Selsey Abbey

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Selsey Abbey
13th century seal with (possibly) a picture of Selsey Cathedral.
Capitular seal with picture of Selsey Cathedral?[1][2]
Monastery information
Order Benedictine[3]
Established c. 681
Disestablished c. 1075 Community moved to Chichester[2]
Dedicated to St Peter?[4]
People
Founder(s) St Wilfrid
Site
Location Church Norton
Selsey
West Sussex
England
Coordinates 50°45′18″N 0°45′54″W / 50.754911°N 0.765111°W / 50.754911; -0.765111

Selsey Abbey was founded by St Wilfrid in 681AD on land donated at Selsey by the local Anglo-Saxon ruler, King Æðelwealh of Sussex, Sussex's first Christian king. The Kingdom of Sussex was the last area of Anglo-Saxon England to be evangelised.

The abbey became the seat of the Sussex bishopric, until it was moved, after a synod in 1075, to Chichester. The location of the abbey was probably at the site of, what became, the old parish church at Church Norton just outside Selsey.

Historical context[edit]

The founder of Selsey Abbey was the exiled St Wilfrid of Northumbria.[5] Wilfrid had spent most of his career in exile having quarrelled with various kings and bishops.[2] He arrived in the kingdom of the South Saxons in 681 and remained there for five years evangelising and baptising the people.[5] The account given by Wilfrid’s biographer Stephen, in his Life of Wilfrid infers that all of the South Saxons were pagan, whereas Bedes Ecclesiastical History is somewhat more contradictory,Bede says that the local king Æðelwealh and his wife Eafe plus the leading thegns and soldiers had already been baptised in Mercia, then he goes on to say that only Queen Eafe was baptised .[5] Kirby suggests that Stephens Life of Wilfrid was extremely partisan, as its purpose was to magnify Wilfrid as well as vindicate him.[6] Also that Queen Eafe was the daughter of Wulfhere the Christian king of Mercia, and that Æðelwealh and his nobles would have been baptised at the Mercian court, and on their return to Sussex, Wulfhere will have sent a number of priests with them, to baptise the ordinary people.[6] He further speculates that Christianity may have secured a foothold in early Sussex via one of its sons, the South Saxon Damian, bishop of Rochester c.660, but the evidence is not certain.[6][7]

When Wilfrid arrived in Sussex, there was a small community of five or six Irish monks, led by Dicul in Bosham however it seems that they had made little headway in evangelising the local people.[2][5] It would not have been unusual to have found Irish monks in Sussex as during this period it was common to follow the ‘’Doctrine of Peregrinatio’’, a self-imposed exile to serve God.[2][8][9] Also, the South of England generally was part of the overland route for the Irish travelling to the continent.[10]

At the time of Wilfrid, it would have been a financial expedient to set up a See in an existing monastery rather than build a cathedral church from scratch.[2] Kelly suggests that this may have been why the cathedra was originally set in Selsey rather than Chichester.[2] According to the Domesday Book, at the time of Edward the Confessor the diocese of Selsey had been one of the poorest bishoprics in the country.[11] After the Norman Conquest, however, the new Norman landholders could afford to spend large sums of money on buildings, including churches, so that the cost of translating the See to Chichester would not have been a problem.[12]

Foundation and removal[edit]

16th century Barnard picture of Cædwalla granting lands to Wilfrid.

King Æðelwealh gave Wilfrid a royal vill and 87 hides to build a monastery at Selsey.[5] Bede says that one of Wilfrid's first acts was to free 250 slaves, who came with the estate, and baptised them.[5] Wilfrid then went onto perform the deeds of Bishop in the area.[5]

A 10th-century forged foundation charter, credits Cædwalla as granting Wilfrid the lands.[2][13] Cædwalla was a West Saxon prince who had apparently been banished by Centwine, king of Wessex.[14][15] Cædwalla had spent his exile in the forests of the Chiltern and the Weald, and at some point had befriended Wilfrid.[14][15] Cædwalla vowed that if Wilfrid would be his spiritual father then he would be his obedient son.[15] After entering into this compact, they faithfully fulfilled it, with Wilfrid providing the exile with all kinds of aid.[15]

