Seneca Nation of New York
|Seneca Nation of Indians
|Capital||Irving, New York
Jimerson Town, New York
|Largest city||Salamanca, NY|
|Official languages||Seneca language (national)
|-||President||Maurice A. John, Sr.|
|Currency||United States dollar|
The Seneca Nation of New York, also known as the Seneca Nation of Indians (Salamanca) is a federally recognized tribe of Seneca people in New York. The tribe has two alternating capitals: one in Irving, New York on the Cattaraugus Reservation, and the other in Salamanca, NY on the Allegany Indian Reservation. It is one of two federally recognized Seneca tribes in New York, the other being the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians, which broke off from the Seneca Nation in 1857.
The tribe was established in 1848 by a Constitutional Convention of Seneca people residing on the Allegany and Cattaragus Territories in present-day New York. The Seneca Nation of Indians Constitution established a tripartite governing structure based on general elections of 16 Councilors, three Executives (President, Treasurer, Clerk), and Court justices (Surrogates and Peacemakers). These elections are held every two years, concurrent with Election Day in the rest of the United States. The leadership rotates between the two reservations each election, and no officer can serve consecutive terms because of this; there are no other term limits, and officers can serve as many nonconsecutive terms as they want (provided they win election).
This republican form of government stands in contrast to the Tonawanda Band, which retained the traditional native government of hereditary chiefs. These leaders were deposed in the 1848 convention.
The government is primarily under one-party rule, with the Seneca Party having complete control over the political process. The Seneca Party has reportedly bribed people for votes and bused voters in from out of state during elections. Despite the one-party rule, there are numerous factions and disputes within the Seneca Party. Tensions increased during the presidency of attorney Robert Odawi Porter in 2011-2012. Supporters of Porter have been at odds with supporters of the John family, an old-line, politically powerful family in Seneca circles.
In November 2011, the John family led a vote to strip Porter of most of his powers and give the title of chief executive officer to Michael "Spike" John, a vote that the Diane Kennedy, Clerk (a Porter ally) invalidated under conflict of interest statutes. In an October 2012 Council Session, it was admitted by a close friend of Kennedy that Porter wrote the invalidation letter for Kennedy to sign. The de facto impeachment move came after what John supporters said were politically motivated charges against Susan Abrams, a John ally. Spike John is the cousin of Maurice "Moe" John, who served as Seneca president from 2006 to 2008, ran unsuccessfully for Seneca President against Porter in 2010, and eventually won Seneca Party endorsement (which, in the Seneca nation, is tantamount to election) for the Presidency in 2014.
The 2012 elections were marked by a split in the Seneca party and one of the most wide-open (and bitterly contested) Seneca elections in several years: five candidates competed for the post, including two endorsed by the two separate factions in the Seneca Party. Barry E. Snyder, Sr., a John ally who had previously served several other terms as President (including the one immediately before Porter), was re-elected to the post.
On November 4, 2014, with 66% of the vote, Maurice "Moe" John of the Seneca Party was elected to serve as President of the Seneca Nation of Indians. John faced council member Darlene Miller, who ran on the One Nation Party ticket, who accused the Seneca Party of having a long history of corruption. The Seneca Party had a Landslide Victory in the 2014 Elections; Todd Gates was elected Treasurer, Pauline "Snap" John was elected Clerk. Elected to Council was Ross L. John, Sr., Llona LeRoy, outgoing President Snyder, John Adlai Williams, Jr., all of the Cattaraugus Territory, Tina Abrams, Rickey Armstrong, William "Billy" Canella and Stephen Gordon also were elected to Council from the Allegany Territory.
Through a tribal-owned holding company, the tribe owns a telecommunications firm, Seneca Telecommunications; a construction management company, SCMC LLC; and a radio station, WGWE. Under the Porter administration, the Seneca Nation made an effort to diversify its business offerings. It promoted the creation of new Seneca-owned businesses, outside the nation's traditional strongholds of gasoline retail and tobacco products. In 2010 it acquired a controlling interest in Washington, D.C.-based wireless and telecommunications provider CT COMM.
That year it also filed an application with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to take over operations of the Seneca Pumped Storage Project at Kinzua Dam, the hydropower works. Robert Odawi Porter, president of the tribe, said this would not only help the tribe to diversify its economy, but be a means of compensation for environmental and property losses that accompanied flooding of 10,000 acres of tribal areas after the dam was constructed. The current operator, FirstEnergy, has a license that expires in 2015.
