Semen collection

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A breeding mount with built-in artificial vagina used to collect semen from horses for use in artificial insemination

Semen collection refers to the process of obtaining semen from humans or other male animals with the use of various methods, for the purposes of artificial insemination, or medical study (usually in fertility clinics). Semen can be collected via masturbation[1] (e. g., from male wolves,[2] dogs[3][4] and foxes[5][6]), prostate massage, artificial vagina, penile vibratory stimulation (vibroejaculation) and electroejaculation.

By species[edit]

Humans[edit]

Methods of semen collection from humans include:

  • Masturbation, directing the sample into a clean cup.[7] This is the most common way to collect a semen sample.[7]
  • Sexual intercourse in a special type of condom known as a collection condom.[7] Collection condoms are made from silicone or polyurethane, as latex is somewhat harmful to sperm. Many men prefer collection condoms to masturbation, and some religions prohibit masturbation entirely. Adherents of religions that prohibit contraception may use collection condoms with holes pricked in them.[8] However, such samples are inferior to the ones collected by masturbation in clean cup.[9]
  • Coitus interruptus (withdrawal). With this technique, the man removes his penis from his partner near the end of intercourse and ejaculates into a wide-necked cup or bottle.[7][9]
  • Penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and electroejaculation are two other alternatives for men with anejaculation due to spinal cord injury.[12] The penile vibratory stimulator is a plier-like device that is placed around the glans penis to stimulate it by vibration, and provides the first-line method for sperm retrieval in spinal cord injury patients with anejaculation.[12]

The best specimen is produced when a short period of 3–5 days of abstinence is observed. More prolonged period does not yield better results.[9]

Cattle[edit]

Canids[edit]

Dogs[edit]

In order to collect semen from a male dog, an artificial vagina is prepared,[13][14] which is a conical thin latex sleeve ending in a sterile collection tube. The inside of the latex sleeve is lightly lubricated.[15] The male is allowed to sniff a female in estrus. Experienced studs cooperate readily in the process. New studs often require encouragement in the form of manual stimulation,[4][16] also known as "manual ejaculation".[17][18] Generally the male will mount the female[not in citation given], and the collector quickly directs the male dog's penis into the latex sleeve. The male ejaculates and the semen is collected in the tube. The semen is then drawn up into a long thin pipette.[3][17] Prior to ejaculation, the penis is massaged inside its sheath. It is then extruded from its sheath, and the collector massages the dog's erect penis near the base of the bulbus glandis using the thumb and index finger. The dog begins pelvic thrusting movements at the onset of ejaculation.[19]

Wolves[edit]

Semen can be collected from a male gray wolf by grasping the wolf's penis with one hand and applying pressure to the wolf's back with the other hand.[2] Semen can also be collected from wolves via manual stimulation[20] or electroejaculation.[21][22][23][24][25]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • The men's rooms A British journalist takes a closer look at the phenomenon of semen collection.

Bibliography[edit]

Semen collection from rhinoceroses[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ P. F. Watson (1978). Artificial breeding of non-domestic animals: (the proceedings of a symposium held at the Zoological Society of London on 7 and 8 September 1977). Academic Press for the Zoological Society of London. ISBN 978-0-12-613343-1. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b H. Frank (30 April 1987). Man and Wolf: Advances, Issues, and Problems in Captive Wolf Research. Springer. ISBN 978-90-6193-614-5. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Semen Collection from Dogs". Arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu. 2002-09-14. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  4. ^ a b Veterinary Medicine. Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company. 1989. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  5. ^ Silver fox and arctic fox cross-breeding method and semen deposition needle
  6. ^ Annaler. Lantbrukshögskolan. 1941. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d Essig, Maria G.; Edited by Susan Van Houten and Tracy Landauer, Reviewed by Martin Gabica and Avery L. Seifert (2007-02-20). "Semen Analysis". Healthwise. WebMD. Retrieved 2007-08-05. 
  8. ^ Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning (4th addition ed.). Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League. pp. 306–307. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. 
  9. ^ a b c Padubidri; Daftary (2011). Shaw's Textbook of Gynaecology, 15e. p. 203. ISBN 9788131225486
  10. ^ "Fertility Center, Stockholm (translated from Swedish)". Archived from the original on 2012-08-30. 
  11. ^ Farquhar, C.; Rishworth, J. R.; Brown, J.; Nelen, W. L. M.; Marjoribanks, J. (2013). "Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews". In Brown, Julie. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010537.pub2.  edit
  12. ^ a b Chehensse, C.; Bahrami, S.; Denys, P.; Clément, P.; Bernabé, J.; Giuliano, F. (2013). "The spinal control of ejaculation revisited: A systematic review and meta-analysis of anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients". Human Reproduction Update 19 (5): 507–526. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmt029. PMID 23820516.  edit
  13. ^ Johnson, Dustie Lee. "Improving semen parameters through modification of semen collection/extension." (2011).
  14. ^ Bartlett, D. J. "Studies on dog semen." Journal of reproduction and fertility 3.2 (1962): 173-189.
  15. ^ Freshman, Joni L. "Semen collection and evaluation." Clinical techniques in small animal practice 17.3 (2002): 104-107.
  16. ^ Vágenknechtová, M., et al. "THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF SEMEN COLLECTION AND QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF SEMEN IN THE DOG (CANIS FAMILIARIS)." ACTA UNIVERSITATIS AGRICULTURAE ET SILVICULTURAE MENDELIANAE BRUNENSIS 59: 0.
  17. ^ a b The Dog Breeder's Guide to Successful Breeding And Health Management. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2006. pp. 323–. ISBN 978-1-4160-3139-0. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  18. ^ Kutzler, Michelle Anne. "Semen collection in the dog." Theriogenology 64.3 (2005): 747-754.
  19. ^ Edward C. Feldman; Richard William Nelson (2004). Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-7216-9315-6. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  20. ^ H. Frank (30 April 1987). Man and Wolf: Advances, Issues, and Problems in Captive Wolf Research. Springer. ISBN 978-90-6193-614-5. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  21. ^ Where Do Wolf Babies Come From? - - News - St. Louis - Riverfront Times
  22. ^ Studies on Volf in Electro-ejaculation and Its Semen Characterization » Agricultural Science Paper
  23. ^ Christensen, Bruce W., et al. "Effect of semen collection method on sperm motility of gray wolves ( Canis lupus) and domestic dogs ( C. l. familiaris)." Theriogenology 76.5 (2011): 975-980.
  24. ^ Asa, C. S. "Cryopreservation of Mexican gray wolf semen." Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Assisted Reproductive Technology for the Conservation and Genetic Management of Wildlife. 2001.
  25. ^ Thomassen, Ragnar, and W. Farstad. "Artificial insemination in canids: a useful tool in breeding and conservation." Theriogenology 71.1 (2009): 190-199.