Senate of the Republic (Mexico)
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (November 2010)|
|Senate of the Republic
Senado de la República
|Type||Upper house of the Congress of Mexico|
|Founded||October 4, 1824|
|President of the Senate||Ernesto J. Cordero, (PAN)
Since September 1, 2012
(until August 31, 2012)
|Length of term||6 years (no reelection)|
|Authority||Chapter II of the Constitution of the United Mexican States|
|Voting system||Direct election|
|Last election||July 1, 2012|
|La Patria Es Primero
(The Country Is First)
|Official Website of the Mexican Senate|
The Senate of the Republic, (Spanish: Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.
After a series of reforms during the 1990s, it is now made up of 128 senators:
- Two for each of the 31 states and two for the Federal District elected under the principle of relative majority;
- One for each of the 31 states and one for the Federal District, assigned under the principle of first minority (i.e. awarded to the party who had won the second highest number of votes within the state or Federal District);
- Thirty-two national senators-at-large, divided among the parties in proportion to their share of the national vote.
In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote. The party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District then assigns a senator to occupy the third seat (first minority seat), according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE).
Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election.
The Senate is completely renewed every six years, since senators are barred from immediate reelection.
Term and current composition 
- See main article: LXI Legislature of the Mexican Congress
The current session (whose term lasts from 2012 to 2015) is known as the LXII Legislatura (62nd Legislature).
Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current Senators (who were elected in the general election of July 1, 2012) will serve during the 62nd and 63th Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies.
Former Main Senate Chambers at corner of Donceles and Xicotencatl Streets in the historic center of Mexico City.
- (Spanish) Official Website of the Mexican Senate