|Città di Senigallia|
|Frazioni||Marzocca, Montignano, Cesano, Vallone, Bettolelle, Borgo Passera, S.Angelo, Grottino, Filetto, San Silvestro, Scapezzano, Roncitelli, Vasari, Mandriola, Gabriella, Castellaro, Cannella, Brugnetto , Borgo Catena|
|• Mayor||Maurizio Mangialardi (Democratic Party)|
|• Total||115 km2 (44 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
|Population (28 February 2009)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||St. Paulinus|
|Saint day||May 4|
Senigallia (or Sinigaglia until the beginning of the 20th century) is a comune and port town on Italy's Adriatic coast, 25 kilometres (16 miles) by rail north of Ancona, in the Marche region, province of Ancona. The town is one of the most famous seaside resorts of the region, attracting tourists (mainly families) from all over Europe: especially from Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The small port is formed by the lower reaches of the Misa, a river which flows through the town between embankments constructed of Istrian marble.
Senigallia, spread out along the coast at the mouth of the river Misa, was founded in the 4th century BC by the Gallic tribe of the Senones and became the first Roman colony on the Adriatic shore. A colony was founded there by the Romans after their victory over the Senones, rather before 280 BC: the name is probably a later Roman corruption of Senones; the addition Gallica distinguishes it from Saena (Siena) in Etruria. The place is also mentioned in connection with Hasdrubal's defeat at the Metaurus in 207 BC. It was destroyed by Pompey in 82 BC, and is not often mentioned afterwards.
Senigallia used to hold one of the largest fairs in Italy, which dated originally from 1200, when Sergius, count of Senigallia, received from the count of Marseilles, to whose daughter he was affianced, certain relics of Mary Magdalene; this fair used to be visited by merchants from France, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and especially the Levant.
Senigallia was at length brought so low by the Guelph and Ghibelline wars, and especially by the severities of Guido I da Montefeltro, that it was chosen by Dante as the typical instance of a ruined city. In the 15th century it was captured and recaptured again and again by the Malatesta and their opponents. Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta of Rimini erected strong fortifications round the town in 1450-1455. The lordship of Senigallia was bestowed by Pius II on his nephew Antonio Piccolomini, but the people of the town in 1464 placed themselves anew under Pope Paul II, and Giacomo Piccolomini in 1472 failed in his attempt to seize the place. In 1503, Cesare Borgia carried out a bloody coup at Senigallia, against some of his disloyal supporters. Sixtus IV assigned the lordship to the Della Rovere family, from whom it was transferred to Lorenzo de Medici in 1516. After 1624 it formed part of the Papal State's legation (province) of Urbino.
Despite its ancient origin the city presents a modern appearance, with wide streets. Attractions include:
- Palazzo Comunale, from the 17th century.
- The Castle (Rocca Roveresca), of Gothic origin, was restored by Baccio Pontelli in 1492. It has a square plan with four large round tower.
- The Cathedral, erected after 1787.
- The church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, outside the town, is one of the only two churches which Baccio Pontellli is known to have executed (the other is at Orciano near Mondavio, about 20 kilometres (12 miles) to the west by road). It housed the painting of Madonna di Senigallia by Piero della Francesca.
- The Rotonda a mare.
- Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, who in 1846 become Pope Pius IX, was born at Senigallia on 13 May 1792
- Gaetano Bedini (15 May 1806 - 6 September 1864) Cardinal and diplomat of the Catholic Church.
- Cardinal Domenico Consolini (7 June 1806 - 20 December 1884) Camerlengo of the Catholic Church
- Manoah Leide-Tedesco (1895-1982) Italian-American composer-conductor.
- Mario Giacomelli (1925–2000) Photographer.
- Ferruccio Ferroni (1920 - 5 September 2007) Photographer.
- Fabri Fibra (1976) Rapper.
- Nesli (1980) Rapper.
Sources, References, and See Also
- "Sinigaglia" — article on the Catholic diocese, from the New Advent Catholic Encyclopædia
- "The Senigaglia Family" — A very old Italian Jewish family that lived in Senigallia during the 1400s (branches now live in Europe and America).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Senigallia In a Nutshell: An Illustrated Guidebook to Senigallia