Eventually, Cædwalla invaded the kingdom of the South Saxons and slew King Æðelwealh.[10] Æðelwealh's successors, Berthun and Andhun drove Cædwalla out, but after the death of Centwine, Cædwalla was able to become King of the West Saxons. He then conquered the South Saxons, killing Berthun in the process.[16] Cædwalla immediately summoned Wilfrid and made him supreme counsellor over his whole kingdom.[15]

In about 686 Archbishop Theodore resolved to arbitrate between the various parties to end Wilfrids exile, he was successful in his efforts and Wilfrid returned north.[17] With Wilfrid gone, Selsey was absorbed by the Diocese of the West Saxons, at Winchester.[16] In temporal matters Sussex was subject to the West Saxon kings, and in ecclesiastical matters it was subject to the bishops of Winchester.[2] By 705AD the West Saxon Diocese had grown to such a size that it became unwieldy to manage, so King Ine, Cædwalla's successor, resolved with his witan to divide the great diocese.[18] Accordingly, a new see was created at Sherbourne and four years later the See of Selsey was revived.[18] Wilfrid had been in charge of the religious community at Selsey, when he left he probably would have nominated a president, any subsequent vacancy would have been filled by election.[19] The abbot of Selsey Eadberht would have been president of the brotherhood in 709 and according to Bede was consecrated the first Bishop of the South Saxons by synodal decree.[20] Wilfrid is credited with being first Bishop of the South Saxons, by William of Malmesbury and Florence of Worcester, also on some later Ecclesiastical lists, but technically he was still Bishop of Northumbria when in charge of Selsey Abbey.[2][19]

From the time of Wilfrid till after the Norman Conquest, when the See was transferred to Chichester, there were about twenty-two Bishops over a period of 370 years.[19] The See was transferred after the Council of London of 1075, which decreed that Sees should be centred in cities.[2] Some sources claim that Stigand, who was bishop at the time of the transfer, continued to use the title Bishop of Selsey until 1082, before adopting the new title of Bishop of Chichester, indicating that the move took several years to complete.[21]

There is a dearth of documents for the early church in Sussex with gaps in the lists.[22] Most of the documents that do survive are later copies or forgeries, which has made it impossible to reconstruct a detailed history before the Norman Conquest.[22]

Location of the Abbey[edit]

Bronze Anglo-Saxon tab.[23]

The location of the old Selsey Abbey and cathedral church is not known for sure, although some local legends suggest that it is under the sea, and that the bell can be heard tolling during rough weather.[24] This is thought not to be true and probably was due to Camden's reference to some obscure remains of that ancient little city, in which those Bishops resided, covered at high water, but plainly visible at low water .[25] The cathedral/abbey, in reality, was more likely to have been at the site of, what became, the old 13th century parish church at Church Norton.[26][27]

Top left section of the Barnard painting showing the old Church with separate tower.

There is some supporting evidence for this, for example, Bishop William Reade in the 14th century requested, in his will dated 1382, that he should be buried before the high altar of the church at Selsey once the cathedral church of my diocese.[26][28] A late Saxon object found at the 'mound', in Church Norton, was a bronze tab (belt end) of a type found in ecclesiastical contexts.[23][26][29] Also various stone artefacts have been found in the area including remnants of Wilfrids palm cross, that would have stood outside his cathedral.[30] The design on the remains of the cross are similar to those on the Bewcastle Cross and it is thought that the Selsey cross would have been identical to the one at Bewcastle.[24]

In another will dated 1545, Geoffrey Thomson, a Rector of Selsey asked to be buried next to the palm cross in the churchyard.[30]

On the top left of the painting that hangs in the south transept of Chichester cathedral, created by the early Tudor painter Lambert Barnard, is a representation of the old church and bell tower at Church Norton as it appeared in the 16th century.[2] It is probable that the bell tower, shown separate from the church on the Barnard painting, dated from the 11th century or earlier was constructed as some sort of fortification and not actually part of the church. A churchwarden's presentment[31] from 1662 stated "That there was never any steeple belonging to the church (at Selsey), but a tower formerly belonging to a ruined castle, somewhat remote from the church where the bells hung...". An excavation of the mound in 1911 discovered the foundations of a square tower and the remains of a ringwork that would have supported the tower. It seems that the old tower lasted till 1602 when it blew down. A replacement tower was constructed, this time attached to the church, in 1662. The ringwork was possibly established soon after 1066 and as the bishopric was not moved to Chichester till 1075, it is likely that it was constructed to protect Wilfrid's 7th-century church.[32]