Porter noted that the dam has generated hundreds of millions of dollars in profits for operators since it started in 1970, but the Seneca have not received any of that money. The dam caused huge losses for the tribe, taking 10,000 acres of their reservation, nearly a third of their total property. More than 600 families were displaced and relocated. The tribe received a few hundred acres and relocation assistance for these families, as well as the relocation of a burial ground. They consider these to be insufficient compensation for the government's violating a 1794 treaty that guaranteed the tribe their diminished amount of land. In addition, the project has caused other flooding on their land and loss of additional fertile areas. Activism of the tribe increased as they struggled to prevent the project, and this period has produced a different political dynamic for the people. As the tribe used compensation monies to support its members educations, the 1960s crisis resulted in a "college-educated generation, some of whom now work in tribal government making major contributions to the nation’s present and future."
Porter noted that, when the dam was proposed, tribal leaders were told only that it was needed for flood control, not that a hydroelectric project would be run there. The dam generates "up to 450 megawatts of electricity every year for the Pittsburgh area." In August 2011, the tribe received a preliminary permit to study "the feasibility of the additional hydropower operations and grants them priority status in filing for the full permit."
One of the tobacco products is a brand of cigarettes called Native Pride. The tribe also owns a small chain of smoke shops and gas stations under the "Seneca One Stop" brand; the vast majority of smoke shops on Seneca reservations, however, are independently owned. The refusal of Seneca businesses to pay New York state excise taxes, because their businesses are operated on sovereign land, has given them a price advantage over non-Seneca. The issue of such excise taxes has been an irritant to the state government for several decades.
In 2013, the Seneca launched a public transit bus service to serve both the Cattaraugus and the western portion of the Allegany reservations; it operates one route, running along NY 438, NY 353, Old Route 17, I-86 and West Perimeter Road between Irving and Highbanks. The service is open to non-Seneca along the route.
Relationship with non-Seneca
Since the later 20th century, the Seneca have been increasingly active in exercising sovereignty on their reservation and enforcing their property rights. The relationship between the Seneca Nation and the non-native surrounding population has been contentious, both in regard to excise tax advantages and in regard to property rights.
In the 1990s, the Senecas won a prolonged court battle to assume ownership of all land on their reservation, including that owned by private non-Seneca. (This was particularly contentious in Salamanca, where non-native landownership had been tolerated for decades. State and local officials said that this is the only United States city located on Indian reservation land; under the recognized law of the time, the underlying land remained Seneca owned, but "improvements" on that land were not subject to lease and were thus still privately owned.) The city had been developed under a 99-year lease arrangement with the Seneca Nation, as railroad land was developed for workers and their families, and related businesses. This arrangement was confirmed by acts of Congress in 1875, 1890 and 1990.
When that lease expired in 1991, the Seneca Nation demanded that the previous owners sign leases with the nation or be evicted, not only for the underlying land, but for the improvements as well; as a result, fifteen property owners who refused to sign leases were evicted.
In a similar case in 2012, the Seneca ordered an eviction of 80 residents of summer cottages at Snyder Beach on the Cattaraugus Reservation. They had previously notified the owner of the land that leases to non-Seneca were not permissible, but he had done nothing to clear his property. Some of the residents were from families who had rented there for decades. The Seneca described the non-natives as constituting a long-standing "illegal occupation".
The Seneca were the largest of the six Native American nations that comprised the Iroquois Confederacy or Six Nations, a democratic government that pre-dates the United States Constitution.
The Seneca Nation of Indians currently has a total enrolled population of nearly 8,000 citizens. The territories are generally rural, with several residential areas. Many Seneca citizens live off-territory, some are located across the country, as well as in other countries. Off-territory residents comprise nearly 1/2 of the enrolled citizens.
In the Iroquois Confederacy, the Seneca were traditionally known as the "Keeper of the Western Door," for they are the westernmost of the Six Nations. In the Seneca language the people are known as O-non-dowa-gah, (pronounced: Oh-n'own-dough-wahgah) or "Great Hill People." At the time of the formation of the Iroquois League, the original five nations of the Iroquois League occupied large areas of land in the Northeast USA, particularly present-day New York and Pennsylvania, and Southeast Canada. The historical Seneca occupied territory throughout the Finger Lakes area in Central New York, and in the Genesee Valley in Western New York, living in longhouses on the riversides. The villages were well fortified with wooden-stake palisade fences.
