Selma, Alabama

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Selma, Alabama
City
The St. James Hotel and a portion of Water Avenue in Selma
The St. James Hotel and a portion of Water Avenue in Selma
Nickname(s): Queen City of the Black Belt, Butterfly Capital of Alabama
Location in Dallas County and the state of Alabama
Location in Dallas County and the state of Alabama
Coordinates: 32°24′59″N 87°1′29″W / 32.41639°N 87.02472°W / 32.41639; -87.02472
Country United States
State Alabama
County Dallas
Incorporated 1820
Government
 • Type Mayor/City Council
 • Mayor George Patrick Evans
Area
 • Total 14.5 sq mi (37.4 km2)
 • Land 13.9 sq mi (35.9 km2)
 • Water 0.6 sq mi (1.5 km2)
Elevation 125 ft (38 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 20,756
 • Density 1,503.1/sq mi (548.4/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 36701-36703
Area code(s) 334
FIPS code 01-69120
GNIS feature ID 0163940
Website http://www.selma-al.gov/

Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, in the Black Belt region of lower west Alabama. Located on the banks of the Alabama River, it has a population of 20,756 as of the 2010 census.[1] The city is best known for the 1965 Selma Voting Rights Movement and the Selma to Montgomery marches that originated in the city.

History[edit]

Prior to settlement by European peoples, the area of present-day Selma had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The Europeans encountered the historic Native American people known as the Muscogee (also known as the Creek), who had been in the area for hundreds of years.

French explorers and colonists were the first Europeans to explore this area. In 1732 they recorded the site of present-day Selma as Écor Bienville. Later European-Americans called it the Moore's Bluff settlement. Selma was incorporated in 1820. The city was planned and named as Selma by William R. King, a politician and planter from North Carolina who was a future Vice President of the United States. The name, meaning "high seat" or "throne", came from the Ossianic poem The Songs of Selma.[2][3] Selma became the seat of Dallas County in 1866.[4]

Selma during the Civil War[edit]

Importance of Selma to the Confederacy[edit]

During the Civil War, Selma was one of the South's main military manufacturing centers, producing tons of supplies and munitions, and turning out Confederate warships such as the Ironclad warship Tennessee. The Selma iron works and foundry was considered the second most important source of weaponry for the South, after the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia. This strategic concentration of manufacturing capabilities eventually made Selma a target of Union raids into Alabama late in the Civil War.[4]

The capacities and importance of Selma to the Confederate movement were noted in the North, and were too great to be overlooked by the Federal authorities. As the town grew in importance, the Union felt it more important to capture and control. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman first made an effort to reach it, but after advancing as far as Meridian, within 107 miles (172 km) of Selma, his forces retreated to the Mississippi River; Gen. Benjamin Grierson, with a cavalry force from Memphis, was intercepted and returned; Gen. Rousseau made a dash in the direction of Selma, but was misled by his guides and struck the railroad forty miles east of Montgomery.[5]

Battle of Selma[edit]

Union General James H. Wilson

On March 30, 1865, General James H. Wilson detached Gen. John T. Croxton's brigade to destroy all Confederate property at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Wilson's forces captured a Confederate courier, found to be carrying dispatches from Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest describing the strengths and dispositions of his scattered forces. Wilson sent a brigade to destroy the bridge across the Cahaba River at Centreville, which cut off most of Forrest's reinforcements from reaching the area. He began a running fight with Forrest's forces that did not end until after the fall of Selma.

On the afternoon of April 1, after skirmishing all morning, Wilson's advanced guard ran into Forrest's line of battle at Ebenezer Church, where the Randolph Road intersected the main Selma road. Forrest had hoped to bring his entire force to bear on Wilson. Delays caused by flooding, plus earlier contact with the enemy, resulted in Forrest mustering fewer than 2,000 men, many of whom were not war veterans but militia consisting of old men and young boys.