Plague and pestilence[edit]

In 681, while Eappa was Abbot at the Monastery, the country was ravaged by a plague.[33] As the monastery was also badly afflicted by this disease, the monks set apart three days of fasting and prayer to try to placate the Divine Wrath.[33]

A young boy, in his prayers, appealed to Saint Oswald.[33] Then Saint Peter and Saint Paul were said to have appeared to the boy, at Oswalds request.[33] They told him that all in the Monastery would be cured of the plague apart from the boy.[33]

According to Bede:

"In the monastery at this time lived a Saxon boy, who had recently been converted to the Faith; this child had caught the disease, and for a long time had been confined to bed. About the second hour on the second day of prayer and fasting, he was alone in the place where he lay sick, when, under divine providence, the most blessed Princes of the Apostles deigned to appear to him; for he was a boy of innocent and gentle disposition, who sincerely believed the truths of the Faith that had been accepted. The Apostles greeted him very lovingly, and said: 'Son, put aside the fear of death that is troubling you; for today we are going to take you with us to the kingdom of heaven. But first of all you must wait until the Masses are said, and you have received the Viaticum of the Body and Blood of our Lord. Then you shall be set free from sickness and death, and carried up to the endless joys of heaven. So call the priest Eappa and tell him that our Lord has heard the prayers of the brethren and regarded their fasting and devotion with favour. No one else in this monastery and its possessions is to die of this disease, and all who are now suffering from it will recover and be restored to their former health. You alone are to be set free by death today, and shall be taken to heaven to see the Lord Christ whom you have served so faithfully. God in his mercy has granted you this favour at the intercession of the devout King Oswald, so beloved by God, who once ruled the people of the Northumbrians...."(Bede. Ecclesiastical History. Book 4. Ch. 14)

Land seizure and restoration[edit]

In the middle of the 10th century a certain Byrhthelm appears as bishop in a couple of the Selsey charters, dated 956 and 957.[34] The charter of 957(S.1291[35]) tells how Byrhthelm restores 42 hides of land in the Selsey area to the South Saxons.[36] The original foundation confirmed by Cædwalla to Wilfrid was 87 hides, so the 42 hides would have been nearly half the original endowment.

According to Byrhthelm the land was fraudulently seized from the church by a certain Ælfsige, against the canons of the Council of Nicaea (325) when raised to the epsicopal seat of the 'Gewisse' (West Saxons).[37][38] The 15th decree of the first Council of Nicaea 325 stated that neither bishops nor presbyters nor deacons shall transfer from city to city. If after this decision... anyone shall attempt such a thing .. the arrangement shall be totally annulled...[37] Several historians have suggested that the Council of Nicaea reference that bishops should not take over another bishops land infers that the Ælfsige who seized the lands at Selsey, would have been a bishop.[37] The most likely candidate being the Bishop of Winchester (whose name was also Ælfsige) and according to Bede the South Saxon Church was subject to the Bishops of Winchester at the time.[16]

Fictional reference[edit]

Rudyard Kipling wrote about St Wilfrid and Selsey and in this poem he refers to a service at Manhood End (Selsey), that was taken by Wilfrids chaplain Stephen of Ripon, referred to as Eddi in the poem :

Eddi's Service (AD 687)
Eddi, priest of St. Wilfrid
In his chapel at Manhood End,
Ordered a midnight service
For such as cared to attend.

But the Saxons were keeping Christmas,
And the night was stormy as well.
Nobody came to service,
Though Eddi rang the bell.

"'Wicked weather for walking,"
Said Eddi of Manhood End.
"But I must go on with the service
For such as care to attend."

The altar-lamps were lighted, –
An old marsh-donkey came,
Bold as a guest invited,
And stared at the guttering flame.

The storm beat on at the windows,
The water splashed on the floor,
And a wet, yoke-weary bullock
Pushed in through the open door.

"How do I know what is greatest,
How do I know what is least?
That is My Father's business,"
Said Eddi, Wilfrid's priest.