These were settled communities in which the people cultivated staple crops known as the Three Sisters: varieties of corn, beans, and squash, which were known as Deohako (pronounced: Jo- hay- ko), "the life supporters." In addition to raising crops, the early Seneca were also subsistence hunters and fishers.
The Senecas were highly skilled at warfare, and were considered fierce adversaries. But the Seneca were also renowned for their sophisticated skills at diplomacy and oratory, and their willingness to unite with the other original five nations to form the Iroquois Confederacy of Nations.
Today the Seneca Nation supports its own people. Its enterprises benefit surrounding communities with a variety of cultural, educational and economic efforts. Its varied enterprises include: world-class casino gaming, hospitality and entertainment, which employ over 3,500 people; a convenience store chain (4 stores), construction management, and diverse holdings in business ventures.
Seneca culture and values remain strong and intact. Language, song, art, dance, and sports are all vital expressions of Seneca culture. Although the number of fluent Seneca language speakers is diminishing and the language is considered at-risk, the Nation has established language programs to help protect, preserve and develop a new generation of Seneca-language speakers to keep the language alive.
Lacrosse is a sport played by male and female, young and old. Two new community sports complexes on each territory enable year-round lacrosse leagues and space for community programs, crafts and learning.
A Faithkeepers' School supports and ensures the ongoing practice of traditional teachings, arts, knowledge and the living culture of the Longhouse ways. The vibrancy of the rich Seneca heritage is evident in the ceremonies, practices, and cultural events that are infused with dance, music and song, arts, crafts and traditional foods that honor and celebrate Seneca culture. - See more at: https://sni.org/culture/#sthash.1bOFudSM.dpuf
- George Heron, former Nation president, opposed construction of Kinzua Dam
- Ely S. Parker (1828 - 1895), Aide-de-Camp to General Ulysses S. Grant and drafter of the Civil War surrender documents signed by Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomatax.
- Seneca people
- Cattaraugus Reservation
- Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma
- Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians of New York
- Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy (1896)
- Pritzker, 469
- "New York Casinos." 500 Nations. (retrieved 31 May 2010)
- "Government." Seneca Nation of Indians. (retrieved 31 May 2010)
- Herbeck, Dan (November 15, 2011). "Resentments abound in Seneca power struggle", The Buffalo News. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- Herbeck, Dan (October 27, 2012). "A bitter battle to lead Seneca Nation". The Buffalo News. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- "Seneca Buffalo Creek Casino." Seneca Gaming Corporation. (retrieved 31 May 2010)
- CAROLYN THOMPSON, "Seneca Indian Nation Seeks Control Of Hydropower Operation At Kinzua Dam", Huffington Post, 30 November 2010, 7 July 2014
- David Kimelberg, "A Chance to Right a Wrong: the Seneca Nation of Indians and the Kinzua Dam", Indian Country Today, 28 January 2011
- http://newyorkhistoryblog.org/2014/07/26/the-shadow-of-kinzua-the-seneca-since-world-war-ii/ Editorial Staff, The Shadow of Kinzua: The Seneca Since World War II, New York History Blog, 26 July 2014
- Laurence Hauptman, In the Shadow of Kinzua: The Seneca Since World War II, Syracuse University Press, 2013
- Summary: In the Shadow of Kinzua: The Seneca Since World War II, 2013, Syracuse University Press website
- Daniel Robison (WBFO), "Seneca Nation fights for control of Kinzua Dam", Innovation Trail, 18 May 2011
- James Fink, "Senecas permitted for Kinzua Dam", Buffalo Business Journal, 12 August 2011
- Zito, Selena (June 5, 2011). "Smokes cheap, tensions high", Pittsburgh Tribune (Also titled "Portrait of a Failed American City"), Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Herbeck, Dan and Kathleen Ronayne (July 28, 2012). "Senecas plan to evict Snyder Beach residents". The Buffalo News. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
- Joy A. Bilharz, The Allegany Senecas and Kinzua Dam: Forced Relocation through Two Generations Paperback, 2002
- Laurence M. Hauptman, In the Shadow of Kinzua: The Seneca Nation of Indians since World War II, Syracuse University Press, 2013