The outnumbered and outgunned Confederates fought bravely for more than an hour as more Union cavalry and artillery deployed on the field. Forrest was wounded by a saber-wielding Union Captain, whom he killed with his revolver. Finally, a Union cavalry charge broke the Confederate militia, causing Forrest to be flanked on his right. He was forced to retreat under severe pressure.

Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest

Early the next morning, Forrest arrived at Selma, "horse and rider covered in blood."[citation needed] He advised Gen. Richard Taylor, departmental commander, to leave the city. Taylor did so after giving Forrest command of the defense.

Selma was protected by three miles of fortifications which ran in a semicircle around the city. They were anchored on the north and south by the Alabama River. The works had been built two years earlier, and while neglected for the most part since, were still formidable. They were 8 feet (2.4 m) to 12 feet (3.7 m) high, 15 feet (4.6 m) thick at the base, with a ditch 4 feet (1.2 m) wide and 5 feet (1.5 m) deep along the front. In front of this was a picket fence of heavy posts planted in the ground, 5 feet (1.5 m) high, and sharpened at the top. At prominent positions, earthen forts were built with artillery in position to cover the ground over which an assault would have to be made.

Forrest's defenders consisted of his Tennessee escort company, McCullough's Missouri Regiment, Crossland's Kentucky Brigade, Roddey's Alabama Brigade, Frank Armstrong's Mississippi Brigade, General Daniel W. Adams' state reserves, and the citizens of Selma who were "volunteered" to man the works. Altogether this force numbered less than 4,000, only half of who were dependable. The Selma fortifications were built to be defended by 20,000 men. Forrest's soldiers had to stand 10 to 12 feet (3.7 m) apart in the works.

Wilson's force arrived in front of the Selma fortifications at 2 p.m. He had placed Gen. Eli Long's Division across the Summerfield Road with the Chicago Board of Trade Battery in support. Gen. Emory Upton's Division was placed across the Range Line Road with Battery I, 4th US Artillery in support. Altogether Wilson had 9,000 troops available for the assault.

The Federal commander's plan was for Upton to send in a 300-man detachment after dark to cross the swamp on the Confederate right; enter the works, and begin a flanking movement toward the center moving along the line of fortifications. A single gun from Upton's artillery would signal the attack to be undertaken by the entire Federal Corps.

At 5 p.m., however, Gen. Eli Long's ammunition train in the rear was attacked by advance elements of Forrest's scattered forces coming toward Selma. Both Long and Upton had positioned significant numbers of troops in their rear for just such an event. But, Long decided to begin his assault against the Selma fortifications to neutralize the enemy attack in his rear.

Long's troops attacked in a single rank in three main lines, dismounted and shooting their Spencer's carbines, supported by their own artillery fire. The Confederates replied with heavy small arms and artillery fire. The Southern artillery had only solid shot on hand, while a short distance away was an arsenal which produced tons of canister, a highly effective anti-personnel ammunition.

St. Paul's Episcopal Church, burned following the Battle of Selma and rebuilt in 1871

The Federals suffered many casualties (including General Long) but continued their attack. Once the Union Army reached the works, there was vicious hand-to-hand fighting. Many soldiers were struck down with clubbed muskets, but they kept pouring into the works. In less than 30 minutes, Long's men had captured the works protecting the Summerfield Road.

Meanwhile, General Upton, observing Long's success, ordered his division forward. They succeeded in overmounting the defenses and soon U.S. flags could be seen waving over the works from Range Line Road to Summerfield Road.

After the outer works fell, General Wilson led the 4th U.S. Cavalry Regiment in a mounted charge down the Range Line Road toward the unfinished inner line of works. The retreating Confederate forces, upon reaching the inner works, all allied and poured a devastating fire into the charging column. This broke up the charge and sent General Wilson sprawling to the ground when his favorite horse was wounded. He quickly remounted his stricken horse and ordered a dismounted assault by several regiments.

