Semen collection refers to the process of obtaining semen from male humans or other animals with the use of various methods, for the purposes of artificial insemination, or medical study (usually in fertility clinics). Semen can be collected via masturbation (e. g., from male wolves, dogs and foxes), prostate massage, artificial vagina, penile vibratory stimulation (vibroejaculation) and electroejaculation.
|This section requires expansion with: information about semen collection from horses. (December 2013)|
Methods of semen collection from humans include:
- Masturbation, directing the sample into a clean cup. This is the most common way to collect a semen sample.
- Sexual intercourse in a special type of condom known as a collection condom. Collection condoms are made from silicone or polyurethane, as latex is somewhat harmful to sperm. Many men prefer collection condoms to masturbation, and some religions prohibit masturbation entirely. Adherents of religions that prohibit contraception may use collection condoms with holes pricked in them. However, such samples are inferior to the ones collected by masturbation in clean cup.
- Coitus interruptus (withdrawal). With this technique, the man removes his penis from his partner near the end of intercourse and ejaculates into a wide-necked cup or bottle.
- Surgical extraction, if for example a blockage in the vas deferens is suspected to impede fertility, semen can be taken directly from the epididymis. Such a collection is called per cutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). Alternatively, the testicular tissue itself, instead of the sperm produced can be investigated. Then, the collecting method is called testicular sperm extraction (TESE). A Cochrane review found insufficient evidence to recommend any specific surgical sperm retrieval technique for men with azoospermia undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
- Penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and electroejaculation are two other alternatives for men with anejaculation due to spinal cord injury. The penile vibratory stimulator is a plier-like device that is placed around the glans penis to stimulate it by vibration, and provides the first-line method for sperm retrieval in spinal cord injury patients with anejaculation.
In order to collect semen from a male dog, an artificial vagina is prepared, which is a conical thin latex sleeve ending in a sterile collection tube. The inside of the latex sleeve is lightly lubricated. The male is allowed to sniff a female in estrus. Experienced studs cooperate readily in the process. New studs often require encouragement in the form of manual stimulation, also known as "manual ejaculation". Generally the male will mount the female[not in citation given], and the collector quickly directs the male dog's penis into the latex sleeve. The male ejaculates and the semen is collected in the tube. The semen is then drawn up into a long thin pipette. Prior to ejaculation, the penis is massaged inside its sheath. It is then extruded from its sheath, and the collector massages the dog's erect penis near the base of the bulbus glandis using the thumb and index finger. The dog begins pelvic thrusting movements at the onset of ejaculation.
Semen can be collected from a male gray wolf by grasping the wolf's penis with one hand and applying pressure to the wolf's back with the other hand. Semen can also be collected from wolves via manual stimulation or electroejaculation.
- Semen analysis
- Posthumous sperm retrieval
- Canine reproduction#Procedure
- Conception device#Semen collectors
- Collection condom
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Semen collection.|
- The men's rooms A British journalist takes a closer look at the phenomenon of semen collection.
- I. Gordon (2004). Reproductive technologies in farm animals [electronic resource]. CABI. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-0-85199-049-1. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Wilson G. Pond; Alan W. Bell (2005). Encyclopedia of Animal Science. Marcel Dekker. pp. 130–. ISBN 978-0-8247-5496-9. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Deborah Reeder; Sheri Miller; DeeAnn Wilfong; Midge Leitch; Dana Zimmel (30 July 2012). AAEVT's Equine Manual for Veterinary Technicians. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-50482-6. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Graham Munroe BVSc (Hons) PhD Cert EO DESM Dip ECVS FRCVS; Scott Weese DVM DVSc DipACVIM (15 March 2011). Equine Clinical Medicine, Surgery and Reproduction. Manson Publishing. pp. 334–. ISBN 978-1-84076-608-0. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Juan C. Samper (2009). Equine Breeding Management and Artificial Insemination. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-1-4160-5234-0. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Steven P. Brinsko; Terry L. Blanchard; Dickson D. Varner; James Schumacher; Charles C. Love (19 May 2010). Manual of Equine Reproduction. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 547–. ISBN 978-0-323-06513-9. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Schmitt, D. L., and T. B. Hildebrandt. "Manual collection and characterization of semen from Asian elephants (< i> Elephas maximus)." Animal reproduction science 53.1 (1998): 309-314.
- Brown, Janine L., et al. "Successful artificial insemination of an Asian elephant at the National Zoological Park." Zoo Biology 23.1 (2004): 45-63.
- Howard, JoGayle, et al. "Electroejaculation, semen characteristics and serum testosterone concentrations of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana)." Journal of reproduction and fertility 72.1 (1984): 187-195.
Semen collection from rhinoceroses
- Cave, A. J. E. "THE PROCESSÜS GLANDIS IN THE RHINOCEROTIDAE." Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Vol. 143. No. 4. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1964.