"But – three are gathered together –
Listen to me and attend.
I bring good news, my brethren!"
Said Eddi of Manhood End.

And he told the Ox of a Manger
And a Stall in Bethlehem,
And he spoke to the Ass of a Rider,
That rode to Jerusalem.

They steamed and dripped in the chancel,
They listened and never stirred,
While, just as though they were Bishops,
Eddi preached them The World,

Till the gale blew off on the marshes
And the windows showed the day,
And the Ox and the Ass together
Wheeled and clattered away.

And when the Saxons mocked him,
Said Eddi of Manhood End,
"I dare not shut His chapel
On such as care to attend."
Rudyard Kipling Rewards and Fairies. p 179.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Heron-Allen.Selsey Historic and Prehistoric. p. 114 and fig.2. ..the seal (was) used by the cathedral authorities down to Bishop Seffrid II(1180 – 1204).. from the Saxon bishops of Selsey.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kelly. The Bishopric of Selsey in Hobbs. Chichester Cathedral: An Historic Survey. pp. 1–10.
  3. ^ Allen.Selsey Historic. p. 117.
  4. ^ Allen. Selsey Historic. pp. 119 – 120. early charters also say that it could have been dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St Paul the Apostle.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Bede.HE.IV.13
  6. ^ a b c Kirby.The South Saxons: The Church in Saxon Sussex. pp. 169–170
  7. ^ Bede. HE.III.20
  8. ^ Harbison. Pilgrimage in Ireland: The Monuments and the People. Ch. 4. Peregrinatio: Wandering Irish Peregrini on the continent
  9. ^ Ladner. Images and ideas in the Middle Ages. pp. 883–884.’’The early Christian and medieval idea of estrangement, of peregrinatio, which is of biblical origin, found in for instance, in the 'Second Letter to the Corinthians', in the 'First Letter of St Peter', and in 'Hebrews', as well as in the Old Testament, was a conception which saw true Christians as a band of strangers, of pilgrims, wending their way through the terrestrial world; it was an idea of homelessness or exile in this world, because of the latter's imperfect, preliminary condition and because of a desire to serve only God, by cutting all lesser ties.’’
  10. ^ a b Kirby.The South Saxons: The Church in Saxon Sussex. p. 170.
  11. ^ Barlow. The English Church 1000–1066. p. 222
  12. ^ Wood. Domesday Quest. pp. 140 -141.
  13. ^ Kelly.Charters of Selsey. pp. 3–13
  14. ^ a b Stephens. Memorials of the See. p. 18
  15. ^ a b c d e Eddius. Life of Wilfrid. Ch. 42 in Farmer.The Age of Bede. pp. 149 - 150
  16. ^ a b c Bede. HE.IV.15
  17. ^ Eddius. Life of Wilfrid. Ch. 43 in Farmer.The Age of Bede. pp. 150 - 151
  18. ^ a b Stephens.The South Saxon Diocese:Selsey- Chichester. p. 14
  19. ^ a b c Stephens. Diocesan Histories. p. 15
  20. ^ Bede. H.E. V.18
  21. ^ Dallaway.History of the Western Division of the county of Sussex, Volume 1 p. 25 accessed 3 April 2014
  22. ^ a b Kirby.The South Saxons: The Church in Saxon Sussex. p. 171.
  23. ^ a b Allen. Selsey Historic. p. 196, pl. xxxvi
  24. ^ a b Heron-Allen. The Parish Church of St Peter on Selsey Bill Sussex". p. 6
  25. ^ Camden. Britannia. Vol. 2. Ch. 18.4
  26. ^ a b c Munby. Anglo-Saxon Towns in Southern England:Saxon Chichester and its Predecessors. pp. 317–320
  27. ^ Tatton-Brown. The Medieval Fabric in Hobbs. Chichester Cathedral: An Historical Survey. p. 25
  28. ^ Powicke. Will of William Rede, Bishop of Chichester in The Medieval Books of Merton College. p. 87
  29. ^ Aldsworth. Excavations on the Mound. pp. 217–221
  30. ^ a b Mee. History of Selsey. pp. 11–12
  31. ^ The Canons of the Church of England. G6. p. 165. - Churchwardens' Presentments are reports to the Bishop relating to parishoners' misdemeanors and other things amiss in the parish.
  32. ^ F. G. Aldsworth. 'The Mound' at Church Norton, Selsey in Sussex Archaeological Collection Vol. 117 pp. 103-107
  33. ^ a b c d e Bede.HE.IV.14
  34. ^ Powicke. Handbook. p. 252
  35. ^ "S.1291". Kings College, London. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  36. ^ Kelly. Charters of Selsey. pp. 85–91.
  37. ^ a b c Wormald. Strange Affair of the Selsey Bishopric. p. 131
  38. ^ Wikisource. The First Council of Nicaea

