoft". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "Will Regulators Allow Self-Driving Cars In A Few Years?". Forbes. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Reliance on autopilot is now the biggest threat to flight safety, study says". 18 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Mui, Chunka (19 December 2013). "Will The Google Car Force A Choice Between Lives And Jobs?". Forbes. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "Mass unemployment fears over Google artificial intelligence plans". London. 29 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.[dead link]
- Patrick Lin (22 January 2014). "What If Your Autonomous Car Keeps Routing You Past Krispy Kreme?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Glenn Garvin (21 March 2014). "Automakers say self-driving cars are on the horizon". Miami Herald. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Mark Harris (16 July 2014). "FBI warns driverless cars could be used as 'lethal weapons'". theGuardian.com.
- Patrick Lin (October 8, 2013). "The Ethics of Autonomous Cars". The Atlantic.
- Tim Worstall (2014-06-18). "When Should Your Driverless Car From Google Be Allowed To Kill You?". Forbes.
- "Autonomous Driving according to Volvo Car Group: benefits for society and consumers alike". Volvo News. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Ziegler, Chris (2 October 2014). "Elon Musk says next year's Tesla cars will be able to self-drive 90 percent of the time". The Verge. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- Bailey, Carol (21 November 2014). Verge "Tesla’s Autonomous Drive features hype or reality?". Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- Rosenblatt, Seth (29 May 2014). "Even limited to 25 mph, Google's car will arrive faster than you think". CNET. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Richard Read (11 October 2013). "Toyota Will Roll Out Autonomous Cars By The 'Mid-2010s'". The Car Connection. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "Self-driving cars take a small step closer to reality". Relaxnews. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Mercedes-Benz to Introduce Autobahn Pilot Assistant in Two Years". Autoevolution. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Mobileye Automated Driving". YouTube. Mobileye. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "GM will introduce hands-free, foot-free driving in 2017 Cadillac". Los Angeles Times. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- Nawaguna, Elvina (3 February 2014). "U.S. may mandate 'talking' cars by early 2017". Reuters. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Colias, Mike (7 September 2014). "GM plans to launch Cadillac CTS with vehicle-to-vehicle tech in 2 years". Automotive News. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Gannes, Liz (13 May 2014). "Here’s What It’s Like to Go for a Ride in Google’s Robot Car". Re/code. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- Gara, Antoine (1 August 2014). "Israel's Mobileye Looks to Driverless Car after Record IPO". Yahoo Finance. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Reed, Richard (21 July 2014). "Nissan Reveals New Details About Autonomous Car Features & Arrival Dates". The Car Connection. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Eric, Mack. "Elon Musk: Don't fall asleep at the wheel for another 5 years" (10 October 2014). CNET. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- web|title=Volvo Crash Free Cars by 2020:|url=http://www.alternativeroutefinance.co.uk/latest-news/volvo-cars-crash-free
- Preisinger, Irene (8 September 2013). "Daimler aims to launch self-driving car by 2020". Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- Elmer, Stephen (26 February 2013). "BMW Targets 2020 for Self-Driving Cars". AutoGuide. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Johnson, Drew (30 January 2013). "Audi predicts self-driving cars by 2020". Left Lane News. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- Cheng, Roger (25 March 2014). "General Motors President sees self-driving cars by 2020". CNET. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- Jonathan Hawley (3 October 2014). "Jaguar joins the race to driverless cars". drive.com.au. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- David Shepardson (13 January 2014). "Daimler chief: Fully autonomous vehicles could be ready by 2025". Detroit News Washington Bureau. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "INSIDE AUTO: Ford, researchers to work on autonomous cars". The News-Herald. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Matthew Rocco (8 September 2014). "Self-Driving Cadillac Brings Industry Closer to Autonomous Car". Fox Business. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Chuck Tannert (31 January 2014). "Will You Ever Be Able To Afford A Self-Driving Car?". Fast Company. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Bryant Walker Smith (1 November 2012). "Automated Vehicles Are Probably Legal in The United States". The Center for Internet and Society (CIS) at Stanford Law School. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Bryant Walker Smith. "Automated Driving: Legislative and Regulatory Action". The Center for Internet and Society (CIS) at Stanford Law School. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Christine Dobby (24 June 2011). "Nevada state law paves the way for driverless cars". Financial Post. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- Slosson, Mary (8 May 2012). "Google gets first robotic car license in Nevada". Reuters. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- "Bill AB511 Nevada Legislature". Nevada Legislature. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- Tim Healey (24 June 2011). "Nevada Passes Law Allowing Self-Driving Cars". Motor Trend. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- Cy Ryan (7 May 2012). "Nevada issues Google first license for self-driving car". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "FL HB 192 of 2012 as enrolled". State of Florida. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Google's Sergey Brin joins California Gov. Jerry Brown as he signs new driverless car law". MercuryNews.com. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Will Computer-Piloted Cars Live Up To Their Potential?". Slate.com. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "MColorado Rejects Driverless Car Proposal". CBS Local Denver. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "UK to road test driverless cars". BBC. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "No lights, no signs, no accidents - future intersections for driverless cars | Video". Reuters.com. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Rahiman, Wan; Zainal, Zafariq (2013). "An Overview of Development GPS Navigation for Autonomous Car". 2013 IEEE 8th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA). IEEE. doi:10.1109/ICIEA.2013.6566533. ISBN 978-1-4673-6320-4.