Mixed units of Confederate troops had also occupied the Selma railroad depot and the adjoining banks of the railroad bed to make a stand next to the Plantersville Road (present day Broad Street). The fighting there was heavy, but by 7 p.m. the superior numbers of Union troops had managed to flank the Southern positions. The Confederates abandoned the depot as well as the inner line of works.

In the darkness, the Federals rounded up hundreds of prisoners, but hundreds more escaped down the Burnsville Road, including generals Forrest, Armstrong, and Roddey. To the west, many Confederate soldiers fought the pursuing Union Army all the way down to the eastern side of Valley Creek. They escaped in the darkness by swimming across the Alabama River near the mouth of Valley Creek (where the present day Battle of Selma Reenactment is held.)

The Union troops looted the city that night and burned many businesses and private residences. They spent the next week destroying the arsenal and naval foundry. They left Selma heading to Montgomery, and were en route to Columbus and Macon, Georgia at the end of the war.

Civil rights movement[edit]

Like other southern states when white Democrats regained political power after Reconstruction, Alabama had imposed Jim Crow laws of racial segregation in public facilities and other means of white supremacy. At the turn of the twentieth century, it passed a new constitution, with electoral provisions, such as poll taxes and literacy tests, that effectively disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites. This left them without representation in government, as well as deprived them of participation in juries and other forms of citizenship. Through legal challenges and activities of private citizens, blacks became increasingly active following service in World War II in trying to exercise their constitutional rights as citizens.

Selma maintained such typical segregated facilities into the 1960s, which had been adapted to new institutions such as movie theaters. Blacks who attempted to eat at "white-only" lunch counters or sit in the downstairs "white" section of the movie theater were beaten and arrested. More than half of the city's residents were black but because of the restrictive electoral laws and practices, only one percent were registered to vote. This prevented them from serving on juries or taking local office.[6] Blacks were prevented from registering to vote by the literacy test, administered in a subjective way; economic retaliation organized by the White Citizens' Council, Ku Klux Klan violence, and police repression. For instance, to discourage voter registration, the registration board opened doors for registration only two days a month, arrived late, and took long lunches.[7]

In early 1963, Bernard Lafayette and Colia Lafayette of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began organizing in Selma alongside local civil rights leaders Sam, Amelia, and Bruce Boynton; Rev. L.L. Anderson of Tabernacle Baptist Church, J.L. Chestnut (Selma's first Black attorney), SCLC Citizenship School teacher Marie Foster, public school teacher Marie Moore, and others active with the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL).[8]

A positive event in 1963 was that the public library of Selma-Dallas County was integrated under the leadership of Patricia Swift Blalock.[9]

Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church in Selma. A starting point for the Selma to Montgomery Civil Rights marches of 1965, it has been designated as a National Historic Landmark.
Police officers await demonstrators at the Edmund Pettus Bridge on March 7, 1965, "Bloody Sunday"

Against fierce opposition from Dallas County Sheriff Jim Clark and his volunteer posse, blacks continued their voter registration and desegregation efforts, which expanded during 1963 and the first part of 1964. Defying intimidation, economic retaliation, arrests, firings, and beatings, an ever-increasing number of Dallas County blacks attempted to register to vote, but few were able to do so.[10] In the summer of 1964, a sweeping injunction issued by local Judge James Hare barred any gathering of three or more people under sponsorship of SNCC, SCLC, or DCVL, or with the involvement of 41 named civil rights leaders. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until Dr. King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2, 1965.[11]

Beginning in January 1965, SCLC and SNCC initiated a revived Voting Rights Campaign designed to focus national attention on the systematic denial of black voting rights in Alabama, and particularly Selma. After numerous attempts by blacks to register, resulting in more than 3,000 arrests, police violence, and economic retaliation, the campaign culminated in the Selma to Montgomery marches—initiated and organized by SCLC's Director of Direct Action, James Bevel. This represented one of the political and emotional peaks of the modern civil rights movement.

