Pseudo-chivalric orders or self-styled orders are organizations which claim to be chivalric orders, but are not recognised as legitimate by countries or international bodies. Most self-styled orders arose in or after the mid-eighteenth century and many have been created recently. Most are short-lived and endure no more than a few decades.
Recognition of orders as genuine
Many countries do not regulate the wearing of decorations, and remain neutral as to whether any particular order is legitimate or not.
Other countries explicitly regulate what decorations are accepted as legitimate. The criteria of France provide an illustrative example of those nations which take a more regulatory approach: Only decorations recognised by the Chancery of the Legion of Honour may be worn publicly, and permission must be sought and granted to wear any foreign awards or decorations. Dynastic orders are prohibited unless the dynasty in question is currently recognised as sovereign. (For example, the Royal Victorian Order is explicitly recognised, whereas the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus is not.) Failure to comply is punishable by law. A non-exhaustive list of collectively authorised orders is published by the French government. Other examples include the United Kingdom, where legitimacy of any particular order is determined by the Monarch - some societies have permission from the Monarch to award medals, but these are to be worn on the right side of the chest. No UK citizen may accept and wear a foreign award without the Sovereign's permission, moreover, the government is explicit that permission for foreign awards conferred by private societies or institutions will not be granted. In Sweden, decisions about medals and orders worn on a military uniform has been delegated to the General Staff.
The International Commission for Orders of Chivalry (ICOC) also maintains a set of principles to evaluate whether a chivalric order is genuine. The ICOC is not officially recognised by any international treaty, and their definition is explicitly rejected by many countries (see examples above of France, UK, and Sweden). The ICOC was created as a temporary committee of the International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Sciences in August 1960, though it has been transformed into a permanent and independent international body. The ICOC argues that a chivalric order must have a fount of honour (or fons honorum) as either its founder or its principal patron in order to be considered genuine. A fount of honour is a person who held sovereignty either at or before the moment when the order was established. The ICOC considers that holding sovereignty before the founding of an order is considered effective in creation of a genuine chivalric order only if the former sovereign had not abdicated his sovereignty before the foundation of the order but, instead, had been deposed or had otherwise lost power. In the ICOC's view, some organisations create a false fons honorum in order to satisfy this requirement and give themselves apparent legitimacy; often, the founder or patron of a self-styled order has assumed a false title of nobility as well as supposed current or former sovereignty. The ICOC maintains a list of which organizations they consider to be genuine chivalric orders.
Certain organisations which may appear to have a chivalric character (such as the Augustan Society and the International Fellowship of Chivalry-Now, which state publicly that they are not chivalric orders), carefully distinguish themselves from self-styled orders of chivalry, orders legitimized by countries, and those viewed as genuine by international bodies such as the ICOC.
Contrary to a popular myth, a person who is a knight or of noble birth does not have the right to confer titles of nobility or Orders of Chivalry on others. According to tradition, no person or organization, other than the Head of State, or the Head of a Royal House or Dynasty—whether regnant or non-regnant[dubious ]—can be a fount of honour. This is because any other person lacks the required sovereignty to do so, even if he or she is of royal blood.
Self-styled orders may share certain other characteristics:
- They long ago were suppressed by the Holy See, protector of mediaeval Western military religious orders in the Holy Land or on the Iberian Peninsula;
- No sovereign Western state recognises them as legitimate orders of knighthood;
- They claim to be under the high protection of or to be headed by Episcopi vagantes or obscure princes;
- They are linked closely to bearers of false titles of nobility.
- International Order of Saint Stanislaus
- Knights Hospitaller Mimic Orders
- Niadh Nask
- Noble Order of Saint George of Rougemont
- Order of Saint Blaise
- Order of the Crown of Thorns
- Order of the Lion and the Black Cross
- Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem
- Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Oecumenial Knights of Malta
- "CODE DE LA LÉGION D’HONNEUR ET DE LA MÉDAILLE MILITAIRE - Juillet 2010". Legiondhonneur.fr. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster. "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 24 Nov 2005 (pt 24)". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- "Authority and Status of the ICOC". Icocregister.org. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- "Legitimacy and Orders of Knighthood". Heraldica.org. 2004-02-25. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- "International Commission for Orders of Chivalry". Icocregister.org. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- "Official Statement of the Holy See on Self-Styled Orders". Heraldica.org. 2002-07-24. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- "French Law and Unofficial Orders". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- Italian Law and Unofficial Orders;
- "Fantasy Royalty". Chivalricorders.org. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- Ordres et contre-ordres de chevalerie by Arnaud Chaffanjon, Mercure de France Paris 1982.
- Faux Chevaliers vrais gogos by Patrice Chairoff, Jean Cyrile Godefroy Paris 1985.
- The knightly twilight by Robert Gayre of Gayre, Lochore Enterprises Valletta 1973.
- Orders of knighthood, Awards and the Holy See by Peter Bander van Duren and Archbishop H.E. Cardinale (Apostolic Delegate in the United Kingdom), Buckinghamshire 1985.
- World Orders of Knighthood and Merit by Guy Stair Sainty(editor) and Rafal Heydel-Mankoo (deputy editor), Burke's Peerage 2006.
- Ephemeral Decorations, Gillingham, H. E. New York, 1935. American Numismatical Society: Numismatic Notes and Mongraphs 66.
- Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard, Knights of Fantasy: an overview, history, and critique of the self-styled 'Orders' called 'of Saint John' or 'of Malta', in Denmark and other Nordic countries, Turku 2002, ISBN 951-29-2265-7
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Self-styled orders.|
- History of Orders of Chivalry: A Survey
- International Commission for Orders of Chivalry
- Legitimacy and Orders of Knighthood, by François Velde
- The Self-Styled Orders, by Guy Stair Sainty
- Fake Titles
- Order of Malta Statement on Mimic Orders