Cricoid pressure

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Cricoid pressure, also known by the eponymous name of the Sellick manoeuvre (maneuver in American English), is a technique applied during endotracheal intubation, used to either prevent regurgitation, or to assist with visualisation of the glottis by a practitioner attempting intubation. The technique involves the application of pressure to the cricoid cartilage of the neck.[1]

History and technique[edit]

In 1961 Dr. Brian Arthur Sellick (1918–1996), an anaesthetist, published the paper Cricoid pressure to control regurgitation of stomach contents during induction of anesthesia—preliminary communication, describing the application of cricoid pressure for the prevention of regurgitation. The technique involves the application of backward pressure on the cricoid cartilage with a force of 20-44 newtons[2] to occlude the esophagus, preventing aspiration of gastric contents during induction of anesthesia and in resuscitation of emergency victims when intubation is delayed or not possible. Some believe that cricoid pressure in pediatric population, especially neonates, improves glottic view and aids tracheal intubation apart from its classical role in rapid sequence intubation for aspiration prophylaxis.[3]

Usage[edit]

Rapid sequence induction[edit]

Cricoid pressure has been widely used during rapid sequence induction for nearly fifty years, despite a lack of compelling evidence to support this practice.[4] The initial article by Sellick was based on a small sample size at a time when high tidal volumes, head-down positioning and barbiturate anesthesia were the rule.[5] Beginning around 2000, a significant body of evidence has accumulated which questions the effectiveness of cricoid pressure, and the application may in fact displace the esophagus laterally[6] instead of compressing it as described by Sellick.

Cricoid pressure may also compress the glottis, which can obstruct the view of the laryngoscopist and actually cause a delay in securing the airway.[7] Some clinicians believe the use of cricoid pressure should be abandoned because of the lack of scientific evidence of benefit and possible complications.

Visualisation of the glottis[edit]

Cricoid pressure is often used to improve the view of the glottis during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, rather than to prevent regurgitation.,[8] A slight variation of Cricoid Pressure specifically for visualization of the glottis is known as the "BURP" (Backwards Upwards Rightwards Pressure) manoeuvre. It differs slightly in that the practitioner adds pressure to move the trachea cephalad and laterally.[9]

Prevention of gas insufflation[edit]

The technique in also important in possibly preventing insufflation of gas into the stomach. A study concluded that appropriate application of cricoid pressure prevents gastric gas insufflation during airway management via mask up to 40 cm H2O PIP in infants and children. An additional benefit of cricoid pressure occurs in paralyzed patients in whom gastric insufflation occurs at lower inflation pressures.[10]

Controversy[edit]

Anterior cricoid pressure was considered the standard of care during Rapid Sequence Intubation for many years.[11] The American Heart Association, until the 2010 science update, advocated the use of cricoid pressure during resuscitation using a BVM, and during emergent oral endotracheal intubation;[12] effective 2010, use of Cricoid Pressure is now discouraged during the routine intubation of cardiac arrest victims.[13]

Cricoid pressure may frequently be applied incorrectly.[14][15][16][17][18] Cricoid pressure may frequently displace the esophagus laterally, instead of compressing it as described by Sellick.[19][20] Several studies demonstrate some degree of glottic compression[21][22][23] reduction in tidal volume and increase in peak pressures.[24]

The initial proposal of cricoid pressure as a useful clinical procedure, its subsequent adoption as the lynchpin of patient safety, and its current decline into disfavor represents a classic example of the need for evidence-based medicine, and the evolution of medical practice.

Side effects[edit]