- "Look Ma, No Hands!". ieee.org. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Autonomous Vehicles Will Surpass 95 Million in Annual Sales by 2035". navigantresearch.com. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Self-driving cars could be a decade away". dailycamera.com. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "TRANSFORMING+PERSONAL MOBILITY". The Earth Institute, Columbia University. 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Look Mom, No Hands!". emarketing.pwc.com. February 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Self-driving cars: The next revolution". kpmg.com. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "[INFOGRAPHIC] Autonomous Cars Could Save The US $1.3 Trillion Dollars A Year". businessinsider.com. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "Consumers in US and UK Frustrated with Intelligent Devices That Frequently Crash or Freeze, New Accenture Survey Finds". Accenture. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- Yvkoff, Liane (27 April 2012). "Many car buyers show interest in autonomous car tech". CNET. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- "Große Akzeptanz für selbstfahrende Autos in Deutschland". motorvision.de. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Autonomous Cars Found Trustworthy in Global Study". autosphere.ca. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Autonomous cars: Bring 'em on, drivers say in Insurance.com survey". Insurance.com. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Thrun, Sebastian. “Toward Robotic Cars.” Communications of the ACM 53.4 (2010): 99–106. Computer & Applied Sciences Complete. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Brown, Alan S. “Google’s Autonomous Car Applies Lessons Learned from Driverless Races.” Mechanical Engineering 133.2 (2011): 31. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Driverless van crosses from Europe to Asia". edition.cnn.com. 18 October 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- Bjorn Carey (14 August 2012). "Shelley, Stanford's robotic racecar, hits the track". R&D Magazine. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "WildCat homepage". Mobile Robotics Group. 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- "Robotic car developed by Oxford University". BBC. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Volkswagen Golf GTI 53+1 info". Volkswagenag.com. 4 July 2006. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- Christian Steinert, The German Car Blog (21 May 2007). "VW Golf GTI 53+1 in action". Germancarblog.com. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- "VW Golf GTI 53+1 overview". Engadget.com. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- Arth, Michael E. (2010). Democracy and the Common Wealth: Breaking the Stranglehold of the Special Interests. Golden Apples Media. pp. 363–368. ISBN 978-0-912467-12-2.
- "Front page | AutoNOMOS - Autonomous Cars from Berlin". Autonomos.inf.fu-berlin.de. 13 October 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- "RobotCar UK homepage". Mobile Robotics Group. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- "Self-driving car given UK test run at Oxford University". BBC. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- O'Toole, Randal (2009). Gridlock: why we're stuck in traffic and what to do about it. Cato Institute. ISBN 978-1-935308-23-2.
- Wayner, Peter (2014). Future Ride: 80 Ways the Self-Driving, Autonomous Car Will Change Everything from Buying Groceries to Teen Romance to Surviving a Hurricane to Turning Ten to Having a Heart Attack to Building a Dream Home to Simply Getting From Here to There. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1484123331.
- Macdonald, Iain David Graham (2011). A Simulated Autonomous Car (PDF) (thesis). The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Will, Knight, Driverless CarsAre Further Away Than You Think, MIT Technology Review, October 2013
- Meyer, Gereon, Beiker, Sven (Eds.), Road Vehicle Automation. Springer 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unmanned automobiles.|
- "A Survey of Public Opinion about Autonomous and Self-Driving Vehicles in the U.S., the U.K., and Australia", B. Schoettle and M. Sivak, University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). July 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "What You Need to Know About Self-Driving Cars", Engadget. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "Avoiding Squirrels and Other Things Google’s Robot Car Can’t Do", Wired. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "The Robot Car of Tomorrow May Just Be Programmed to Hit You", Wired. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "What Will Happen to Public Transit in a World Full of Autonomous Cars?", The Atlantic. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "What If Your Autonomous Car Keeps Routing You Past Krispy Kreme?", The Atlantic. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Autonomous Vehicle Technology: How to Best Realize Its Social Benefits, Rand Corporation, January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Burkhard Bilger: Inside Google’s Driverless Car", The New Yorker. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Robot cars: 10 things you need to know". The Guardian. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "The Ethics of Autonomous Cars". The Atlantic. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "Google’s Plan for Autonomous Cars Doesn’t Go Far Enough". Wired. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "Inside Google's Quest To Popularize Self-Driving Cars". Popular Science. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Ratings of existing crash avoidance systems, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, September 2013.
- "Moral Machines". The New Yorker. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "The Ethics of Saving Lives With Autonomous Cars Are Far Murkier Than You Think". Wired. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Automated Vehicles Are Probably Legal in the United States". Stanford Law School. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "The car that parks itself". The Economist. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Driverless Cars Now Legal in Nevada". BuzzFeed. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Sebastian Thrun, the director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Stanford University talks about winning the DARPA Grand Challenge, Stanley, robot cars, AI, and eradicating traffic injuries". Executive Talks. 12 May 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- 1997 demo of autonomous cars platooning on I-5 San Diego, California on YouTube (UC Berkeley PATH/NAHSC)
- SARTRE Project demo, Gothenburg, Sweden on YouTube (a lead truck with a single following car)
- 2012 SARTRE Project demo, Barcelona, Spain on YouTube (a lead truck followed by three cars driven entirely autonomously)
- A look inside Google's "Driverless Car" on YouTube
- Google car handling urban driving conditions on YouTube
- First public highway test drive of Nissan's Autonomous Drive (Nissan Leaf) on YouTube
- Google's Self-Driving car test on public roads on YouTube
- Mercedes-Benz S 500 Intelligent Drive Autonomous Car self-driving test on YouTube
- BMW M235i drifting car prototype on YouTube