On March 7, 1965, approximately 600 civil rights marchers departed Selma on U.S. Highway 80, heading east to march to the capital. When they reached the Edmund Pettus Bridge, only six blocks away, where they were met by state troopers and local sheriff's deputies, who attacked them, using tear gas and billy clubs, and drove them back to Selma. Because of the attacks, this became known as "Bloody Sunday."

Two days after the march, on March 9, 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. led a symbolic march to the bridge. He and other civil rights leaders attempted to get court protection for a third, larger-scale march from Selma to Montgomery, the state capital. Frank Minis Johnson, Jr., the Federal District Court Judge for the area, decided in favor of the demonstrators, saying:

The law is clear that the right to petition one's government for the redress of grievances may be exercised in large groups...and these rights may be exercised by marching, even along public highways.

—Frank Johnson

On March 21, 1965, a Sunday, approximately 3,200 marchers departed for Montgomery. They walked 12 miles per day, and slept in nearby fields. By the time they reached the capitol four days later on March 25, their strength had swelled to around 25,000 people.[12]

The events at Selma helped increase public support for the cause, and that year the US Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It provided for federal oversight and enforcement of voting rights for all citizens in state or jurisdictions where patterns of under-representation showed discrimination against certain populations, historically minorities.

Geography[edit]

Selma is located at 32°24′26″N 87°1′16″W / 32.40722°N 87.02111°W / 32.40722; -87.02111,[13] west of Montgomery.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles (37 km2) of which 13.9 square miles (36 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) is water.[14]

Demographics[edit]

Selma, Alabama
Year Pop.   ±%  
1850 3,073 —    
1860 3,177 +3.4%
1870 6,484 +104.1%
1880 7,529 +16.1%
1890 7,622 +1.2%
1900 8,713 +14.3%
1910 13,649 +56.7%
1920 15,589 +14.2%
1930 18,012 +15.5%
1940 19,834 +10.1%
1950 22,840 +15.2%
1960 28,400 +24.3%
1970 27,400 −3.5%
1980 26,700 −2.6%
1990 23,755 −11.0%
2000 20,512 −13.7%
2010 20,756 +1.2%
Sources: "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau.  through 1960

As of the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 20,756 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 80.3% Black or African American, 18.0% White, 0.20% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.1% other races, 0.80% from two or more races and Hispanics or Latinos, of any race, comprised 0.60% of the population.[1]

As of the census[15] of 2000, there were 20,512 people, 8,196 households, and 5,343 families residing in the city.[16] The population density was 1,479.6 square miles (3,832 km2). There were 9,264 housing units at an average density of 668.3 per square mile (258.0 /km2).[14] The racial makeup of the city was 69.68% Black or African American, 28.77% White, 0.10% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 0.66% from two or more races.[16]

There were 8,196 households, out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them; 34.2% were married couples living together, 27.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.10.[16]

In the city the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, and 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 78.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.0 males.[16]

The median income for a household in the city was $21,261, and the median income for a family was $28,345. Males had a median income of $29,769 versus $18,129 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,369. About 26.9% of families and 31.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.8% of those under age 18 and 28.0% of those age 65 or over.[16]

Economy[edit]

Industries in Selma include International Paper, Bush Hog (agricultural equipment), Plantation Patterns, American Apparel, and Peerless Pump Company (LaBour).

The city's major shopping center is Selma Mall.

Arts and culture[edit]

Arts[edit]

Sturdivant Hall, completed in 1856 and now a historic house museum.
The Edmund Pettus Bridge over the Alabama River in Selma, site of some of the events of "Bloody Sunday" during the Civil Rights Movement.

Cultural events are held at Mira's Avon Fan Club House, the Performing Arts Center, and the Selma Art Guild Gallery.

Museums and points of interest[edit]

Museums in the city include Sturdivant Hall, the National Voting Rights Museum, Historic Water Avenue, Martin Luther King Jr. Street Historic Walking Tour, Old Depot Museum, Vaughan-Smitherman Museum and Heritage Village.

Selma boasts the state's largest contiguous historic district, with over 1,250 structures. Area attractions include the Old Town Historic District, Old Live Oak Cemetery, Paul M. Grist State Park, and Old Cahawba Archaeological Park.