As all techniques, cricoid pressure has indications, contraindications and side effects. It is associated with nausea/vomiting and it may cause esophageal rupture and also may make tracheal intubation and mask ventilation difficult or impossible. Cricoid force greater than 40 N can compromise airway patency and make tracheal intubation difficult. Cricoid pressure may displace the esophagus, make ventilation with a facemask or with an laryngeal mask airway (LMA) more difficult, interfere with LMA placement and advancement of a tracheal tube and alter laryngeal visualization by a flexible bronchoscope. However, other investigators have found that cricoid pressure does not increase the rate of failed intubation.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Sellick's+maneuver
  2. ^ Barash, Paul (2009). Clinical Anesthesia (6th ed.). Lippencott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1223. 
  3. ^ Moied, AS; Jyotishka, P (Jan–March 2010). "Cricoid pressure – A misnomer in pediatric anaesthesia". J Emerg Trauma Shock. 3 (1): 96–97. doi:10.4103/0974-2700.58650. PMC 2823158. PMID 20165735. Retrieved 2012-05-12. 
  4. ^ Salem, MR; Sellick, BA; Elam, JO (1974). "The historical background of cricoid pressure in anesthesia and resuscitation". Anesthesia & Analgesia 53 (2): 230–2. doi:10.1213/00000539-197403000-00011. PMID 4593092. 
  5. ^ Maltby, JR; Beriault, MT (2002). "Science, pseudoscience and Sellick". Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 49 (5): 443–7. doi:10.1007/BF03017917. PMID 11983655. 
  6. ^ Smith, KJ; Dobranowski, J; Yip, G; Dauphin, A; Choi, PTL (2003). "Cricoid pressure displaces the esophagus: an observational study using magnetic resonance imaging". Anesthesiology 99 (1): 60–4. doi:10.1097/00000542-200307000-00013. PMID 12826843. 
  7. ^ Haslam, N; Parker, L; Duggan, JE (2005). "Effect of cricoid pressure on the view at laryngoscopy". Anaesthesia 60 (1): 41–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2004.04010.x. PMID 15601271. 
  8. ^ Takahata, O; Kubota, M; Mamiya, K; Akama, Y; Nozaka, T; Matsumoto, H; Ogawa, H (1997). "The efficacy of the "BURP" maneuver during a difficult laryngoscopy". Anesthesia & Analgesia 84 (2): 419–21. doi:10.1097/00000539-199702000-00033. PMID 9024040. 
  9. ^ Knill, RL (1993). "Difficult laryngoscopy made easy with a "BURP"". Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 40 (3): 279–82. doi:10.1007/BF03037041. PMID 8467551. 
  10. ^ Moynihan, RJ; Brock - Utne, JG; Archer, JH; Feld, LH; Kreitzman, TR (Apr 1993). "The effect of cricoid pressure on preventing gastric insufflation in infants and children.". Anesthesiology. 78 (4): 652–656. doi:10.1097/00000542-199304000-00007. PMID 8466065. 
  11. ^ Salem, MR; Sellick, BA; Elam, JO (Mar–Apr 1974). "The historical background of cricoid pressure in anesthesia and resuscitation.". Anesthesia and Analgesia 53 (2): 230–2. doi:10.1213/00000539-197403000-00011. PMID 4593092. 
  12. ^ American Heart Association (2006). Textbook of Advanced Cardiac Life Support. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association.
  13. ^ American Heart Association's BLS (Basic Life Support) Provider training, as of 2013-05-19
  14. ^ Escott MEA, Owen H, Strahan AD, Plummer JL. Cricoid pressure training: how useful are descriptions of force? Anaesth Intensive Care 2003;31:388-391
  15. ^ Owen H, Follows V, Reynolds KJ, Burgess G, Plummer J. Learning to apply effective cricoid pressure using a part task trainer. Anaesthesia 2002;57(11):1098-1101
  16. ^ Walton S, Pearce A. Auditing the application of cricoid pressure. Anaesthesia 2000;55:1028-1029
  17. ^ Koziol CA, Cuddleford JD, Moos DD. Assessing the force generated with the application of cricoid pressure. AORN J 2000;72:1018-1030
  18. ^ Meek T, Gittins N, Duggan JE. Cricoid pressure: knowledge and performance amongst anaesthetic assistants. Anaesthesia 1999;54(1):59-62.
  19. ^ Smith, K. J., Dobranowski, J., Yip, G., Dauphin, A., & Choi, P. T. (2003). Cricoid pressure displaces the esophagus: an observational study using magnetic resonance imaging. Anesthesiology, 99(1), 60-64;
  20. ^ Smith, K. J., Ladak, S., Choi, Pt L., & Dobranowski, J. (2002). The cricoid cartilage and the oesophagus are not aligned in close to half of adult patients. Canadian journal of Anaesthesia, 49(5), 503-507.
  21. ^ Palmer, JHM, Ball, D.R. The effect of cricoids pressure on the cricoids cartilage and vocal cords: An endoscopic study in anaesthetized patients. Anaesthesia (2000): 55; 260-287
  22. ^ Hartsilver, E. L., Vanner, R. G. Airway obstruction with cricoids pressure. Anesthesia (2000): 55: 208-211
  23. ^ Haslam, N., Parker, L., and Duggan, J.E. Effect of cricoid pressure on the view at laryngoscopy. Anesthesia (2005): 60: 41-47
  24. ^ Hocking, G., Roberts, F.L., Thew, M.E. Airway obstruction with cricoids pressure and lateral tilt. Anesthesia (2001), 56; 825-828
  25. ^ Ovessapian, A; Salem, MR (Nov 2009). "Sellick’s Maneuver: To Do or Not Do". Anesthesia & Analgesia 109 (5): 1360–1362. Retrieved 2012-05-12. 

See also[edit]