- Schaffer, Nan, et al. "Ultrasonographic monitoring of artificially stimulated ejaculation in three rhinoceros species (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis, Rhinoceros unicornus)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (1998): 386-393.
- Walzer, C., H. Pucher, and F. Schwarzenberger. "A restraint chute for semen collection in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)—preliminary results." Proc. Eur. Assoc. Zoo Wildl. Vet.(EAZWV), Paris, France (2000): 7-10.
- Beehler, B. "RESTRAINT CHUTES."
- Schaffer, N. E., et al. "Methods of semen collection in an ambulatory greater one‐horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis)." Zoo Biology 9.3 (1990): 211-221.
- Roth, Terri L., et al. "Semen collection in rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis, Diceros bicornis, Ceratotherium simum) by electroejaculation with a uniquely designed probe." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36.4 (2005): 617-627.
- Silinski, S., et al. "Pharmacological methods of enhancing penile erection for ex-copula semen collection in standing white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)." Proc. of the combined meeting of the EAZWV and the EWDA. Heidelberg, Germany. 2002.
- O'Brien, J. K., and T. L. Roth. "Post-coital sperm recovery and cryopreservation in the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) and application to gamete rescue in the African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)." Journal of reproduction and fertility 118.2 (2000): 263-271.
- P. F. Watson (1978). Artificial breeding of non-domestic animals: (the proceedings of a symposium held at the Zoological Society of London on 7 and 8 September 1977). Academic Press for the Zoological Society of London. ISBN 978-0-12-613343-1. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- H. Frank (30 April 1987). Man and Wolf: Advances, Issues, and Problems in Captive Wolf Research. Springer. ISBN 978-90-6193-614-5. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Semen Collection from Dogs". Arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu. 2002-09-14. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Veterinary Medicine. Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company. 1989. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Silver fox and arctic fox cross-breeding method and semen deposition needle
- Annaler. Lantbrukshögskolan. 1941. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Essig, Maria G.; Edited by Susan Van Houten and Tracy Landauer, Reviewed by Martin Gabica and Avery L. Seifert (2007-02-20). "Semen Analysis". Healthwise. WebMD. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
- Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning (4th addition ed.). Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League. pp. 306–307. ISBN 0-926412-13-2.
- Padubidri; Daftary (2011). Shaw's Textbook of Gynaecology, 15e. p. 203. ISBN 9788131225486
- "Fertility Center, Stockholm (translated from Swedish)". Archived from the original on 2012-08-30.
- Farquhar, C.; Rishworth, J. R.; Brown, J.; Nelen, W. L. M.; Marjoribanks, J. (2013). Brown, Julie, ed. "Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews". The Cochrane Library 8: CD010537. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010537.pub2. PMID 23970457.
- Chehensse, C.; Bahrami, S.; Denys, P.; Clément, P.; Bernabé, J.; Giuliano, F. (2013). "The spinal control of ejaculation revisited: A systematic review and meta-analysis of anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients". Human Reproduction Update 19 (5): 507–526. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmt029. PMID 23820516.
- Johnson, Dustie Lee. "Improving semen parameters through modification of semen collection/extension." (2011).
- Bartlett, D. J. "Studies on dog semen." Journal of reproduction and fertility 3.2 (1962): 173-189.
- Freshman, Joni L. "Semen collection and evaluation." Clinical techniques in small animal practice 17.3 (2002): 104-107.
- Vágenknechtová, M., et al. "THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF SEMEN COLLECTION AND QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF SEMEN IN THE DOG (CANIS FAMILIARIS)." ACTA UNIVERSITATIS AGRICULTURAE ET SILVICULTURAE MENDELIANAE BRUNENSIS 59: 0.
- The Dog Breeder's Guide to Successful Breeding And Health Management. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2006. pp. 323–. ISBN 978-1-4160-3139-0. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Kutzler, Michelle Anne. "Semen collection in the dog." Theriogenology 64.3 (2005): 747-754.
- Edward C. Feldman; Richard William Nelson (2004). Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-7216-9315-6. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- H. Frank (30 April 1987). Man and Wolf: Advances, Issues, and Problems in Captive Wolf Research. Springer. ISBN 978-90-6193-614-5. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Where Do Wolf Babies Come From? - - News - St. Louis - Riverfront Times
- Studies on Volf in Electro-ejaculation and Its Semen Characterization » Agricultural Science Paper
- Christensen, Bruce W., et al. "Effect of semen collection method on sperm motility of gray wolves ( Canis lupus) and domestic dogs ( C. l. familiaris)." Theriogenology 76.5 (2011): 975-980.
- Asa, C. S. "Cryopreservation of Mexican gray wolf semen." Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Assisted Reproductive Technology for the Conservation and Genetic Management of Wildlife. 2001.
- Thomassen, Ragnar, and W. Farstad. "Artificial insemination in canids: a useful tool in breeding and conservation." Theriogenology 71.1 (2009): 190-199.