Selma Alabama also has a controversial monument to Nathan Bedford Forrest, a Confederate General and KKK Grand Wizard, located in Old Live Oak Cemetery.[17] In August, 2012, plans were announced to build a larger monument, more resistant to vandalism.[18]

Library[edit]

The Selma-Dallas County Public Library serves the city and the region with a collection of 76,751 volumes. It was established as a Carnegie library in 1904.

Government[edit]

The city government of Selma consists of a mayor and a nine member city council. The current mayor is George Patrick Evans. The city council members are: Corey D. Bowie, City Council President; Dr. Cecil Williamson, Ward 1; Susan M. Keith, Ward 2; Greg J. Bjelke, Ward 3; Angela Benjamin, Ward 4; Samuel L. Randolph, Ward 5; Benny L. Tucker, Ward 6; Bennie Ruth Crenshaw, Ward 7; Michael Johnson, Ward 8.

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Education[edit]

Post-Secondary[edit]

Colleges in Selma include Concordia College Alabama, Selma University, and George Corley Wallace State Community College (Wallace Community College Selma) located at the end of the Selma city limits near Valley Grande, Alabama.

Primary[edit]

Public[edit]

Selma City Schools operates the city's public schools. Public high schools consist of Selma High School and Selma Early College High School. Middle schools include Selma Middle CHAT Academy and the School of Discovery. The city has eight elementary schools.

Private[edit]

Selma has 3 private K–12 preparatory schools, John T. Morgan Academy, Meadowview Christian School, and Ellwood Christian Academy.

Public libraries[edit]

Selma and Dallas County Public Library

The Selma and Dallas County Public Library, established in 1904 as a Carnegie library, is the city's public library. The 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2) library is in downtown Selma.[19]

Media[edit]

Selma is served by the Montgomery-Selma television Designated Market Area (DMA). Charter Communications provides cable television service. DirecTV and Dish Network provide direct broadcast satellite television including both local and national channels to area residents.

Radio stations[edit]

Television stations[edit]

Newspaper[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Dr. Bernadeia H. Johnson Superintendent of Minneapolis Public Schools In Minneapolis Minnesota.

Sports[edit]

Selma's Bloch Park was home to Southeastern League of Professional Baseball club the Selma Cloverleafs.

In popular culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Fact Sheet- Selma city, Alabama". State and County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Daniel Fate Brooks (2003). "The Faces of William R. King". Alabama Heritage (University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama Department of Archives and History) 69 (Summer): 14–23. 
  3. ^ "History of Selma, Alabama". City of Selma, Alabama. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Lewis, Herbert J. (21 January 2010). "Selma". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  5. ^ Hardy, John (1879). Selam: Her Institutions and Her Men. Bert Neville and Clarence DeBray. 
  6. ^ U.S. Civil Rights Commission report, 1961
  7. ^ Eyes on the Prize documentary film ~ Blackside
  8. ^ Selma — Cracking the Wall of Fear ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  9. ^ Graham, P.T., (2002) A Right to Read: Segregation and Civil Rights in Alabama's Public Libraries, 1900-1965. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
  10. ^ Freedom Day in Selma ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  11. ^ "The Selma Injunction". Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Selma & the March to Montgomery-A Discussion November–June, 2004-2005". Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  14. ^ a b "Geographic Comparison Table- Alabama". American Fast Facts. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  15. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  16. ^ a b c d e 2000 Census
  17. ^ http://newsone.com/2032022/nathan-bedford-forrest-kkk/
  18. ^ http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/08/22/13415785-monument-to-civil-war-general-ku-klux-klan-leader-triggers-controversy?lite
  19. ^ "Selma-Dallas County Public Library Main Page". selmalibrary.org. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ [2].
  22. ^ "Selma, Lord, Selma". IMDb.com. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 32°25′N 87°01′W / 32.41°N 87.02°W / 32.41; -87.02