References[edit]

  • Aldsworth, F. G. (1979). Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol. 117: The Mound at Church Norton, Selsey, and the site of St Wilfrid's Church. Lewes, Sussex: SAC. 
  • Aldsworth, F. G. (1981). Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol. 119: Excavations on the Mound at Church Norton, Selsey, in 1911 and 1965. Lewes, Sussex: SAC. 
  • Barlow, Frank (1979). The English Church 1000–1066 2nd. Ed. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49049-9. 
  • Bede. Wikisource-logo.svg s:Ecclesiastical History of the English People..Translation based on L.C. Jane (1903); A. M. Sellar (1907)
  • Bede (1990). Sherley-Price, Leo; Farmer, D.H., eds. Bede:Ecclesiastical History of the English People. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044565-X. 
  • "Camdens Britannia. The Division of Britaine. Volume 2". Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  • Dallaway, James (1815). A history of the western division of the county of Sussex, Volume 1. London: T.Bensley. 
  • The Canons of the Church of England. 6th Edition (2000). London: Church House Publishing. ISBN 0-7151-3842-1. 
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "First Council of Nicea" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Farmer, D. H.; Webb, J.F.(Tr), eds. (1998). The Age of Bede (Revised ed.). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-044727-9. 
  • Fryde, E. B.; F.M.Powicke (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. 
  • Harbison, Peter (1992). Pilgrimage in Ireland: The Monuments and the People. London: Barrie and Jenkins. ISBN 0-8156-0312-6. 
  • Heron-Allen, Edward (1943). The Parish Church of St Peter on Selsey Bill Sussex 2nd Edition. Chichester: Moore and Tillyer.  – booklet produced by the author (1st Edition 1935) for visitors to St Peters church, Selsey.
  • Heron-Allen, Edward (1911). Selsey Bill. Historic and Prehistoric. Duckworth. 
  • Hobbs, Mary, ed. (1994). Chichester Cathedral: An Historic Survey. Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN 0-85033-924-3. 
  • Kelly, S.E (1998). Anglo-Saxon Charters VI, Charters of Selsey. OUP for the British Academy. ISBN 0-19-726175-2. 
  • Kipling, Rudyard (1995: latest edition). Rewards and Fairies. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworths(Childrens Classics). ISBN 1-85326-159-9. 
  • Kirby, D.P. (1978). Peter Brandon, ed. The South Saxons:The Church in Saxon Sussex. Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN 0-85033-240-0. 
  • Ladner, G.B. (1983). Images and ideas in the Middle Ages: selected studies in history and Art .Volume 1. Roma: Edizioni Di Soria Letteratura. 
  • Mee, Frances (1988). A History of Selsey. Chichester, Sussex: Philimore. ISBN 0-85033-672-4. 
  • Munby, Julian (1984). Jeremy Haslam, ed. Anglo-Saxon Towns in Southern England:Saxon Chichester and its Predecessors. Chichester, Sussex: Philimore. ISBN 0-8503-3438-1. 
  • Powicke, F.M., ed. (1931). The Medieval books of Merton College. Clarendon Press. 
  • Stephens, W.R.W. (1876). Memorials of the South Saxon See and Cathedral Church of Chichester. London: Richard Bentley. 
  • Stephens, W.R.W. (1881). The South Saxon Diocese, Selsey – Chichester. London: SPCK. 
  • Wood, Michael (1985). The Domesday Quest. London: BBC. ISBN 0-15-352274-7. 
  • Wormald, Patrick (2001). Richard Gameson, Henrietta Leyser, ed. Belief and Culture in the Middle Ages: The Strange Affair of the Selsey Bishopric, 953–963. Oxford: OUP. ISBN 0-19-820801-4. 

External links[edit]