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Born in Shoreham, Vermont, Garfielde moved to Gallipolis, Ohio, and later to Paris, Kentucky, where he engaged in newspaper work. He pursued an academic course. He served as Delegate to the Kentucky State Constitutional Convention in 1849. He immigrated to California in 1851 and served as member of the California State Assembly in 1852. Garfielde was elected by the legislature to codify the laws of the State in 1853. He studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1854 and commenced practice in San Francisco, California. He returned to Kentucky in 1855. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1856.
In 1857, he moved to the Territory of Washington. He served as the Receiver of Public Moneys from 1857–1860. Democrats upset by their two-term Delegate Isaac Stevens prevented his renomination at the party convention in 1861, opening the door for Garfielde to run as the Democratic candidate for the Thirty-seventh Congress. The nomination controversy shook the Democrats, which may have contributed to Garfielde's loss to the Republican William H. Wallace. He was the surveyor general of the Territory of Washington 1866–1869.
After switching parties, Garfielde was elected as a Republican to the Forty-first and Forty-second Congresses (March 4, 1869 – March 3, 1873). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1872 to the Forty-third Congress. He was appointed collector of customs for the Puget Sound district in 1873. He moved to Seattle, Washington, where he engaged in the practice of law. He also practiced law in Washington, D.C.. He died in Washington, D.C., April 13, 1881. He was interred in Glenwood Cemetery.
- Selucius Garfielde (1872). Climates of the Northwest. Philadelphia: Ringwalt & Brown Printers. (Garfielde's 20-page notes of a lecture he had given.)
- Jack Nisbet; Claire Nisbet (July 31, 2011). "Former Governor Isaac Stevens returns to Washington Territory on April 12, 1861". HistoryLink.
- Hazard Stevens (1901). The Life of Isaac Ingalls Stevens 2. Houghton Mifflin. p. 316.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.